Rate of adotion of an innovation


Published on


Published in: Education, Self Improvement
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Rate of adotion of an innovation

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. G . Naveen Kumar 2013-11-193 2
  3. 3. Rate of Adoption • Rate of adoption is the relative speed with which an innovation is adopted by members of a social system. • It is generally measured as the number of individuals who adopt a new idea in a specified period. • So the rate of adoption is a numerical indicator of the steepness of the adoption curve for an innovation 3
  4. 4. Variables Determining the Rate of Adoption 4
  5. 5. Perceived attributes of Innovation • Relative Advantage Relative advantage is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being better than the idea it supersedes. • The degree of relative advantage is often expressed as economic profitability, social prestige, or other benefits. 5
  6. 6. Economic Factors and Rate of Adoption • A new product may be based on a technological advance or advances that result in a reduced cost of production for the product, leading to a lower selling price to consumers. Example : VCR and Pocket Calculator . 6
  7. 7. Status Aspects of Innovations • One motivation for many individuals to adopt an innovation is the desire to gain social status. • Gabriel Tarde (1903) observed that status seeking was a main reason for imitating the innovation behavior of others. • E.g. : clothing fashions and Harvestore in USA • Status motivations for adoption seem to be more important for innovators, early adopters, and early majority, and less important for the late majority and laggards. 7
  8. 8. Effects of Incentives • Many change agencies award incentives or subsidies to clients to speed up the rate of adoption of innovations. • Incentives are direct or indirect payments of either cash or in kind. • Incentives have been paid to speed up the diffusion of innovations in a variety of fields 8
  9. 9. l. Adopter versus diffuser incentives : • Incentives may be paid either directly to an adopter, or to another individual to persuade an adopter. • A diffuser incentive mainly increases the observability of an innovation, rather than its relative advantage. • E.g. : An illustration of a diffuser incentive is that paid to vasectomy canvassers in India 9
  10. 10. 2. Individual versus system incentives • Payments may be made to individual adopters or to change agents, or to social systems to which they belong. • For example, the government family planning agency in Indonesia paid a community incentive to villages that achieved a high rate of adoption of contraceptives 10
  11. 11. 3. Positive versus negative incentives • Most incentives are positive in that they reward a desired behavior change (like adoption of a new idea). • It is also possible to penalize an individual by imposing an unwanted penalty or by withdrawing some desiderata for not adopting an innovation. • Example : The Govt. of Singapore has announced that if any family had third child in their family they will not provide any benefits to that family 11
  12. 12. 4. Monetary versus nonmonetary incentives • While incentives are often financial payments, they may also take the form of some commodity or object that is desired by the recipient. • Example : • For instance, in one state in India a sari with red triangles (the symbol for family planning in India) was awarded to each woman who was sterilized 12
  13. 13. 5. Immediate versus delayed incentives • Most incentives are paid at the time of adoption, but others can only be awarded at a later time. • For example, some Third World nations provide a cost-free education to children of a couple who have a small family. 13
  14. 14. : Incentives increase the rate of adoption of an innovation • Adopter incentives increase relative advantage, and diffuser incentives increase the observability with which an innovation is perceived. • Adopter incentives lead to adoption of an innovation by individuals different from those who would otherwise adopt. • Although incentives increase the quantity of adopters of an innovation, the quality of such adoption decisions may be relatively low, limiting the intended consequences of adoption 14
  15. 15. Compatibility • Compatibility is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as consistent with the existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters. • An innovation can be compatible or incompatible • (1) with sociocultural values and beliefs • (2) with previously introduced ideas • (3) with client needs for the innovation 15
  16. 16. Compatibility with Values and Beliefs • An innovation's incompatibility with cultural values can block its adoption. • Examples : • Eating food with left hand • Miracle varieties of rice that developed from IRRI in 1960 gave attention to yields only and less attention to taste. 16
  17. 17. Compatibility with Previously Introduced Ideas • Compatibility of an innovation with a preceding idea can either speed up or retard its rate of adoption. • Example : • Usage of tractors in Punjab in early 1960’s. 17
  18. 18. Compatibility with Needs • One dimension of the compatibility of an innovation is the degree to which it meets a felt need. • Change agents seek to determine the needs of their clients, and then to recommend innovations that fulfill these needs. • When felt needs are met a faster rate of adotion usually occurs. 18
  19. 19. Complexity • Complexity is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as relatively difficult to understand and use. • The complexity of an innovation, as perceived by members of a social system, is negatively related to its rate of adoption. Example: Usage of home computers in USA in early advancement . 19
  20. 20. Trialability • Trialability is the degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis. • New ideas that can be tried on the installment plan are generally adopted more rapidly than innovations that are not divisible. • The trialability of an innovation, as perceived by members of a social system, is positively related to its rate of adoption. 20
  21. 21. Observability • Observability is the degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others. • The observability of an innovation, as perceived by members of a social system, is positively related to its rate of adoption. • Example : • Hardware and Software of a computer in which hardware is easily observable where as advancements in software are not observable hence it has slow rates of adoption. 21
  22. 22. communication channels • The communication channels used to diffuse an innovation also may influence the innovation's rate of adoption. • The relationship between communication channels and the attributes of the innovation often interact to slow down or speed up the rate of adoption. • If an inappropriate communication channel were used, such as mass media channels for complex new ideas, a slower rate of adoption resulted 22
  23. 23. Nature of the social system • Norms of the system and the degree to which the communication network structure is highly interconnected, also affects an innovation's rate of adoption. 23
  24. 24. Extent of change agents' promotion efforts • The relationship between rate of adoption and change agents' efforts, however, may not be direct and linear. • The greatest response to change agent effort occurs when opinion leaders adopt, which usually occurs somewhere between 3 and 16 percent adoption in most systems. • The innovation will then continue to spread with little promotion by change agents, after a critical mass of adopters is reached. 24
  25. 25. 25 Forget yesterday - it has already forgotten you. Don't sweat tomorrow - you haven't even met. Instead, open your eyes and your heart to a truly precious gift - today. Steve Maraboli