Part 5 – The European Moment Covers chapters 17 – 20 By Nickolas Alvarado
Chapter 17: Atlantic Revolutions and Their Echos 1750 - 1914 French Revolution, 1789 - 1815 Began 1789 Execution of Louis XVI – 1794 Driven by conficts between the three main social classes. Napoleon brought to power and created a French empire in Europe. http://worldhistoryatyhs.wikispaces.com/French+Revolution
Chapter 17: Atlantic Revolutions and Their Echos 1750 - 1914 Spanish American Revolutions, 1810 – 1825 Process lasted about twice as long as North America. Mexico Began in 1810, led by Miguel Hidalgo and Jos é Morales, but was crushed by creoles who later paired with the church to finish the job in 1821. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miguel_Hidalgo_y_Costilla
Chapter 17: Atlantic Revolutions and Their Echos 1750 - 1914 Slavery Britain began outlawing the sale of slaves in 1807 and emancipating them in 1834. Other nations soon followed with Brazil being the final country to abolish slavery in 1888. The United States had a unique experience with the Civil War, the most violent transition into non-slavery versus everywhere else. http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/civil-war/1862/july/bayonet-charge.htm
Chapter 18: Revolutions of Industrialization 1750 - 1914 The First Industrial Society – Great Britain Labor class, 70% of the population: Benefited least and suffered the most. Living conditions worsened as cities began to overcrowd. Labor conditions became more dangerous as machines moved into facilities. Unions sprang up which some saw as extremely dangerous. Karl Marx created communism in response to what he saw in Britain during his life. Painting depicting new industry.
Chapter 18: Revolutions of Industrialization 1750 - 1914 Russia Industrialization began in the 1890s fueled by foreign investors. Still relied on monarchy which middle class found dated. Socialism began to take root and became chief ruling body after the 1917 Revolution under Lenin using Karl Marx's philosophy. Catherine the Great helped to modernize Russia.
Chapter 18: Revolutions of Industrialization 1750 - 1914 Karl Marx developed socialism which had a huge impact on the history of the world. Most notably it influenced communism, the philosophy practiced by both the USSR and China in the 20 th century.
Chapter 19: Internal Troubles, External Threats 1800 - 1914 Opium addiction became a large problem resulting in friction with the British. The Treaty of Nanjing and Opium War followed. Western destroyers blowing up Chinese boats.
Chapter 19: Internal Troubles, External Threats 1800 - 1914 Ottoman Empire, “The Sick Man of Europe” Was no longer seen as an equal among European powers and was losing regions to Christian muscle. Fell dependent on Europe and lost territory as a result.
Chapter 19: Internal Troubles, External Threats 1800 - 1914 Japan A modern government came around, getting rid of the samurai and establishing a national army, treaties with various nations, and took European and American ideals to create their constitution. Was able to industrialize without too much outside help. The Dutch were the only western trading partners allowed up until Japan modernized.
Chapter 20: Colonial Encounters 1750 - 1914 More European conquests Africa and Asia saw a second wave of empire building by European powers. Africa in 1890. It shows the borders of various territories belonging to European empires.
Chapter 20: Colonial Encounters 1750 - 1914 Forced labor was popular and even led to atrocities. The Dutch would terrorize people in the Congo for not retrieving enough rubber. Boys with severed hands after contact with the Dutch.
Chapter 20: Colonial Encounters 1750 - 1914 Race was created to distinguish people belonging to different ethnic, religious, or language groups but also took into consideration appearance and other traits. It is not a biological classification but plays a major role in the world today. An example of the many different races on the planet today.
Part 6 – The Most Recent Century
Covers chapters 21 - 24
Chapter 21: Collapse and Recovery of Europe 1914 – 1970s Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand on June 28, 1914 which accidentally started WWI. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archduke_Franz_Ferdinand_of_Austria Franz Ferdinand, the man who was killed.
Chapter 21: Collapse and Recovery of Europe 1914 – 1970s The aftermath of the atomic bombs that brought WWII to an end. Little Boy dropped on Hiroshima and Fat Man on Nagasaki. Before and after images of Hiroshima. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_bombings_of_Hiroshima_and_Nagasaki
Chapter 21: Collapse and Recovery of Europe 1914 – 1970s The borders after World War II. Europe was different than today, most notably Germany split in two. http://kc-johnson.com/fall-2009-courses/core-2-2/core-2-2-november-classes/
Chapter 22: The Rise and Fall of World Communism 1917 - present Lenin led the Socialist movement that brought about the 1917 Russian Revolution and the murder of the Tsar and his family. http://www.britannica.com/bps/media-view/121015/1/0/0 Lenin addressing a crowd in 1917.
Chapter 22: The Rise and Fall of World Communism 1917 - present Mao Zedong led communist China throughout the mid 20 th century. He oversaw industrialization and modernization but wanted to create a unique identity for the Asian state. http://operatorchan.org/t/arch/res/129532+50.html Stalin and Zedong shaking hands on a Chinese postage stamp.
Chapter 22: The Rise and Fall of World Communism 1917 - present The Cold War initiated a rivalry between America and the Soviets. One of the greatest competitions was the space race. The USSR put Sputnik into orbit and the first man in space but the US made it onto the moon. The United States' putting a man on the moon.
Chapter 23: Independence and Development in the Global South 1914 - present Mohandas Gandhi (1869 – 1948) was an Indian political leader. Instead of calling for social revolution he wanted to transform the morals of the population. He got the ball rolling for India's independence. Gandhi before he was assassinated. http://indiaexplored.files.wordpress.com/2010/08/mahatma-gandhi.jpg
Chapter 23: Independence and Development in the Global South 1914 - present Apartheid was lawful racial segregation in South Africa from 1948 – 1994 enforced by the National Party. All levels of society were organized into white, black, coloured, and asian and state services were segregated as well. A sign showing the segregation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa_under_apartheid
Chapter 23: Independence and Development in the Global South 1914 - present Ruholla Khomeini led the Iranian Revolution that brought Iran to how we know it as today. The government is completely integrated with Islam and enforces religious dogma throughout society. Khomeini being welcome back by a crowd in Tehran. He is in the vehicle. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruhollah_Khomeini
Chapter 24: Accelerating Global Interaction since 1945 America as an empire. After the Cold War ended with the USSR dissolving in the early 1990s, the US could pursue any avenue because it became the sole military superpower as seen in the “War on Terror” in the 2000s. A map showing current US military bases across the world. http://www.japanfocus.org/data/US_military_bases_in_the_world_2007.PNG
Chapter 24: Accelerating Global Interaction since 1945 Globalization is the increasing unifications of the world's economies. One of the most obvious signs is large companies moving abroad. McDonald's can be found in many countries today just like Google or KFC. A Japanese McDonald's. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globalization
Chapter 24: Accelerating Global Interaction since 1945 Environmentalism has become a big political issue in today's world. There is evidence supporting and opposing global warming but deforestation and pollution have caused considerable damage to the world's ecosystem. A nuclear power plant releasing steam into the atmosphere. Nuclear power is cleaner than coal but accidents are detrimental to everything. http://www.ferdthenerd.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/pollution-global-warming-prevention-738373_1024_1005.jpg