Ways of the World Part 5 & 6 Themes By: Diana Kim
CH. 17 Comparing Atlantic Revolutions <ul><li>the Atlantic movements have often been referred to as &quot;democratic revol...
CH. 17 Echoes of Revolution <ul><li>first by Quakers then by Protestant evangelicals in Britain and the US, to them slaver...
CH. 17 Feminists Beginnings <ul><li>in the 20th century, feminist thinking transformed &quot;the way in which women and me...
CH. 18 First Industrial Society <ul><li>the Industrial Revolution generated, within a century or less, an economic miracle...
CH. 18 First Industrial Society <ul><li>industrial factories to which growing numbers of desperate people looked for emplo...
CH. 18 First Industrial Society <ul><li>near the 20th century, industrial Britain could hardly be described as a stable or...
CH. 19 China’s Century of Crisis <ul><li>in many ways, China was the victim of its own earlier success with its robust eco...
CH. 19 China’s Century of Crisis <ul><li>China's famed centralized and bureaucratic state did not enlarge itself to keep p...
CH. 19 The Japanese Difference <ul><li>based on their own military power and political skills, successive shoguns gave Jap...
CH. 20 Colonial Encounters <ul><li>the ways of working in colonial states was the most pronounced changed - with it's powe...
CH. 20 Colonial Encounters <ul><li>for an important minority, it was the acquisition of Western education, obtained throug...
CH. 20 Colonial Encounters <ul><li>religion provided the basis for new or transformed identities during the colonial era s...
CH. 21 First World War <ul><li>by the early 20th century, the balance of power among Europe's major countries was expresse...
CH. 21 Second World War <ul><li>between 1919 and 1945, a new political ideology, known as fascism, an intensely nationalis...
CH. 21 Second World War <ul><li>Hitler appealed to rural and traditional values that many Germans feared losing as their c...
CH. 22 East vs. West <ul><li>The initial arena of the cold war was Europe, where Soviet insistence on security and control...
CH. 22 East vs. West <ul><li>Military efforts by S. Vietnamese communists and the already communist N. Vietnamese governme...
CH. 22 East vs. West <ul><li>Not until 1921 was a small Chinese Communist Party (CCP) founded, aiming its efforts initiall...
CH. 23 Struggle For Independence <ul><li>The British differed from earlier invaders in India that promoted a growing sense...
CH. 23 Struggle For Independence <ul><li>It's founding represented the beginning of a new kind of political protest, quite...
CH. 23 Struggle For Independence <ul><li>Ghandi experienced overt racism while working in South Africa as an unsuccessful ...
CH. 24 Transformation of the World Economy <ul><li>After WWII, to avoid the Depression-era conditions, capitalists victors...
CH. 24 Transformation of the World Economy <ul><li>Containerized shipping, huge oil tankers, and air express serves dramat...
CH. 24 Transformation of the World Economy <ul><li>Known as neo-liberalism, this approach to the world economy favored the...
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Ways of the world

  1. 1. Ways of the World Part 5 & 6 Themes By: Diana Kim
  2. 2. CH. 17 Comparing Atlantic Revolutions <ul><li>the Atlantic movements have often been referred to as &quot;democratic revolutions.” </li></ul><ul><li>the revolutions differed substantially from one another, triggered by different circumstances, expressed quite different social and political tensions, and varied considerably in their outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>the American Revolution did not grow out of social tensions within the colonies, but frame a rather sudden and unexpected effort by the British government to tighten its control over the colonies and to extract more revenue from them. </li></ul>
  3. 3. CH. 17 Echoes of Revolution <ul><li>first by Quakers then by Protestant evangelicals in Britain and the US, to them slavery was &quot;repugnant to our religion&quot; and a &quot;crime in the sight of God.” </li></ul><ul><li>these moral arguments were more widely acceptable because of the growing belief, contrary to much earlier thinking, slavery was not essential for economic progress. </li></ul><ul><li>these various strands of thinking - secular, religious, economic, and political - came together in abolitionist movements, most powerfully in Britain, which brought growing pressure on governments to close down the trade in slaves and then to ban slavery itself. </li></ul>
  4. 4. CH. 17 Feminists Beginnings <ul><li>in the 20th century, feminist thinking transformed &quot;the way in which women and men work, play, think, dress, worship, vote, reproduce, make love and make war.” </li></ul><ul><li>within the growing middle classes of industrializing societies, more women found both educational opportunities and some freedom from household drudgery and such women increasingly took part in temperature movements, charities, abolitionism, and missionary work, as well as socialist and pacifist organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>feminism was a transatlantic movement in which European and American women attended the same conferences, corresponded regular, and read one another's work. </li></ul><ul><li>Access to schools, universities, and the professions were among their major concerns as growing numbers of women sought these previously unavailable opportunities. </li></ul>
  5. 5. CH. 18 First Industrial Society <ul><li>the Industrial Revolution generated, within a century or less, an economic miracle, at least in comparison with earlier technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>the social transformation of the Industrial Revolution both destroyed and created </li></ul><ul><li>socialist ideas of various kinds gradually spread within the working class, challenging the assumptions of a capitalist society. </li></ul>
