HYPERTENSION
ARE YOU AT RISK
FOR A HEART
ATTACK? STROKE?
OR HEART
DISEASE?
THESE ARE
COMLPLICATIONS OF
HYPERTENSION
LEARN ...
Teaching Objectives
 Explain the prevalence and affects of hypertension in
the U.S.
 Define hypertension.
 Describe the...
Considerations
 Hypertension is an important medical and public health issue.
 It is estimated that 1 billion people Wor...
WHAT IS HYPERTENSION?
 Blood pressure is expressed as two numbers, for example 120/80 mmHg
 These numbers represent the ...
Lets take a step back and learn a
little about what happens in our
bodies……..
The organs and tissue in your
body need oxyg...
Okay……so what does this mean?
 When someone has high blood pressure , this increased force makes the heart work
harder to...
Who is at risk for Hypertension?
 Age- Blood pressure rises with increasing age.
 Alcohol- Excessive alcohol intake is a...
Signs & Symptoms Of Hypertension
 Hypertension is often called the “Silent killer” because it is frequently asymptomatic-...
 Cardiovascular disease
 Atherosclerosis – “ Hardening of the
arteries”
 Coronary Artery Disease- damage to the
heart &...
Classifications of Blood Pressure
Normal BP ‘
SBP <120 mmHg & DBP < 80 mmHg
Prehypertension
SBP 120-139 mmHg or DBP 80-89
...
Prevention Of Hypertension
 Maintain a healthy weight- A weight loss of
even 10 pounds can decrease your SBP ( top
number...
Prevention: Numbers to Remember
Lifestyle
Maintain a healthy
weight
BMI < 25%
Waist circumference
Men: 40 in. or less
Wome...
Monitoring your Blood pressure
 Your blood pressure should be taken during your regular health
check ups.
 Your doctor m...
Monitoring your blood pressure cont.
How to monitor your blood pressure
 Use a bicep (upper-arm) monitor for more accurat...
Blood pressure monitoring devices
Prevention is Key
According to the U.S. Health and Human Services a combination
of increased physical activity, moderation...
References
Lewis, S.L., & Heitkemper, M.M., & Dirksen, S. R., &
O’Brien, P. G., & Bucher, L. (2007). Medical Surgical
Nurs...
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Hypertensionpp

  1. 1. HYPERTENSION ARE YOU AT RISK FOR A HEART ATTACK? STROKE? OR HEART DISEASE? THESE ARE COMLPLICATIONS OF HYPERTENSION LEARN WHAT HYPERTENSION IS AND HOW TO PREVENT IT.
  2. 2. Teaching Objectives  Explain the prevalence and affects of hypertension in the U.S.  Define hypertension.  Describe the mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure.  Name the risks of Hypertension.  Describe the signs & symptoms and complications of hypertension.  Define the classifications of hypertension.  Describe preventative measures for hypertension.  Explain how to monitor blood pressure at home using manual and/or electronic devices.
  3. 3. Considerations  Hypertension is an important medical and public health issue.  It is estimated that 1 billion people Worldwide are affected by hypertension.  At least 65 million American adults, or 1 in 3, have high Blood pressure.  There is a direct relationship between hypertension and Cardiovascular disease (CVD).  There is a proportional risk for heart attack, heart failure, stroke, and renal disease with higher Blood pressure.
  4. 4. WHAT IS HYPERTENSION?  Blood pressure is expressed as two numbers, for example 120/80 mmHg  These numbers represent the pressure against the walls of your blood vessels as the blood moves through them.  The top number (or first number) represents the systolic pressure, which occurs when the heart contracts.  The bottom number (or second number) represents the diastolic pressure, which occurs when the heart relaxes.  Normal blood pressure is less than 120 (systolic) over 80 (diastolic), typically written as 120/80 mm Hg (read 120 over 80 millimeters of mercury).  Hypertension, or High blood pressure is persistent Systolic blood pressure SBP ≥140 mmHg, and Diastolic blood pressure DBP ≥ 90 mmHg.
