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FOREST SOCIETY AND
      COLONIALISM




           Lijin Golden
Major Areas of this Chapter
   Items Available from the Forest
   Benefits from the Forest
   How are forest products are useful for forest people
   How the industrialization affected the forest
   Meaning and Causes of Deforestation
   Meaning of Commercial Forestry
   Meaning of Forest Management
   Meaning of Scientific forestry
   Meaning of Shifting cultivation
   New Trades and New Employments
   Rebellion in the forest/ Case Study- Bastar and Java
   Dutch Scientific Forestry
   Samins Challenge
   War and Deforestation
   New Developments in Forestry
ITEMS AVAILABLE FROM THE FOREST
 Timber – For manufacturing the infrastructures like
  desks,          benches, Door, Windows etc…
           Construction of buildings
 Paper, Dyes use to colour the cloth, Tea, Honey,
  Rubber, Coffee, spices
 Fuel, Fodder and grass for animals (cattle food
 Medicinal- fruits, flowers, herbs, plants, roots
 Animals, Birds etc…
In the Amazon forests or in the western ghats- 500
  different medicinal plant in one forest patch
Benefits from the Forest
   It helping for Soil Conservation
   It Protecting the Wild animals, birds and medicinal
    plants
   Offer good employment opportunities
   Maintaining the Climate
   Maintaining the life of the Tribal people
   It maintain the life of Rural and Urban people
    (providing necessary things)
Forest products useful for the forest People

    Fruits and Tuber- Nutritious to eat in monsoon
     season
    Herbs- Medicine
    Wood- Agricultural implements like yokes and
     Ploughs
    Bamboo- Making for basket and umbrellas
    Dried Scooped-portable water bottle
    Leaves- Plates and Cups
    Oil for cooking and to light lamps can be pressed
     from the fruit of the mahua tree.
How industrialisation affected the Forest
  In the period between 1700 and 1995, was a period of
    industrialisation 13.9 million sq km of forest or 9.3%
    of total world forest area was cleared for industrial
    uses, cultivation, Pastures, fuel wood.



  Text page No: 77 ( Features of Sal forest in
   Chhattisgarh)
What is Deforestation/ Meaning
The disappearance of forest is called
 Deforestation. In an area deforested the trees
 there are cut down or destroyed.
           In India the deforestation is not a
 recent problem. But under the British rule it
 became more systematic and extensive.
CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION
                     (OR)
   Between 1880 and 1920, forest cover in
   the Indian Subcontinent declined by 9.7
     million hectares from 108.6 million
      hectares to 98.9 million hectares-
       Discuss the causes Deforestation



Agriculture Railway   Tea/ Coffee Ship Commercial
 Tribal
Expansion           Plantation   Building Farming
 Peasant
1. AGRICULTURE EXPANSION
 In 1600, one sixth of India’s total area was under
  cultivation
 But at present half of the total area using for cultivation
 As a result of the population increased, the demand for
  food increased. So the peasants extended the
  boundaries of cultivation. So that they cleared the forest.
  During the time of colonial rule cultivation extended
  rapidly based on two reason.
1. British encouraged the production of commercial crop
    like jute, sugar, wheat and cotton. In 19th century the
    demand of food crops and food grains increased in
    Europe as a result of the increased population.
2. In 19th century, the colonial rule considered forest were
  unproductive. So they cleared the land for cultivation and they
  thought that agriculture product and revenue increase the
  income of the state. So between 1880 and 1920, cultivated area
  rose by 6.7 million hectares.

                         2. RAILWAY
Railways were essential for colonial trade and for the
 movement of imperial rule. They used wood for fuel and to
 lay railway line sleepers were essential to hold the track
 together. In 1860 railway network increased rapidly. In
 1890, 25,500 km of track had been laid. In 1946 length
 increased to 765,000 KM. In 1850, Madras province
 annually cuted 35ooo trees for sleepers. Each mile of
 railway track required between 1760 to 2000 sleepers. The
 govt gave the contracts to individuals and they cleared the
3. PLANTATIONS
The natural forest areas were cleared to make the
 plantations. As a result of the growing needs of the
 Europeans different types of plantations were introduced
 like coffee, tea and rubber. The colonial government took
 over the forest, and gave vast areas to European planters
 at cheap rates. They cleared the forest and planted
 coffee, tea and rubber.

