Forest society and colonialization
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Forest society and colonialization






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Forest society and colonialization Forest society and colonialization Presentation Transcript

  • Forest society and Colonialization
  • • Pastoralist • Forest dwellers and part of modern world • shifting cultivators • Demand for forest increased due to rapid growth of industries, ships and railways. • Colonial rule established over forests
  • Disappearing Forests • Forests are the sources of Industrial raw material, timber, prevents soil erosion and floods, influence rainfall, etc. • But during 1700-1995, 13.9 million area(9.3%) was cleared due rapid industrialization, urbanisation, fuel wood and pastures. View slide
  • Deforestation • In 1600 -------------- > forest cover sown area 84% 16% In 2000 ---------------- > 23% 42% REASONS OF DEFORESTATION DURING BRITISH RULE:- 1) Need for commercial crops:- Britishers encouraged only commercial crops e.g. Jute, sugarcane, cotton, tea, wheat etc for raw material and to feed their people in England. View slide
  • 2) Increase in Agriculture land:- Britishers cleared the forest area to increase the land under agriculture produce, to earn more revenue and to enhance their income 3) Disappearing forests in England:- In 19th century, there was a shortage of oak trees which was the sources of their royal navy. So vast quantity of oaks were exported.
  • 4) Introduction of Railways:- The forests started disappearing after the introduction of railways. It was required for a)For fuel b)To lay the railway tracks c)For railway lines sleepers were required. Each mile of railway track was required more than 1800 sleepers.
  • 5) Plantation:- large area was cleared for the cultivation of plantation crops. e.g. tea, coffee, rubber etc. these crops were exported to England.
  • Commercial Forestry • British ------- reqd. forests build ships and railways First Inspector General of Forest– Dietrich Brandis (German) To manage reckless cutting of trees.
  • Dietrich Brandis’s work • Proper system would need legal sanction. • Rules were framed for the use of forest resources. • Restricted felling of trees and grazing. • Introduced punishments • He introduced Indian Forest Services in 1864. • And formulated Indian Forest Act 1865.
  • Dietrich Brandis’s work • The Imperial Research Institute (Dehradun) was set up 1906. --- to taught Scientific Forestry. • Scientific Forestry:- natural forests were cut down with variety of trees and in place of that planted one type of trees in rows.
  • Types of Forests • Forest act 1986 was amended twice in 1878 and 1927. three categories of forests:- a)Reserved Forests:-commercially valuable for timber villagers were not allowed to enter. b)Protected Forested:-non-commercial wood. with some restrictions pastoralist were allowed for grazing and villagers to collect some fuel. c) Village forests:- open forests for tribals and villagers.
  • Impact of Colonialism on the people • Hardship for the villagers, for their everyday practices- cutting wood for fuel, grazing cattle, hunting, collecting fruits and roots(illegal). • People started stealing. • If caught by forest guards – punishments and used to bribe them. • Women worried for fuelwood.
  • Different views • Villagers wanted mixture of forests for gathering, fuel, fodder, leaves etc. • Foresters wanted timber for railways, ships and building. They wanted hard wood(teak and sal)
  • Impact of forest rules on cultivation • Banned shifting cultivation. • Because it was harmful for valuable timber, forest fire and problem in tax collection. • Not able to give revenue • People changed occupation • Some joined rebellion groups
  • Impact on hunting • Hunting was prohibited by the forest laws. • Punishments for poaching. • Hunting of wild animals by britishers. • Tigers, wolves and other big animals.