Ways of the World<br />The European Moment and The Most Recent Century<br />By Sammy Lee<br />
Chapter 17 - Revolution<br />North American Revolution<br />In The United States<br />A conservative moment in that  it ha...
CH 17 Cont<br />From 1780-1890, across the world, slavery lost it’s legitimacy and was largely ended.<br />Ideas and pract...
CH 17 Cont<br />For a long time before this period, states usually did not coincide with the culture of a particular peopl...
Chapter 18 - Industrialization<br />Why Europe?<br />A scientific revolution <br />Britain the first country to industrial...
CH 18 Cont<br />Why Europe?<br />A scientific revolution <br />Britain the first country to industrialize<br />Coal was th...
CH 18 Cont<br />Russia<br />Russia’s industrialization occurred late, relative to Western European countries.<br />The Rus...
Chapter 19 - Troubles and Threats<br />Imperialism<br />Industrial countries needed international markets to sell their it...
CH 19 Cont<br />Western Pressures<br />Opium Wars<br />American and British merchants had found a market for Opium in Chin...
CH 19 Cont<br />Japan<br />Encountered the aggressive power of the west during the nineteenth century.<br />Commodore Matt...
Chapter 20 – Colonial Encounters<br />Colonial Rule in many places, for many people, was a traumatic experience.<br />Many...
CH20 Cont<br />Education<br />The acquisition of education, for a minority of people, generated new identity.<br />To illi...
CH20 Cont<br />Religion Cont.<br />Most dramatic was the widespread conversion to Christianity.<br />Some 10,000 missionar...
Chapter 21 Collapse & Recovery<br />First World War<br />Nature of competing states<br />Italy and Germany joined  fragmen...
CH 21 Cont<br />WWI Legacies<br />A total war that mobilized each country’s entire population<br />Outcomes of the war… se...
CH 21 Cont<br />The Great Depression Cont.<br />Economic Collapse<br />Paper fortunes almost wiped out overnight after the...
Chapter 22 – Rise and Fall of Communism<br />Global Communism<br />Modern Communism found its political and philosophical ...
Chapter 22 Cont.<br />During the Cold War decades, the Warsaw Pact brought the Soviet Union and Eastern European communist...
Chapter 22 Cont.<br />Proxy wars were fought between the U.S. and Soviet Union (Korea, Vietnam)<br />Nuclear Weapons raise...
Chapter 23 - Independence and Development in the Global South<br />The End of Empires<br />Twentieth Century witnessed the...
Chapter 23 Cont.<br />Experiments in Economic Development<br />At the top of the agenda everywhere in the Global South was...
Chapter 23 Cont.<br />Turkey and Iran Cont.<br />The culture of the west was exposed in these countries, which held tradit...
Chapter 24 – Accelerating Global Interaction<br />Global Interaction<br />The foundations for post-war globalization were ...
Chapter 24 Cont.<br />Global Interaction Cont.<br />World trade skyrocketed from a value of some 57 billion in 1947 to wel...
Chapter 24 Cont.<br />Globalization and an American Empire<br />American dominance has been dubbed “empire of production”<...
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Ways of the world

  1. 1. Ways of the World<br />The European Moment and The Most Recent Century<br />By Sammy Lee<br />
  2. 2. Chapter 17 - Revolution<br />North American Revolution<br />In The United States<br />A conservative moment in that it had originated in an effort to preserve the existing liberties of the colonies, rather than to create new ones.<br />Revolutions elsewhere<br />Peru in 1780s, Haiti in 1791-1804, Mexico in 1810-1813, Brazil in 1822.<br />The French Revolution<br />Came from sharp divisions in French society. <br />New liberal attitudes <br />Culminated in the deposition of the then-current French monarchy. <br />French revolutionaries believed they were “starting from scratch” after the revolution.<br />Robespierre ascends to power. Implements “the Terror” and tries to destroy the old vestiges that went against post-revolutionary France.<br />
  3. 3. CH 17 Cont<br />From 1780-1890, across the world, slavery lost it’s legitimacy and was largely ended.<br />Ideas and practices of the Revolutions played a large role.<br />Enlightenment ideals and liberal political doctrine stressed the rights of individuals<br />In many cases, economic lives of former slaves did not improve dramatically after abolition<br />i.e., Sharecropping in the United States<br />Emancipation meant “nothing but freedom”<br />Except for Haiti, minorities who constituted slave populations did not experience political equality<br />The labor shortages in agriculture brought people in search of work from all over the world : Caribbean, Peru, South Africa, Hawaii, etc.<br />
  4. 4. CH 17 Cont<br />For a long time before this period, states usually did not coincide with the culture of a particular people. <br />By the end of the 20th century, the idea of nation state was so widespread that it seemed/seems natural.<br />Before the era of Atlantic revolutions, people usually did not consider rule by foreigners a terrible offense, because identities were usually concentrated in local cities, clans, regions, etc.<br />Napoleon’s conquests played a huge factor in making citizens cognizant of the common bonds with their countrymen.<br />Printing and publishing standardized a variety of languages into a small number, which allowed people to think of themselves as part of a common linguistic group or nation.<br />Ideologies such as liberalism, socialism, etc. developed as potential solutions to the nation’s problems.<br />
