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Planning
Planning
Planning
Planning
Planning
Planning
Planning
Planning
Planning
Planning
Planning
Planning
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Planning

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planning

planning

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  • 1. TOPIC 2 PLANNING
  • 2. DEFINITION • The processes of determining in advance what should be accomplished and how it should be realized (MONDY) • A process that begins with objectives, defined strategies, policies & detailed plan in order to achieve them • The process of setting goals, developing strategies, and outlining tasks and schedules to accomplish the goals.
  • 3. OBJECTIVE OF PLANNING • To provide sense of direction • To encourage innovation & creativity • To guide decision making • To facilitate control
  • 4. THE IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING IN ORGNIZATION • Enables us to identify the course of action by setting objectives • Through plans, resources are efficiently & effectively utilized thus resulting in saving • Planning helps to determine what opportunities there are to exploit
  • 5. TYPES OF PLANS GOAL STRATEGIC PLANS OPERATIONAL PLANS
  • 6. STRATEGIC PLANS • Strategic plans are long-term planning done by the top management to determine the overall organizational purposes & objectives & how they are to be achieved.
  • 7. STRATEGIC PLANS STRATEGIC PLANS CORPORATE STRATEGY BUSINESS STRATEGY FUNCTIONAL STRATEGY
  • 8. STRATEGIC PLANS LEVEL SPECIFY PARTICIPANTS TIME HORIZON CORPORATE STRATEGY BROAD • BOARD OF DIRECTORS •TOP LEVEL EXECUTIVES 5- 10 YEARS BUSINESS STRATEGY MORE SPECIFIC THAN THE CORPORATE STRATEGY • TOP LEVEL EXECUTIVES • MANAGERS WITHIN THE BUSINESS UNIT 1- 5 YEARS FUNCTIONAL STRATEGY VERY SPECIFIC • MIDDLE LEVEL MANAGERS • LOWER LEVEL MANAGERS < 1 YEARS
  • 9. OPERATIONAL PLANS • Done at all levels & involves directing the organization’s day-to-day operation to achieve overall strategic objectives
  • 10. OPERATIONAL PLANS OPERATIONAL PLANS SINGLE USE PLANS PROGRAMS PROJECT BUDGET STANDING PLANS POLICIES PROCEDURE RULES
  • 11. BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE PLANNING • Lack of commitment to planning • Lack of meaningful objectives of goals • Failure to see the scope of plans • Rely too much on experience • Lack of top management support • Lack of clear delegation of authority
  • 12. OVERCOMING BARRIERS • Planning must not be left to chance • Planning must be organized • Planning must be clear & definite • Managers must participate in planning

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