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Pd Cross Cultural Competencies In I&R   D1

Pd Cross Cultural Competencies In I&R D1






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Pd Cross Cultural Competencies In I&R   D1 Pd Cross Cultural Competencies In I&R D1 Presentation Transcript

  • Welcome to the OCASI Conference! Cross-Cultural Competencies in Information and Referral Faed Hendry Manager of Community Information and Training Findhelp Information Services 543 Richmond Street West Toronto, Ontario 416-392-4544 [email_address]
  • Learning Objectives
    • To understand and be able to define key concepts and terminology related to cultural competence.
    • Increase participants’ understanding of how differences in any element of the settlement worker and the client’s cultural identity can have an impact on the relationship.
    • Help participants identify the knowledge, awareness and skills that settlement workers need to provide quality I&R across cultural differences.
  • Exercise: Understanding Important Terminology
    • On your worksheet please define in brief, concise and concrete terms the following definitions.
    • Culture
    • Stereotypes
    • Racism
    • Discrimination
    • Diversity
  • Icebreaking Exercise: A Cultural Learning Moment
    • Settlement work is largely about interacting with clients from all walks of life and many different backgrounds.
    • Every interaction may provide us with a “cultural learning moment.”
    • A “cultural learning moment” is that precise instant when an educational opportunity presents itself in such a way that it opens our eyes, alters our perceptions and fosters greater understanding.
  • Icebreaking Exercise: A Cultural Learning Moment
    • Individually, spend approximately 5 minutes to identify one “cultural learning moment” that you have experienced. (Be prepared to share your experience)
    • What happened?
    • How did it alter your perceptions?
    • What did you learn from the experience?
  • Facts about Settlement Work
    • Regardless of which agency you work for or how you are funded, you deal with people from all walks of life, all different backgrounds, education levels, income levels, religions and linguistic capabilities.
    • Settlement workers and their agencies serve of wide range of clients and aim to serve them equally.
    • Information and Referral Bill of Rights states that all people have the right to expect to be treated with respect and cultural sensitivity.
  • Settlement Work and Cultural Diversity
    • What is Culture?
      • Definition: the sum total of the way of living; includes values, beliefs, standards, language, thinking patterns, behavioral norms, communications styles, etc. Guides decisions and actions of a group through time.
  • Important Terminology:
      • Cultural Competence - Definition
      • A set of congruent behaviors, practices, attitudes and policies that come together in a system or agency or among professionals, enabling effective work to be done in cross-cultural situations
  • Important Terminology
    • Stereotypes - oversimplified or exaggerated depictions of individuals based on some assumed characteristics stemming from their belonging to a particular societal group
    • Racism - a set of attitudes that defines people based purely on their race, colour, religion, origin or ancestry and contends the supposed superiority of one race above another
    • Discrimination - the conscious or unconscious act of dealing with people on the basis of prejudicial and predisposed attitudes rather than individual merit.
  • Important Terminology
    • Diversity - the recognition and acknowledgement of individual differences, and all the ways that we are unique and different from each other. Diversity recognizes differences, respects differences and strives to celebrate them.
    • Diversity is about respecting individuals from different backgrounds who may have potentially different values.
  • Important Terminology:
    • Cultural Competence also refers to an ability to interact effectively with people of different cultures and comprises four components.
    • Awareness of one’s own worldview
    • Attitude towards cultural differences
    • Knowledge of different cultural practices and worldviews
    • Cross-cultural skills
    • Developing cultural competence results in an ability to understand, communicate with, and effectively interact with people across cultures
  • Cultural Competence
    • Cultural competence requires that organizations have a defined set of values and principles, and demonstrate behaviors, attitudes, policies, and structures that enable them to work effectively cross-culturally.
    • Cultural competence is a developmental process that evolves over an extended period. Both individuals and organizations are at various levels of awareness, knowledge and skills along the cultural competence continuum.