                         4. SHIPPING
In 19th century, Oak forest disappeared in England. It created
  problem of timber supply for the Royal navy for making the
  ship. So in 1820, they sent the search parties to search the
  forest resources of India. With in few decades, large scale of
  timber were exported from India
5. COMMERCIAL FORESTRY
The British considered the old trees had no use. So
 that why they cut all the trees and planted same type
 of tree in a straight row only for a commercial
 purposes. As a result the natural forest has been
 disappeared.

  6. THE ROLE OF TRIBALS AND PEASANTS
As a part of the shifting cultivation, they cut and burnt the
 forest in rotation. They sowed seeds in the ashes after
 the first monsoon rain. This process harmful for the
 forest. There aws always a danger of forest fire.
During the time of colonial rule cultivation
 extended rapidly increased in India Why?
  In 1880 to 1920, cultivated area in India
 increased in to 6.7 million hect- Why
During the time of colonial rule cultivation extended
  rapidly based on two reason.
1. British encouraged the production of commercial crop
    like jute, sugar, wheat and cotton. In 19th century the
    demand of food crops and food grains increased in
    Europe as a result of the increased population.
2. In 19th century, the colonial rule considered forest
    were unproductive. So they cleared the land for
    cultivation and they thought that agriculture product
    and revenue increase the income of the state. So
    between 1880 and 1920, cultivated area rose by 6.7
    million hectares
How and Why Commercial Forestry
come in India?
                  (or)
Role of Dietrich Brandis in Indian
Forest System
                  (or)

Describe about Indian Forest Act
in1865
   As a result of the rapid decline of forest the British govt
    worried that the use of forests by local people and
    reckless felling of trees by traders would destroy the
    forests
        (Why the British worried about the forest)

   So they invite a German expert, Dietrich Brandis, for
    advice and made him first Inspector General of Forest
    in India.
   He believed that a proper system had to be introduced
    to manage the forest and people had to be trained in
    the science of conservation.
   He set up Indian Forest Service in 1864 and he
    formulated Indian Forest Act in 1865.
   He made rules and system made legal sanction.
   Felling of trees and grazing was restricted and forest could
    preserved only for timber production.
   Any body violate the rules had been punished.
   The Imperial Research Institute was set up at Dehradun in
    1906. The system they taught here was called Scientific
    forestry.
   In scientific forestry, natural forests which had lots of
    different type of trees were cut down. In there place, one
    type of trees was planted in straight rows for commercial
    purposes. This is called Plantations.
   Forest officials surveyed the forest, estimated the area
    under different type of trees, and made working plans for
    forest management. They planned how much of the
    plantation area to cut every year. The area cut was then to
    be replanted so that it was ready to be cut again in some
How the Indian Forest Act affected the
     life of the Indian Forest people?

   Everyday Practices : cutting wood for their houses, grazing their
    cattle, collecting fruits and roots, hunting and fishing became
    illegal.
   So the people forced to steal wood from the forest, and if they
    were caught, they were at the mercy of the forest guards who
    would take bribes from them.
   Police constables and forest guards would harass people by
    demanding free food from them.
   The govt banned shifting cultivation. They considered it a waste
    of fertile land which could instead be used for growing railway
    timber.
   Communities were forcibly displaced from their homes in the
    forests.
Usage of Forest to different Sector Groups
               (or)
How did villagers and foresters differ in the
ideas of good forest?

   Villagers: They wanted forest with a mixture of species
    to satisfy different needs- fuel, fodder, leaves.

   Forest Department: Wanted trees which were suitable
    for building ships or railways. They needed trees that
    could provide hard wood, and were tall and straight. Eg:
    Teak and Sal.

   Forest Peoples: Fruits and Tuber, Herbs, Wood,
    Leaves, Bamboos, Dried Scooped, Mahua trees oil
    etc….
Scientific Forestry
A system of Cutting trees controlled by the forest
 Department in which old trees were cut down and
 new one type of tree was planted in straight rows.

