BIOLOVE

REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM
IKMAL_NIK/2013
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
STRUCTURE
Testes

-

(testis :singular)
Scrotum
Seminiferous tubules
Leydig c...
Prophase

Spermiogenesis – the final stage of spermatogenesis
-

Spermatids mature and become motile spermatozoa

Stages o...
Spermatogoniumprimary spermatocytesecondary spermatocytespermatidsspermatozoasperm

Involvement of Hypothalamus and p...
Female Reproductive Cycle

during first day of menstrual bleeding,
hypothalamus is stimulated to release GnRH
to anterior ...
Continue:
Two conditions:
1. If pregnancy occur, corpus luteum will maintain to secrete progesterone and estrogen to
maint...
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Reproductive system

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Reproductive system

  1. 1. BIOLOVE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM IKMAL_NIK/2013
  2. 2. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM STRUCTURE Testes - (testis :singular) Scrotum Seminiferous tubules Leydig cells Rete testis - Epididymis - Vas deferens - Urethra - Bladder sphincter Seminal vesicles - Prostate gland - Bulbourethral gland - Penis - FUNCTION Produce sperm cells Deliver them to female reproductive tract Site of hormone production Serves as cooling unit Site of sperm production Produce testosterone Path where sperm from seminiferous tubules travel to epididymis Temporary storage site for immature sperm Site of maturation Gain ability to swim Pass through the live sperm from storage site into urethra Tube that conduct semen and urine at different time Constrict when semen is ejaculated Secrete nutritive fluids rich in fructose and prostaglandin Secrete milky and alkaline fluid that neutralize acidic environment of vagina. Secrete mucus when men sexually excited Mucus cleanses urethra from urine Copulatory organ Delivers sperm into female reproductive tract Spermatogenesis   P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 Process of sperm production Sperm form in the seminiferous tubules Spermatogonium remain at the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules (as stem cells) At puberty, FSH secreted Caused stem cell to be pushed forward tubule lumen Enlarged into primary spermatocyte Primary spermatocyte undergoes Meiosis I Form two haploid secondary spermatocytes Secondary spermatocytes undergoes meiosis II Form 4 haploid spermatids IKMAL_NIK/2013
  3. 3. Prophase Spermiogenesis – the final stage of spermatogenesis - Spermatids mature and become motile spermatozoa Stages of Spermiogenesis - Golgi phase Cap phase Acrosomal phase Maturation phase Spermatids undergo Spermiogenesis to become spermatozoa Once the spermatozoa is completely matured, it will become sperm After Spermiogenesis, spermatids will develop flagella Therefore, there will be 4 mature sperm cells Head contain DNA Sperm: Acrosome – has enzymes that help sperm to penetrate ovum Midpiece – has mitochondria (provide energy) IKMAL_NIK/2013
  4. 4. Spermatogoniumprimary spermatocytesecondary spermatocytespermatidsspermatozoasperm Involvement of Hypothalamus and pituitary gland in endocrine regulation of male Hypothalamus – secrete GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone) GnRH stimulate anterior pituitary gland to secrete FSH and LH LH stimulate Leydig cell to produce testosterone Testosterone – stimulating the formation and development of the sperm FSH stimulate Sertoli cell to produce protein that concentrate testosterone What happen when there are numerous sperms? Sertoli cell release inhibin, which will stimulate hypothalamus and pituitary gland to cut the release of GnRH and FSH What happen when there is excessive testosterone? - Hypothalamus reduce secretion of GnRH Anterior pituitary gland reduce production of LH and FSH So testosterone will be less secreted by interstitial cells Role of secretions Secretions GnRH - FSH - LH - testosterone - Inhibin - Function Stimulate anterior pituitary gland to produce LH and FSH Stimulate Sertoli cell to produce protein that concentrate testosterone Caused stem cell to be pushed to tubule lumen and enlarged into primary spermatocyte Stimulate Leydig cell to produce testosterone Produce male primary sex characteristics Stimulate development of secondary male characteristics Act on hypothalamus to cut secretion of GnRH Give effect to secretion of FSH and LH IKMAL_NIK/2013
  5. 5. Female Reproductive Cycle during first day of menstrual bleeding, hypothalamus is stimulated to release GnRH to anterior pituitary gland. Anterior pituitary gland stimulated to release FSH and LH. FSH and LH will stimulate follicle to grow The growing follicle will stimulates granulose cell to produce estrogen. Estrogen level in blood rises. The increasing level of estrogen will promote the growth of endometrium layer. Anterior pituitary gland detects high level of estrogen. Causing outpouring of LH. Causing outpouring of LH. High level of LH will cause ovulation(release of secondary oocyte). End of follicular phase The released secondary oocyte left the granulosa cells in the ovary. This will form the corpus luteum, which secretes progesterone and some estrogen. Progesterone will maintain the endometrium layer. IKMAL_NIK/2013
  6. 6. Continue: Two conditions: 1. If pregnancy occur, corpus luteum will maintain to secrete progesterone and estrogen to maintain endometrium layer. Hypothalamus will be inhibited from releasing GnRH to pituitary gland. So less secretion FSH from pituitary gland. No development of other follicles. Blastocyst formed after implantation. Blastocyst able to secrete hCG. The function of the hCG is to stimulate the corpus luteum to release large amount of progesterone and estrogen to maintain the endometrium layer from being sloughed off. After placenta formed, it take over the function of secreting hCG. (before this, hCG secreted by blastocyst). 2. If no pregnancy occur, corpus luteum will degenerate. No secretion of progesterone and estrogen. Endometrium layer will slough off. IKMAL_NIK/2013

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