• Forest dwellers and part of modern
• shifting cultivators
• Demand for forest increased due to rapid
growth of industries, ships and railways.
• Colonial rule established over forests
• Forests are the sources of Industrial raw
material, timber, prevents soil erosion and
floods, influence rainfall, etc.
• But during 1700-1995, 13.9 million sq.km.
area(9.3%) was cleared due rapid
industrialization, urbanisation, fuel wood and
• In 1600 -------------- > forest cover sown area
In 2000 ---------------- > 23% 42%
REASONS OF DEFORESTATION DURING BRITISH
1) Need for commercial crops:- Britishers
encouraged only commercial crops e.g. Jute,
sugarcane, cotton, tea, wheat etc for raw
material and to feed their people in England.
2) Increase in Agriculture land:- Britishers
cleared the forest area to increase the land
under agriculture produce, to earn more
revenue and to enhance their income
3) Disappearing forests in England:- In 19th
century, there was a shortage of oak trees
which was the sources of their royal navy. So
vast quantity of oaks were exported.
4) Introduction of Railways:- The forests started
disappearing after the introduction of
railways. It was required for
b)To lay the railway tracks
c)For railway lines sleepers were required. Each
mile of railway track was required more than
5) Plantation:- large area was cleared for the
cultivation of plantation crops. e.g. tea,
coffee, rubber etc. these crops were exported
• British ------- reqd. forests
build ships and railways
First Inspector General of Forest– Dietrich
To manage reckless cutting of trees.
Dietrich Brandis’s work
• Proper system would need legal sanction.
• Rules were framed for the use of forest
• Restricted felling of trees and grazing.
• Introduced punishments
• He introduced Indian Forest Services in 1864.
• And formulated Indian Forest Act 1865.
Dietrich Brandis’s work
• The Imperial Research Institute (Dehradun)
was set up 1906. --- to taught Scientific
• Scientific Forestry:- natural forests were cut
down with variety of trees and in place of that
planted one type of trees in rows.
Types of Forests
• Forest act 1986 was amended twice in 1878 and
1927. three categories of forests:-
a)Reserved Forests:-commercially valuable for
timber villagers were not allowed to enter.
b)Protected Forested:-non-commercial wood. with
some restrictions pastoralist were allowed for
grazing and villagers to collect some fuel.
c) Village forests:- open forests for tribals and
Impact of Colonialism on the people
• Hardship for the villagers, for their everyday
practices- cutting wood for fuel, grazing cattle,
hunting, collecting fruits and roots(illegal).
• People started stealing.
• If caught by forest guards – punishments and
used to bribe them.
• Women worried for fuelwood.
• Villagers wanted mixture of forests for
gathering, fuel, fodder, leaves etc.
• Foresters wanted timber for railways, ships
and building. They wanted hard wood(teak
Impact of forest rules on cultivation
• Banned shifting cultivation.
• Because it was harmful for valuable timber,
forest fire and problem in tax collection.
• Not able to give revenue
• People changed occupation
• Some joined rebellion groups
Impact on hunting
• Hunting was prohibited by the forest laws.
• Punishments for poaching.
• Hunting of wild animals by britishers.
• Tigers, wolves and other big animals.