            Forest Management
It is a system for the management of forest. The
   forest officials surveyed the forest, estimated the
   area under different type of trees, and made
   working plan for forest management. They
   planned how much of the plantation area to cut
   every year. The area cut was then to be
   replanted.
Plantation
In scientific forestry, natural forests which had lot of different
  types of trees were cut down. In their place, one type of
  tree was planted in straight rows. This is called plantation.


                    Shifting Cultivation
Is a traditional agricultural practice in many parts of
  Asia, Africa and South America. It is otherwise known as
  swidden agriculture or slash and burn activity. In shifting
  cultivation, parts of the forest are cut and burnt in rotation.
  Seeds are sown in the ashes after the monsoon rains, and
  the crop is harvested by October- November. Such plots
  are cultivated for a couple of years and then fallow for 12 to
  18 years for the forest to grow back. A mixture of crops is
  grown on these plots.
Local Names of Shifting Cultivation
Lading- Southeast Asia
 Milpa- Central America
Chitemmene or Tavy- Africa
Chena- Srilanka
India- dhya, penda, bewar, nevad, jhum, podu,
  khandad, kumri
Why the British banned the Shifting
                  Cultivation
1.   European foresters regarded shifting cultivation was
     harmful for the forest. They felt that land which was
     used for cultivation every few years could not grow
     trees for railway timber.
2.   When a forest was burnt, there was added danger of
     the flames spreading and burning valuable timber.
3.   It made it harder for the government to calculate taxes.

So govt decided to ban the shifting cultivation. As a result
   many communities were forcibly displaced from their
   homes in the forest. So had to change occupations,
   while some resisted through large and small scale
   rebellions.
Why the ecologists criticised the
Scientific Forestry?
In scientific forestry, natural forests which had lot of
  different type of trees were cut down. In that place
  only one type tress are planting . So rare species of
  trees, animals and birds is disappearing when the
  use of cientic forestry.
Amendment of Indian Forest Act 1865
The Indian Forest Act amended twice in the years 1878
 and 1927. The 1878 Act divided forests into three
 categories.

            1. Reserved Forest
            2. Protected Forest
            3. Village Forest
Reserved Forest: The best forest were called Reserved
 Forest. The village could not take anything from the
 forest, even for their own use.
For house building or fuel, they could take wood from
 Protected or Village forests.
How the Forest Act affected the life
    of the hunters?
   The forest law affected the life of the forest people.
   Before forest law many people they were survived
    by hunting deer, partridges and variety of small
    animals- it was prohibited by the forest laws.
   Those who were caught hunting were punished for
    poaching.
What was the reason during the period of
     the British hunting increased rapidly and
     various species became almost extinct?
   The hunting of Tigers and other animals had been the part of
    the culture in India especially during the Mughal period.
   But the British saw large animals as signs of a wild, primitive
    and savage society.
   They believed that by the killing of dangerous animals the
    British would civilize Indians.
   They gave rewards for the killing of tigers, wolves and other
    large animals on the ground that they posed an threat to the
    cultivators.
   Many areas were reserved for hunting.
   As a result various species became almost extinct during the
    British period
New Job Employment/ Trade/ Service after
    the introduction of Forest Department
   The people lost out their job in many ways after the Forest
    Department but some people benefited from the new
    opportunities that had opened up in trade.
   Many communities left their traditional job and started
    trading in forest product.
   It happened in all over the World.

                     Brazil
With the growing demand of Rubber in 19th century, Mundurucu
 people of the Brazilian Amazon who lived in villages on high
 ground and cultivated manioc, began to collect latex from wild
 rubber trees for supplying to traders. Gradually, they descended
 to live in trading posts and became completely dependent on
 traders.
India
In India, the trade in forest products was not new. From the
  medieval period onwards, Adivasi communities trading
  elephants, horns, silk, cocoons, ivory, bamboo, spices, fibres,
  grasses and gums through nomadic communities like
  Banjaras.

But during the British government some European trading firms
 occupied the sale of forest product in some particular areas.
 Grazing and hunting by local people were restricted.