  • The Cultural Competence Continuum Cultural Proficiency Cultural Competence Cultural Precompetence Cultural Blindness Cultural Incapacity Cultural Destructiveness Positive Negative
  • Cultural Diversity
    • Cultural Competence Definitions
      • Cultural Destructiveness : forced assimilation, subjugation, rights and privileges for dominant groups only
      • Cultural Incapacity : racism, maintain stereotypes, unfair hiring practices
      • Cultural Blindness : differences ignored, “treat everyone the same”, only meet needs of dominant groups
  • Cultural Diversity
    • Cultural Competence Definitions
      • Cultural Pre-competence : explore cultural issues, are committed, assess needs of organization and individuals
      • Cultural Competence : recognize individual and cultural differences, seek advice from diverse groups, hire culturally unbiased staff
      • Cultural proficiency : implement changes to improve services based upon cultural needs, do research and teach
  • Cultural Diversity
    • Acquiring Cultural Competence
      • Starts with Awareness
      • Grows with Knowledge
      • Enhanced with Specific Skills
      • Polished through Cross-Cultural Encounters
  • Culturally Specific Performance-Based Competencies Performance-Based Competencies Knowledge Skills Attitudes
  • Performance-Based Competencies - Exercise
    • In small groups, try to come to a consensus regarding four things that you need to know to become a culturally sensitive settlement worker, four skills that you need to have and four work-related attitudes and behaviours that are necessary.
    • Please try and rank them in order of importance.
  • Performance-Based Competencies
    • Knowledge - Information or facts needed by the settlement worker
    • Skills - Abilities or performance competencies needed by the settlement worker
    • Attitudes and Work-Related Behaviours - Feelings or viewpoints needed by the settlement worker
  • Video: Understanding Customer Diversity
    • Watch the video Understanding Customer Diversity. Watch how the worker deals with two very different clients.
    • What was different about how the worker dealt with the first client and the way she dealt with Ruzita?
    • What were the differences between the two clients?
    • What do you think the worker’s comfort zone was?
  • Culture Sets Exercise
    • The purpose of this exercise is to expand participants’ understanding of culture, and cross-cultural communication. It raises awareness that:
    • there are many different aspects to culture that may impact the settlement worker/client relationship.
    • both the settlement worker and client bring their values, beliefs and assumptions to the relationship .
    • developing a culturally flexible communication and counselling style is critical.
  • Example of Different Types of Cultural Sets
    • Ability/Disability
    • Age
    • Class
    • Education
    • Ethnicity
    • Family Status
    • Gender
    • Immigration Status
    • Occupation
    • Language
    • Political Viewpoint
    • Race
    • Religion
    • Sexual Orientation
    • Urban/Rural
  • Culture Sets Exercise
    • You will be filling in information about yourselves in the circles in the inner ring.
    • Then you will fill in the outer ring with a hypothetical client who is dissimilar or opposite to you.
    • The arrows between a circle and a box represents a possible area of difference between a settlement worker and client,
  • Culture Sets Exercise
    • Now we will break up into smaller groups. In your groups discuss the following questions?
    • Which differences in cultural sets present the biggest challenge? Why?
    • What impact would differences in this culture set (gender, for example) have on the relationship?
    • What work would need to take place for the settlement worker and client to overcome these barriers and work together effectively?
  • Culture Sets Exercise
    • If all the circles and boxes contained extreme contrasts, this could mean a very challenging settlement worker/client interaction, since there is so little common ground.
    • The more similarity between the inner and outer rings, the easier it usually is to establish a relationship.
  • Culture Sets Exercise
    • The following have been some of the challenges and problems that have been identified between settlement workers and clients with differences in various culture sets.
    • Problems establishing rapport
    • Different expectations
    • Lack of Settlement Worker credibility
    • Different ideas about where the solutions to a client’s problems should be sought
    • The issue of control
  • Discussion
    • How is providing information and referral to newcomers/immigrants different from providing information and referral to other groups?
    • Are there special things that we should be aware of?
    • What are the differences and similarities?
  • Information and Referral Tips
    • Don’t assume you know the other person’s story.