  5. 5. Chapter 18 - Industrialization<br />Why Europe?<br />A scientific revolution <br />Britain the first country to industrialize<br />Coal was the primary fuel for the revolution<br />Railroads are a useful measure of industrial development. <br />Britain had a head start in revolution, according to the Table on pg. 535.<br />The Industrial Revolution had class-related issues.<br />Aristocracy, Middle Classes, and a “Laboring Class”<br />The upper classes owned the majority of wealth<br />People laboring in the industries experienced much hardship: long hours, low wages, unsafe conditions, etc.<br />Marx theory developed in light of the Revolutions.<br />
  6. 6. CH 18 Cont<br />Why Europe?<br />A scientific revolution <br />Britain the first country to industrialize<br />Coal was the primary fuel for the revolution<br />Railroads are a useful measure of industrial development. <br />Britain had a head start in revolution, according to the Table on pg. 535.<br />The Industrial Revolution had class-related issues.<br />Aristocracy, Middle Classes, and a “Laboring Class”<br />The upper classes owned the majority of wealth<br />People laboring in the industries experienced much hardship: long hours, low wages, unsafe conditions, etc.<br />Marx theory developed in light of the Revolutions.<br />
  7. 7. CH 18 Cont<br />Russia<br />Russia’s industrialization occurred late, relative to Western European countries.<br />The Russian Industrial Revolution grew rapidly following the Crimean War<br />Industrialization led to the political Revolution of 1905, which forced the Tsar to implement a Constitution and a State Duma.<br />Urbanization<br />People moved from rural areas to densely populated areas in cities<br />Relocation of people around places of manufacturing.<br />
  8. 8. Chapter 19 - Troubles and Threats<br />Imperialism<br />Industrial countries needed international markets to sell their items.<br />Industrial countries needed to expand their means of production, labor, resources, etc.<br />Perceptions of the “other”<br />Europeans during the Industrial age developed a secular arrogance, and even racist ideology<br />Use “science” as a basis for this racism<br />An Idea of a “Progressive Development of Man”<br />Crisis within China<br />Bureaucratic state did not keep pace with a growing population<br />Revolts against the Qing dynasty on account of its Manchurian Origins<br />Culmination of China’s internal crisis lay in the Taiping Uprising.<br />
  9. 9. CH 19 Cont<br />Western Pressures<br />Opium Wars<br />American and British merchants had found a market for Opium in China<br />From 1000 Opium Chests from 1773, to 23,000 chests in 1832.<br />Opium was made illegal in China. <br />Officials were bribed, turning a blind eye, and were thus corrupted<br />The Treaty of Nanjing imposed numerous restrictions on Chinese Sovereignty.<br />China lost control of Vietnam, Korea and Taiwan after the Opium Wars.<br />Failure of Modernization<br />Boxer Rebellion, who were anti-imperialists killed numerous Europeans and Chinese Christians.<br />
  10. 10. CH 19 Cont<br />Japan<br />Encountered the aggressive power of the west during the nineteenth century.<br />Commodore Matthew Perry’s ship forced the Japanese to open up more “normal” relations with the world.<br />Japan didn’t succumb to domination… it created it’s own East Asian empire.<br />A Meiji Restoration that went hand-in-hand with “American Intrusion”<br />Japan modernized during the last three decades of the nineteenth century.<br />Japan’s defeat of the Russian empire in the Russo-Japanese war signaled that Japan was an international force to be reckin’ with.<br />
  11. 11. Chapter 20 – Colonial Encounters<br />Colonial Rule in many places, for many people, was a traumatic experience.<br />Many countries were weary of the British<br />Coercion: Forced Labor<br />Most infamous cruelties occurred in the Congo<br />Private companies working under Belgium forced locals to collect rubber.<br />Reign of terror that cost millions of lives<br />
  12. 12. CH20 Cont<br />Education<br />The acquisition of education, for a minority of people, generated new identity.<br />To illiterate people, the knowledge of reading and writing was almost like a magical power<br />It could mean escape for living under European control, such as forced labor.<br />Many people embraced European culture, dressing in European style clothes, building European-style buildings.<br />Religion<br />Provided the catalyst for new or transformed identities<br />
  13. 13. CH20 Cont<br />Religion Cont.<br />Most dramatic was the widespread conversion to Christianity.<br />Some 10,000 missionaries descended to Africa by 1910. By 1960, almost about 50 million Africans.<br />In some places like Africa, Christianity became synthesized with local religions. Converts continued to use protective charms and medicines etc.<br />