Especially from Madrass Korava, Karacha and Yerukula
 nomadic communities lost their jobs. Some of them began to
 called Criminal Tribes were forced to work factories, mines
 and plantation under the government supervision.
Assam: both men and women from forest communities
  like Santhals
Jharkhand : Oraons
Chattisgarh : Gonds
 were recruited to work on tea plantations. Their wages
  were low and condition of work were very bad. They
  could not easily return to their home villages.
Forest and colonialism

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Forest and colonialism

  • 1. FOREST SOCIETY AND COLONIALISM Lijin Golden
  • 2. Major Areas of this Chapter  Items Available from the Forest  Benefits from the Forest  How are forest products are useful for forest people  How the industrialization affected the forest  Meaning and Causes of Deforestation  Meaning of Commercial Forestry  Meaning of Forest Management  Meaning of Scientific forestry  Meaning of Shifting cultivation  New Trades and New Employments  Rebellion in the forest/ Case Study- Bastar and Java  Dutch Scientific Forestry  Samins Challenge  War and Deforestation  New Developments in Forestry
  • 3. ITEMS AVAILABLE FROM THE FOREST  Timber – For manufacturing the infrastructures like desks, benches, Door, Windows etc… Construction of buildings  Paper, Dyes use to colour the cloth, Tea, Honey, Rubber, Coffee, spices  Fuel, Fodder and grass for animals (cattle food  Medicinal- fruits, flowers, herbs, plants, roots  Animals, Birds etc… In the Amazon forests or in the western ghats- 500 different medicinal plant in one forest patch
  • 4. Benefits from the Forest  It helping for Soil Conservation  It Protecting the Wild animals, birds and medicinal plants  Offer good employment opportunities  Maintaining the Climate  Maintaining the life of the Tribal people  It maintain the life of Rural and Urban people (providing necessary things)
  • 5. Forest products useful for the forest People  Fruits and Tuber- Nutritious to eat in monsoon season  Herbs- Medicine  Wood- Agricultural implements like yokes and Ploughs  Bamboo- Making for basket and umbrellas  Dried Scooped-portable water bottle  Leaves- Plates and Cups  Oil for cooking and to light lamps can be pressed from the fruit of the mahua tree.
  • 6. How industrialisation affected the Forest In the period between 1700 and 1995, was a period of industrialisation 13.9 million sq km of forest or 9.3% of total world forest area was cleared for industrial uses, cultivation, Pastures, fuel wood. Text page No: 77 ( Features of Sal forest in Chhattisgarh)
  • 7. What is Deforestation/ Meaning The disappearance of forest is called Deforestation. In an area deforested the trees there are cut down or destroyed. In India the deforestation is not a recent problem. But under the British rule it became more systematic and extensive.
  • 8. CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION (OR) Between 1880 and 1920, forest cover in the Indian Subcontinent declined by 9.7 million hectares from 108.6 million hectares to 98.9 million hectares- Discuss the causes Deforestation Agriculture Railway Tea/ Coffee Ship Commercial Tribal Expansion Plantation Building Farming Peasant
  • 9. 1. AGRICULTURE EXPANSION  In 1600, one sixth of India’s total area was under cultivation  But at present half of the total area using for cultivation  As a result of the population increased, the demand for food increased. So the peasants extended the boundaries of cultivation. So that they cleared the forest. During the time of colonial rule cultivation extended rapidly based on two reason. 1. British encouraged the production of commercial crop like jute, sugar, wheat and cotton. In 19th century the demand of food crops and food grains increased in Europe as a result of the increased population.
  • 10. 2. In 19th century, the colonial rule considered forest were unproductive. So they cleared the land for cultivation and they thought that agriculture product and revenue increase the income of the state. So between 1880 and 1920, cultivated area rose by 6.7 million hectares. 2. RAILWAY Railways were essential for colonial trade and for the movement of imperial rule. They used wood for fuel and to lay railway line sleepers were essential to hold the track together. In 1860 railway network increased rapidly. In 1890, 25,500 km of track had been laid. In 1946 length increased to 765,000 KM. In 1850, Madras province annually cuted 35ooo trees for sleepers. Each mile of railway track required between 1760 to 2000 sleepers. The govt gave the contracts to individuals and they cleared the