    • Don’t automatically put your client into a category.
    • Stop trying to fill the space.
    • Don’t pretend or assume you understand what the other person is saying.
    • Get rid of distractions.
    • Ask yourself: Am I advancing the conversation?
    • Ask questions. Let your conversational partner shine
  • Seven Challenging Communication Skills
    • Listen more carefully and more responsively
    • Acknowledging the feelings and wants that people express in word and mood. Actively acknowledging another person's experience does not have to mean that you agree or approve. Compassionately allow people to feel whatever they feel. People are much more likely to listen if they have been listened to with actively expressed acknowledgments.
  • Seven Challenging Communication Skills
    • 2) Explaining your conversational intent and inviting consent
    • Settlement workers should have a clear goal in their interactions with clients. When you are involves in a long, complex, or emotion-laden conversation with a client, it can make a GIANT difference if you briefly explain your conversational intention first and then invite their consent.
  • Seven Challenging Communication Skills
    • 3) Expressing ourselves more clearly and more completely
    • Slow down! Think about the words that you are using and the pace of delivery. Expressing yourself carefully might appear to take longer than our usual quick style of communication. But if you include all the time it takes to unscramble everyday misunderstandings, and to work through the feelings that usually accompany not being understood, expressing yourself more completely can actually take a lot less time.
  • Seven Challenging Communication Skills
    • 4) Translating criticisms and complaints into positive outcomes.
    • In order to get more cooperation from others, whenever possible ask for what you want by using specific, action-oriented , positive language rather than by using generalizations, "why's," "don'ts" or "somebody should's." Help your clients comply by explaining your requests with a "so that...", "it would help me to... if you would..." or "in order to..." Also, when you are receiving criticism and complaints from others, translate and restate the complaints as action requests.
  • Seven Challenging Communication Skills
    • 5) Asking questions more “open-endedly” and more creatively.
    • As settlement workers we need to know more of what our clients are feeling and thinking, wanting and planning. But our usual "yes/no" questions actually tend to shut clients up rather than opening them up. You can encourage your clients to share more of their thoughts and feelings by asking "open-ended" rather than "yes/no" questions.
  • Seven Challenging Communication Skills
    • 6) Expressing more gratitude, appreciation and encouragement.
    • In order to build more satisfying relationships with both the clients you work with and your co-workers, make a conscious effort to express more gratitude, appreciation, delight, affirmation, and encouragement. Good relationships need a core of mutual appreciation.
  • Seven Challenging Communication Skills
    • 7) Focus on learning and development.
    • Pay attention to each conversation as an opportunity to grow in skill, awareness and compassion. Look at each interaction with clients and colleagues alike as an opportunity to become a more successful communicator. All significant human abilities develop through attention, practice and faith in our ability to grow.
  • Tips for Cross-Cultural Communication
    • Slow Down
    • Even when English is the common language in a cross cultural situation, this does not mean you should speak at normal speed. Slow down, speak clearly and ensure your pronunciation is intelligible.
  • Tips for Cross-Cultural Communication
    • Separate Questions
    • Try not to ask double questions such as, "Do you want to carry on or shall we stop here?" In a cross cultural situation only the first or second question may have been comprehended. Let your client answer one question at a time.
    • Remember it is an informational interview, not an interrogation.
  • Tips for Cross-Cultural Communication
    • Avoid Negative Questions
    • Many cross cultural communication misunderstandings have been caused by the use of negative questions and answers. In English we answer 'yes' if the answer is affirmative and 'no' if it is negative. In other cultures a 'yes' or 'no' may only be indicating whether the questioner is right or wrong. For example, the response to "Are you not coming?" may be 'yes', meaning 'Yes, I am not coming.'
  • Tips for Cross-Cultural Communication
    • Take Turns
    • Cross cultural communication is enhanced through taking turns to talk, making a point and then listening to the response.
    • Be Supportive
    • Effective cross cultural communication is in essence about being comfortable. Giving encouragement to those with weak English gives them confidence, support and a trust in you.