  5. 5. Lets take a step back and learn a little about what happens in our bodies…….. The organs and tissue in your body need oxygen to survive. Oxygen is bound to your blood and is delivered( after an exchange of carbon dioxide for oxygen in your lungs) to your body by blood vessels. When your heart beats, it creates pressure that pushes blood through your arteries and veins, also known as blood vessels and capillaries. Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against your blood vessel walls. Your blood pressure must be within a normal range to properly deliver this oxygen rich blood to your organs and tissues in order to survive.
  6. 6. Okay……so what does this mean?  When someone has high blood pressure , this increased force makes the heart work harder to pump blood to the body.  The increased force puts a strain on both the heart and the blood vessels.  If the force of the blood flow is high for some time, eventually the tissue that makes up the walls of the arteries gets stretched beyond its healthy limit.  This overstretching of the blood vessels makes them more prone to rupture.  Damages to the vessels results in the development of Atherosclerosis ( hardening of the arteries).  Uncontrolled high blood pressure increases your risk of serious health problems, including heart attack and stroke.
  7. 7. Who is at risk for Hypertension?  Age- Blood pressure rises with increasing age.  Alcohol- Excessive alcohol intake is associated with Hypertension  Cigarette smoking- Smoking increases your risk for Cardiovascular disease. If you have hypertension & smoke and/or take Oral contraceptives you have a greater risk for Cardiovascular disease and blood clots.  Diabetes Mellitus- Hypertension is more common in Diabetics  Elevated Cholesterol & Triglycerides- High levels of cholesterol & triglycerides are primary risk factors for atherosclerosis (plaque build up in your blood vessels).  Too much salt in your diet- High sodium intake contributes to high blood pressure and causes water retention.  Gender- Hypertension is more common in young adulthood men & middle aged men (<55 yr of age). After the age off 55 Hypertension is more common in women.  Family history- Having a close blood relative ( parents or sibling) with hypertension increases your risk of developing hypertension.  Obesity- Weight gain is highly associated with increased frequency of hypertension, especially with central abdominal obesity.  Ethnicity- The incidence of hypertension is twice as high in African Americans as they are in whites.  Sedentary lifestyle- Inactivity and weight gain are associated with high blood pressure & increases the risk for heart disease.  Stress- People exposed to repeated stress may develop hypertension more  frequently than others.
  8. 8. Signs & Symptoms Of Hypertension  Hypertension is often called the “Silent killer” because it is frequently asymptomatic- meaning “without symptoms” until it has become severe and damage to organs have occurred.  A person with severe hypertension may have symptoms caused by the effects on the blood vessels which my be:  Fatigue  Reduced activity tolerance  Dizziness  Palpitations  Angina (chest pain)  And difficulty breathing • According to the American Heart Association There's a common misconception that people with high blood pressure will experience symptoms such as nervousness, sweating, difficulty sleeping or facial flushing. The truth is that HBP (high blood pressure) is largely a symptomless condition. If you ignore your blood pressure because you think symptoms will alert you to the problem, you are taking a dangerous chance with your life. Everybody needs to know their blood pressure numbers, and everyone needs to prevent high blood pressure from developing.  There are also myths of headaches/nosebleeds believed to be related to HBP. According to the AHA studies have shown that people with higher systolic (top number) blood pressure were up to 40% less likely to have headaches ( except in the cases of Hypertensive crisis SBP ≥180mmHg and DSP ≥110mmHg)  It is important to know that nosebleeds can be associated with other factors,. Most common reasons for nosebleeds are dry air especially in hot climates like the desert Southwest (Arizona). Other causes may be allergies, sinusitis or anticoagulants such as Warfarin or aspirin.