  • 11. 3. PLANTATIONS The natural forest areas were cleared to make the plantations. As a result of the growing needs of the Europeans different types of plantations were introduced like coffee, tea and rubber. The colonial government took over the forest, and gave vast areas to European planters at cheap rates. They cleared the forest and planted coffee, tea and rubber. 4. SHIPPING In 19th century, Oak forest disappeared in England. It created problem of timber supply for the Royal navy for making the ship. So in 1820, they sent the search parties to search the forest resources of India. With in few decades, large scale of timber were exported from India
  • 12. 5. COMMERCIAL FORESTRY The British considered the old trees had no use. So that why they cut all the trees and planted same type of tree in a straight row only for a commercial purposes. As a result the natural forest has been disappeared. 6. THE ROLE OF TRIBALS AND PEASANTS As a part of the shifting cultivation, they cut and burnt the forest in rotation. They sowed seeds in the ashes after the first monsoon rain. This process harmful for the forest. There aws always a danger of forest fire.
  • 13. During the time of colonial rule cultivation extended rapidly increased in India Why? In 1880 to 1920, cultivated area in India increased in to 6.7 million hect- Why During the time of colonial rule cultivation extended rapidly based on two reason. 1. British encouraged the production of commercial crop like jute, sugar, wheat and cotton. In 19th century the demand of food crops and food grains increased in Europe as a result of the increased population. 2. In 19th century, the colonial rule considered forest were unproductive. So they cleared the land for cultivation and they thought that agriculture product and revenue increase the income of the state. So between 1880 and 1920, cultivated area rose by 6.7 million hectares
  • 14. How and Why Commercial Forestry come in India? (or) Role of Dietrich Brandis in Indian Forest System (or) Describe about Indian Forest Act in1865
  • 15. As a result of the rapid decline of forest the British govt worried that the use of forests by local people and reckless felling of trees by traders would destroy the forests (Why the British worried about the forest)  So they invite a German expert, Dietrich Brandis, for advice and made him first Inspector General of Forest in India.  He believed that a proper system had to be introduced to manage the forest and people had to be trained in the science of conservation.  He set up Indian Forest Service in 1864 and he formulated Indian Forest Act in 1865.  He made rules and system made legal sanction.
  • 16. Felling of trees and grazing was restricted and forest could preserved only for timber production.  Any body violate the rules had been punished.  The Imperial Research Institute was set up at Dehradun in 1906. The system they taught here was called Scientific forestry.  In scientific forestry, natural forests which had lots of different type of trees were cut down. In there place, one type of trees was planted in straight rows for commercial purposes. This is called Plantations.  Forest officials surveyed the forest, estimated the area under different type of trees, and made working plans for forest management. They planned how much of the plantation area to cut every year. The area cut was then to be replanted so that it was ready to be cut again in some
  • 17. How the Indian Forest Act affected the life of the Indian Forest people?  Everyday Practices : cutting wood for their houses, grazing their cattle, collecting fruits and roots, hunting and fishing became illegal.  So the people forced to steal wood from the forest, and if they were caught, they were at the mercy of the forest guards who would take bribes from them.  Police constables and forest guards would harass people by demanding free food from them.  The govt banned shifting cultivation. They considered it a waste of fertile land which could instead be used for growing railway timber.  Communities were forcibly displaced from their homes in the forests.
  • 18. Usage of Forest to different Sector Groups (or) How did villagers and foresters differ in the ideas of good forest?  Villagers: They wanted forest with a mixture of species to satisfy different needs- fuel, fodder, leaves.  Forest Department: Wanted trees which were suitable for building ships or railways. They needed trees that could provide hard wood, and were tall and straight. Eg: Teak and Sal.  Forest Peoples: Fruits and Tuber, Herbs, Wood, Leaves, Bamboos, Dried Scooped, Mahua trees oil etc….
  • 19. Scientific Forestry A system of Cutting trees controlled by the forest Department in which old trees were cut down and new one type of tree was planted in straight rows. Forest Management It is a system for the management of forest. The forest officials surveyed the forest, estimated the area under different type of trees, and made working plan for forest management. They planned how much of the plantation area to cut every year. The area cut was then to be replanted.