  6. 6. CH. 18 First Industrial Society <ul><li>industrial factories to which growing numbers of desperate people looked for employment offered a work environment far different from the artisan's shop or the tenant's farm. Long hours, low wages, and child labor were nothing new for the poor, but the routine and monotony of work, dictated by the factory whistle and the needs of machines, imposed novel and highly unwelcome conditions of labor. </li></ul>
  7. 7. CH. 18 First Industrial Society <ul><li>near the 20th century, industrial Britain could hardly be described as a stable or contented society since immense inequalities still separated the classes and some 10 percent of the working class continued to live in conditions then described as &quot;poverty.” </li></ul><ul><li>Britain's early lead in the industrial revolution paid a price since many of the businessmen committed to machinery that became obsolete as the century progressed, while latecomers invested in more modern equipment. </li></ul>
  8. 8. CH. 19 China’s Century of Crisis <ul><li>in many ways, China was the victim of its own earlier success with its robust economy and American food crops had enabled massive population growth, from about 100 million people in 1685 to some 430 million in 1835. </li></ul><ul><li>unlike Europe, where a similar population spurt took place, no Industrial Revolution accompanied this vast increase in the number of people, nor was agricultural production able to keep up. </li></ul><ul><li>the resulted in smaller farms for China's huge peasant population, unemployment, impoverishment, misery, and starvation. </li></ul>
  9. 9. CH. 19 China’s Century of Crisis <ul><li>China's famed centralized and bureaucratic state did not enlarge itself to keep pace with the growing population </li></ul><ul><li>the first Opium War began when Britain decided to teach China a lesson about the virtues of free trade and the &quot;proper&quot; way to conduct relations among countries and determined to end the restrictive conditions they had with the country </li></ul>
  10. 10. CH. 19 The Japanese Difference <ul><li>based on their own military power and political skills, successive shoguns gave Japan more than two centuries of internal peace </li></ul><ul><li>by the early 20th century, Japan's economic growth, openness to trade, and embrace of &quot;civilization and enlightenment&quot; from the West persuaded the Western powers to revise the unequal treaties in Japan's favor. </li></ul><ul><li>the Anglo-Japanese Treaty of 1902 acknowledged Japan as an equal player among the Great Powers of the world </li></ul>
  11. 11. CH. 20 Colonial Encounters <ul><li>the ways of working in colonial states was the most pronounced changed - with it's power to tax, to seize land for European enterprises, to compel labor, and to build railroads, ports, and roads - played an important role in these transformations. </li></ul><ul><li>the growing integration of Asian and African societies into a world economy that increasingly demanded their gold, diamonds, copper, tin, rubber, coffee, cotton, sugar, cocoa, and manta other products was even more powerful </li></ul>
  12. 12. CH. 20 Colonial Encounters <ul><li>for an important minority, it was the acquisition of Western education, obtained through missionary or government schools, that generated a new identity. </li></ul><ul><li>education provided social mobility and elite status within their own communities and an opportunity to achieve, or at least approach, equality with whites in racially defined societies. </li></ul>
  13. 13. CH. 20 Colonial Encounters <ul><li>religion provided the basis for new or transformed identities during the colonial era such as the spread of Christianity throughout New Zealand, the Pacific islands, and non-Muslim Africa. </li></ul>
  14. 14. CH. 21 First World War <ul><li>by the early 20th century, the balance of power among Europe's major countries was expressed in two rival alliances, the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria, and Italy and the Triple Entente of Russia, France, and Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austrian throne, by a Serbian nationalist is what transformed a minor incident in the Balkans into a conflagration that consumed all of Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>after four years of war, Germany was defeated in November 1918 and the collapse of the German, Russian, and Austrian empires emerged a new map of Central Europe with an independent Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and other nations. </li></ul><ul><li>The Great War generated profound changes in the world beyond Europe like the final end of a declining Ottoman Empire, creating new states of Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Jordan, and Palestine and brought the US to center stage as a global power. </li></ul>
  15. 15. CH. 21 Second World War <ul><li>between 1919 and 1945, a new political ideology, known as fascism, an intensely nationalistic idea that seeks to revitalize and purify the nation and to mobilize its people for some grand task, found expression across much of Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>first fascist movements took place in Italy with a charismatic orator, Benito Mussolini. </li></ul><ul><li>German expression of European fascism, which took shape as the Nazi Party under the leadership of Adolf Hitler. </li></ul>
  16. 16. CH. 21 Second World War <ul><li>Hitler appealed to rural and traditional values that many Germans feared losing as their country modernized and that sparked Nazi's popularity and in Hitler's thinking and in Nazi propaganda, Jews became the symbol of the urban, capitalist, and foreign influences that were undermining traditional German culture. </li></ul><ul><li>in many ways, Japan's modern history paralleled that of Italy and Germany, having little experience with democratic politics. </li></ul><ul><li>WWII was a genuinely global conflict with independent origins in both Asia and Europe </li></ul>