  • Tips for Cross-Cultural Communication
    • Avoid Slang, Jargon and Acronyms
    • A man made arrangements to meet his girlfriend for lunch at the hospital where she worked. When asked how he would find her when he got to the hospital, she responded with “No problem – just come in the front door, then I see you”.
    • She eventually found him after he had been impatiently waiting for half an hour in the lobby for her to see him. Having no understanding of hospital terminology, the man did not understand that ICU stands for intensive care unit where his girlfriend worked and where she had been waiting for him.
  • Tips for Cross-Cultural Communication
    • A good way to strengthen rapport with a client is to use the same words they do.
    • This ensures that they will understand the information you are giving them.
    • Always look for the simplest way to say something in plain language.
    • Don’t use jargon or acronyms.
      • Clients won’t understand you but in most cases, they won’t tell you that.
      • They’ll just hang up or leave without getting the information they need.
  • Tips for Cross-Cultural Communication
    • If you are going to build rapport with all your clients, you can’t treat them all the same.
    • It is essential that you recognize that each client is a unique individual.
    • Clients come from different backgrounds, cultures, have had different experiences – all of these things have an effect on how they interact with you and how you should interact with them.
  • Tips for Cross-Cultural Communication
    • Watch the Humour
    • In many cultures business is taken very seriously. Professionalism and protocol are constantly observed. Many cultures will not appreciate the use of humour and jokes in the business context. When using humour think whether it will be understood in the other culture
  • Important Terminology
    • Diversity - the recognition and acknowledgement of individual differences, and all the ways that we are unique and different from each other. Diversity recognizes differences, respects differences and strives to celebrate them.
    • Diversity is about respecting individuals from different backgrounds who may have potentially different values.
  • The Settlement Continuum
    • Arrival  Acclimatization  Adaptation  Integration
    • The settlement process can be viewed as a continuum, as newcomers move from acclimatization, to adaptation, to integration.
  • CCR Participation in political parties Citizenship Voting Political Engaging in efforts to redefine cultural identity and values Adaptation of various aspects of lifestyle Cultural Accessing Institutions Engaging in Efforts to Change Institutions Established Social Network Diversity within Social Network Social Career Advancement Income Parity Entering the Job Market Financial Independence Economic Long-Term (Integration) Short-Term (Settlement) Dimension
  • Why is Cross-Cultural Competence and Communication so Vital?
    • Due to globalization, cross-cultural communication is arguably more important today than in any other period of human history.
    • One major consequence of this trend is that future success in most careers will increasingly depend upon an individual’s ability to communicate effectively and appropriately across cultural boundaries
  • Examples of Cultural Differences
    • Greetings - not all cultures greet each other in the same way.
    • Eating Styles
    • Conversation Style/Eye Contact
    • Concept of Time
    • Public Display of Affection
  • Values of Settlement Work - Inclusion
    • recognizing the diversity of needs and experiences (e.g. young, old, highly educated, those without education, singles, families)
    • offering anti-racist services
    • providing a non-sexist environment
    • enforcing a policy of non-discrimination
    • offering non-judgmental services
    • respecting different perspectives within newcomer communities
  • What would you do?
    • A husband and wife come to your office wanting information on health care services for the wife who is six months pregnant. After a few questions, they admit that they are living in Canada illegally.
    • To what extent is this relevant to the issue and in what ways might this affect your response?
    • What would you do?
  • The Grouch
    • A man comes into your office. He explains that he has been laid off from his manufacturing job and his E.I. is running out.
    • He complains loudly to the settlement counsellor about “all these newcomers and immigrants” getting jobs, but he doesn’t have one. He explains that he was born in Canada and that he has been paying taxes all of his life.
    • What do you do?
    • What do you say!
  • Gender Differences
    • A man comes to the LINC Assessment Office at the YMCA for his scheduled appointment. He becomes upset and angry when he learns that a female examiner will be administering the test. There are no male examiners in the office today.
    • How do you respond?
    • What do you do?
    • Do you think that there are cultural issues at play here?