  • 20. Plantation In scientific forestry, natural forests which had lot of different types of trees were cut down. In their place, one type of tree was planted in straight rows. This is called plantation. Shifting Cultivation Is a traditional agricultural practice in many parts of Asia, Africa and South America. It is otherwise known as swidden agriculture or slash and burn activity. In shifting cultivation, parts of the forest are cut and burnt in rotation. Seeds are sown in the ashes after the monsoon rains, and the crop is harvested by October- November. Such plots are cultivated for a couple of years and then fallow for 12 to 18 years for the forest to grow back. A mixture of crops is grown on these plots.
  • 21. Local Names of Shifting Cultivation Lading- Southeast Asia Milpa- Central America Chitemmene or Tavy- Africa Chena- Srilanka India- dhya, penda, bewar, nevad, jhum, podu, khandad, kumri
  • 22. Why the British banned the Shifting Cultivation 1. European foresters regarded shifting cultivation was harmful for the forest. They felt that land which was used for cultivation every few years could not grow trees for railway timber. 2. When a forest was burnt, there was added danger of the flames spreading and burning valuable timber. 3. It made it harder for the government to calculate taxes. So govt decided to ban the shifting cultivation. As a result many communities were forcibly displaced from their homes in the forest. So had to change occupations, while some resisted through large and small scale rebellions.
  • 23. Why the ecologists criticised the Scientific Forestry? In scientific forestry, natural forests which had lot of different type of trees were cut down. In that place only one type tress are planting . So rare species of trees, animals and birds is disappearing when the use of cientic forestry.
  • 24. Amendment of Indian Forest Act 1865 The Indian Forest Act amended twice in the years 1878 and 1927. The 1878 Act divided forests into three categories. 1. Reserved Forest 2. Protected Forest 3. Village Forest Reserved Forest: The best forest were called Reserved Forest. The village could not take anything from the forest, even for their own use. For house building or fuel, they could take wood from Protected or Village forests.
  • 25. How the Forest Act affected the life of the hunters?  The forest law affected the life of the forest people.  Before forest law many people they were survived by hunting deer, partridges and variety of small animals- it was prohibited by the forest laws.  Those who were caught hunting were punished for poaching.
  • 26. What was the reason during the period of the British hunting increased rapidly and various species became almost extinct?  The hunting of Tigers and other animals had been the part of the culture in India especially during the Mughal period.  But the British saw large animals as signs of a wild, primitive and savage society.  They believed that by the killing of dangerous animals the British would civilize Indians.  They gave rewards for the killing of tigers, wolves and other large animals on the ground that they posed an threat to the cultivators.  Many areas were reserved for hunting.  As a result various species became almost extinct during the British period
  • 27. New Job Employment/ Trade/ Service after the introduction of Forest Department  The people lost out their job in many ways after the Forest Department but some people benefited from the new opportunities that had opened up in trade.  Many communities left their traditional job and started trading in forest product.  It happened in all over the World. Brazil With the growing demand of Rubber in 19th century, Mundurucu people of the Brazilian Amazon who lived in villages on high ground and cultivated manioc, began to collect latex from wild rubber trees for supplying to traders. Gradually, they descended to live in trading posts and became completely dependent on traders.
  • 28. India In India, the trade in forest products was not new. From the medieval period onwards, Adivasi communities trading elephants, horns, silk, cocoons, ivory, bamboo, spices, fibres, grasses and gums through nomadic communities like Banjaras. But during the British government some European trading firms occupied the sale of forest product in some particular areas. Grazing and hunting by local people were restricted. Especially from Madrass Korava, Karacha and Yerukula nomadic communities lost their jobs. Some of them began to called Criminal Tribes were forced to work factories, mines and plantation under the government supervision.
  • 29. Assam: both men and women from forest communities like Santhals Jharkhand : Oraons Chattisgarh : Gonds were recruited to work on tea plantations. Their wages were low and condition of work were very bad. They could not easily return to their home villages.