  9. 9.  Cardiovascular disease  Atherosclerosis – “ Hardening of the arteries”  Coronary Artery Disease- damage to the heart & coronary arteries  Cerebrovascular Disease  Peripheral Vascular Disease  Stroke or Heart Attack  Angina- Chest pain  Kidney damage  Vision loss  Heart failure- Over time as the heart works harder to push the blood throughout the body, the heart (which is a muscle) enlarges.  Just like any other muscle in your body enlarges when you work it out.  This enlargement causes stretching of the heart muscle and eventually not enough blood is pumped out of the heart to the body to meet the body’s requirements of oxygen as discussed earlier. Complications of Hypertension
  10. 10. Classifications of Blood Pressure Normal BP ‘ SBP <120 mmHg & DBP < 80 mmHg Prehypertension SBP 120-139 mmHg or DBP 80-89 Stage 1 Hypertension SBP 140-159 mmHg or DBP 90-99 Stage 2 Hypertension SBP ≥ 160 mmHg or DBP ≥ 100 mmHg
  11. 11. Prevention Of Hypertension  Maintain a healthy weight- A weight loss of even 10 pounds can decrease your SBP ( top number of your blood pressure)by 5-20mmHg .  Exercise- at least 30 minutes of aerobic physical activity (brisk walking, jogging, swimming) most days of the week.  Reduce salt and sodium intake- Foods that have a lot of salt are processed foods ( frozen dinners, canned foods) and Lunch meats.  Increase level of physical activity.  Limit alcohol consumption to moderate levels- Men should limit their alcohol intake to no more than 2 drinks per day and women to no more than one drink per day. 1 drink = 1.5 oz. alcohol or 12 0z. Beer, 5 oz. of wine, 1.5 oz 80 proof whiskey.  Monitor Blood pressure and know if it is high, low, normal, or borderline for hypertension.  Regular check ups with your Primary care Physician. How can I prevent Hypertension ?
  12. 12. Prevention: Numbers to Remember Lifestyle Maintain a healthy weight BMI < 25% Waist circumference Men: 40 in. or less Women: 35 in. or l less Diet 5 or more servings of fruits & veggies a day 1 tsp or less of salt per day Exercise Jogging, walking, swimming 30 minutes a day most days of the week Quit smoking Limit Alcohol consumption to 1 0z per day Regular Health Check ups LDL Cholesterol < 130 mg/dl HDL Cholesterol 50 mg/dl or higher
  13. 13. Monitoring your Blood pressure  Your blood pressure should be taken during your regular health check ups.  Your doctor may recommend checking your blood pressure at home if you have risk factors of hypertension or if you have been diagnosed with pre-hypertension (systolic -top number between 120 and 139 mm Hg OR diastolic -bottom number between 80 and 89 mm Hg).  A record of readings taken over time can provide you and your healthcare provider a clearer picture of your blood pressure. AHA Recommendation:  The American Heart Association recommends an automatic, cuff- style, bicep (upper-arm) monitor. Wrist and finger monitors are not recommended because they yield less reliable readings.
  14. 14. Monitoring your blood pressure cont. How to monitor your blood pressure  Use a bicep (upper-arm) monitor for more accurate readings as recommended by the AHA.  electronic or automatic versions at work or in your local pharmacy/shopping center may be used but can give inaccurate readings.  A manual blood pressure cuff can also be used if you have someone that knows how to accurately use it.  Make sure the cuff fits  Be still  Sit correctly with your back straight & supported (using a dining chair instead of a sofa is recommended), feet flat (don’t cross your legs), and upper arm supported at heart level.  Make sure the middle of the cuff is directly over the brachial artery.  Record all your readings & understand the readings (optimal BP is < 120/80 mmHg).  The average of three readings, at least one minute apart, should be used as the BP reading.  Consult your health care provider if you get several high recordings.
  15. 15. Blood pressure monitoring devices
  16. 16. Prevention is Key According to the U.S. Health and Human Services a combination of increased physical activity, moderation in alcohol intake, and consumption of an eating plan that is lower in sodium content and higher in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products than the average American diet represents the best approach for preventing high blood pressure in the general population and in high risk groups.
  17. 17. References Lewis, S.L., & Heitkemper, M.M., & Dirksen, S. R., & O’Brien, P. G., & Bucher, L. (2007). Medical Surgical Nursing. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier. Primary prevention of hypertension. (2002). National Institutes of Health , 14. What is high blood pressure. (2010). Retrieved October 20th, 2010, from http://www.heart.org.

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