  14. 14. Chapter 21 Collapse & Recovery<br />First World War<br />Nature of competing states<br />Italy and Germany joined fragmented territories into two major new powers.<br />By the early Twentieth century, the balance of power was expressed in two rival alliances: The Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente. <br />Outbreak of war occurred when Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated<br />
  15. 15. CH 21 Cont<br />WWI Legacies<br />A total war that mobilized each country’s entire population<br />Outcomes of the war… seemed to mock the Enlightenment values of progress, tolerance and rationality.<br />Who could question that science and technlolgy were unquestionably good things?<br />In Russia, the war led to a revolution, and the destruction of the aristocracy.<br />Rise of Communism<br />The Great Depression<br />Sharply challenged the governments of Capitalist countries, which generally believed the economy would regulate itself.<br />
  16. 16. CH 21 Cont<br />The Great Depression Cont.<br />Economic Collapse<br />Paper fortunes almost wiped out overnight after the stock market crash (October 24, 1929)<br />Banks closed, many people lost their life savings<br />Unemployment soared<br />Many people looked toward the Soviet model, which had a more equal distribution of income and state-controlled economy.<br />The U.S. response to depression was the New Deal, which was comprise of government spending programs in order to moderate depressions and recessions.<br />
  17. 17. Chapter 22 – Rise and Fall of Communism<br />Global Communism<br />Modern Communism found its political and philosophical roots in Nineteenth century European socialism, inspired by the teachings of Karl Marx<br />1970 was the high point of Communism, with almost one-third of the world’s population governed by Communist regimes.<br />
  18. 18. Chapter 22 Cont.<br />During the Cold War decades, the Warsaw Pact brought the Soviet Union and Eastern European communist states together in a military alliance designed to counter the threat from the Western capitalist countries of the Nato Alliance.<br />Both the Soviet Union and China defined industrialization as a fundamental task of their regimes.<br />Communist governments became the source of fear and loathing to many in the Western capitalist world.<br />
  19. 19. Chapter 22 Cont.<br />Proxy wars were fought between the U.S. and Soviet Union (Korea, Vietnam)<br />Nuclear Weapons raised the stakes of the Cold War.<br />Maoist ideas of Communism fade away in the 1970s in China.<br />The Soviet Union collapses in late 80’s/early 90’s<br />Gorbachev was an instrumental figure for this.<br />The United States remained as the only superpower<br />
  20. 20. Chapter 23 - Independence and Development in the Global South<br />The End of Empires<br />Twentieth Century witnessed the Demise of many empires<br />The Austrian and Ottoman Empires collapsed after WWI.<br />The Russian Empire collapsed, under the auspices of the Soviet Union<br />WWII ended German and Japanese Empires<br />The Soviet unraveled in the late 20th century.<br />British Rule ended in India. Social protest by Gandhi yielded profound results<br />
  21. 21. Chapter 23 Cont.<br />Experiments in Economic Development<br />At the top of the agenda everywhere in the Global South was economic development<br />East Asian countries in general have had the strongest record of economic growth<br />In Most of Africa and Much of the Arab world, there was little sign of catching up.<br />Turkey & Iran<br />The quest for economic development represented the embrace of an emerging culture of modernity<br />
  22. 22. Chapter 23 Cont.<br />Turkey and Iran Cont.<br />The culture of the west was exposed in these countries, which held traditional Islamic values.<br />Turkey adopted many European style legal codes and embraced western culture<br />Iran had opposite trends.<br />The final quarter of the twentieth century led to revivals that cast the religion as guide to public and private life.<br />
  23. 23. Chapter 24 – Accelerating Global Interaction<br />Global Interaction<br />The foundations for post-war globalization were set after the Great Depression<br />Institutions such as the IMF, the “Bretton Woods System” fostered global trade.<br />In the 1970s, the U.S. and Great Britain abandoned many earlier political controls on economic activity as leaders viewed the entire world as a single market.<br />The collapse of state-run economies only ensured the globalism would spread across the globe.<br />
  24. 24. Chapter 24 Cont.<br />Global Interaction Cont.<br />World trade skyrocketed from a value of some 57 billion in 1947 to well over 7 trillion in 2001.<br />Disparities and Resistance<br />Globalization divided Mexico<br />The Northern Part of the country, with business ties to the U.S. became much more prosperous than the south.<br />China’s rapid economic growth fostered mounting inequality between rural households and burgeoning cities.<br />
  25. 25. Chapter 24 Cont.<br />Globalization and an American Empire<br />American dominance has been dubbed “empire of production”<br />In the final quarter of the twentieth century, the U.S. faced growing international competition.<br />Global exercise of American Power generates controversy<br />The Vietnam war divided America more sharply tan at any time since the Civil War.<br />Similar controversies were associated with the American Invasion of Iraq in the early 21stCentury.<br />

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