  17. 17. CH. 22 East vs. West <ul><li>The initial arena of the cold war was Europe, where Soviet insistence on security and control in Eastern Europe clashed with American and British desires for open and democratic societies with ties to the capitalist world economy. </li></ul><ul><li>By contrast, the extension of communism into Asia - China, Korea, and Vietnam - globalized the cold war and let to its most destructive and prolonged &quot;hot wars.” </li></ul><ul><li>A N. Korean invasion of S. Korea in 1950 led to both Chinese and American involvement in a bitter 3 year war (1950-1953), which ended in an essential standoff that left the Korean peninsula still divided in the early 21st century. </li></ul>
  18. 18. CH. 22 East vs. West <ul><li>Military efforts by S. Vietnamese communists and the already communist N. Vietnamese government to unify their country prompted massive American intervention in the 60s. </li></ul><ul><li>3rd major military conflict of the cold war era occurred in Afghanistan, where a Marxist party had taken power in 1978. Soviet leaders were delighted at the expansion of communism, but radical land reforms and efforts to liberate Afghan women soon alienated much of this conservative Muslim country and led to a mounting opposition movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Communism triumphed in the ancient land of China in 1949, about 30 years after the Russian Revolution, likewise on the heels of war and domestic upheaval but that revolution, a struggle of decades rather than a single year, was far different from its earlier Russian counterpart. </li></ul>
  19. 19. CH. 22 East vs. West <ul><li>Not until 1921 was a small Chinese Communist Party (CCP) founded, aiming its efforts initially at organizing the country's minuscule urban working class. </li></ul><ul><li>Both the Soviet Union and China defined industrialization as a fundamental task of their regimes, a process necessary to end humiliating backwardness and poverty, to provide the economic basis for socialism, and to create the military strength that would enable their revolutions to survive in a hostile world. </li></ul>
  20. 20. CH. 23 Struggle For Independence <ul><li>The British differed from earlier invaders in India that promoted a growing sense of Indian identity, the British never assimilated into Indian society because their acute sense of racial and cultural distinctiveness kept them apart. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important political expression of an all-Indian identity took shape in the Indian National Congress (INC), which was established in 1885, an associating of English-educated Indians - lawyers, journalists, teachers, businessmen - drawn overwhelmingly from regionally prominent high-caste Hindu families. </li></ul>
  21. 21. CH. 23 Struggle For Independence <ul><li>It's founding represented the beginning of a new kind of political protest, quite different from the rebellions, banditry, and refusal to pay taxes that had periodically erupted in the rural areas of colonial Indian. </li></ul><ul><li>The INC was largely an urban phenomenon and quite moderate in its demands, where initially, its well-educated members did not seek to overthrow British rule; rather they hoped to gain greater inclusion within the political, military, and business life of British India. </li></ul><ul><li>The INC remained largely an elite organization; such as, it had difficulty gaining a mass following among India's vast peasant population, that began to change in the aftermath of WWI. </li></ul>
  22. 22. CH. 23 Struggle For Independence <ul><li>Ghandi experienced overt racism while working in South Africa as an unsuccessful lawyer and it resulted in organizing Indians, mostly Muslims, to protest that country's policies of racial segregation. </li></ul><ul><li>He also developed a political philosophy known as satyagraha (truth force), a confrontation, though nonviolent, approach to political action. </li></ul><ul><li>Ghandi did not call for social revolution but sought the moral transformation of individuals. </li></ul>
  23. 23. CH. 24 Transformation of the World Economy <ul><li>After WWII, to avoid the Depression-era conditions, capitalists victors forged a set of agreements and institutions (the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund) at a conference in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire that laid the foundations for postwar globalization. </li></ul><ul><li>The &quot;Bretton Woods system&quot; negotiated the rules for commercial and financial countries, while promoting relatively free trade, stable currency values linked to the U.S. dollar, and high levels of capital investments. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology contributed to the acceleration of economic globalization </li></ul>
  24. 24. CH. 24 Transformation of the World Economy <ul><li>Containerized shipping, huge oil tankers, and air express serves dramatically lowered transportation costs, while fiber-optic vales and later the Internet provided the communication infrastructure for global economic interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1970s and after, major capitalist countries such as the United STates and Great Britain abandoned many earlier political controls on economic activity as their leaders and businesspeople increasingly viewed the entire world as a single market. </li></ul>
  25. 25. CH. 24 Transformation of the World Economy <ul><li>Known as neo-liberalism, this approach to the world economy favored the reduction of tariffs, the free global movement of capital, a mobile and temporary workforce, the privatization of many state-run enterprises, the curtailing of government efforts to regulate the economy, and both tax and spending cuts. </li></ul><ul><li>powerful international lending agencies such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund imposed such free-market and pro-business conditions on many poor countries if they were to qualify for much needed loans. </li></ul><ul><li>the collapse of the state-controlled economies of the communist world only furthered such unrestricted global capitalism. </li></ul>

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