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  2. 3. What is hypertension….! High blood pressure, also called hypertension, is the force of the blood applied against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood through the body.
  3. 4. People in normal health should have a blood pressure reading of 120/80 mm Hg. Blood pressure readings in the pre-hypertension category (120-139 systolic or 80-89 diastolic).High blood pressure is generally considered to be a blood pressure reading greater than or equal to 140 mm Hg (systolic) or greater than or equal to 90 mm Hg (diastolic).
  4. 5. What Causes Hypertension ? smoking is a major cause of coronary artery disease especially in younger people.
  5. 6. How Does Smoking Increase Heart Disease Risk? The nicotine present in smoke causes: Decreased oxygen to the heart. Increased blood pressure and heart rate. Increase tendency of blood to clot( Thrombosis & Embolism – separated blood clot) . Damage to cells that line coronary arteries and other blood vessels.
  6. 7. Embolism Infarction
  7. 8. Obesity increases the cardiac output and the blood volume. The more you weigh, the more blood you have flowing through your body. The increased amount of blood means more blood has to be pumped from the heart with each beat. This makes the heart work harder. The heart stretches and expands. The extra work makes the heart muscle thicker. The thicker the heart muscle gets, the harder it is for it to both squeeze (contract) and relax. Over time, the heart may not be able to keep up with the load. Heart failure may be the result.
  8. 9. Obesity induces a high secretion of insulin in trying to decrease the excessive sugar concentration in the blood. The insulin, secreted by the pancreas, is responsible for many modifications in the body: 1.It induces a thickening of the vessels which is responsible for an increase in their rigidity, thus increasing the blood pressure. 2.It increases the cardiac output, because the secretion of adrenalin is increased. 3.It induces the reabsorption of water and salt by the kidney, which increases the blood volume and thus increases the blood pressure.
  9. 10. Excessive intake of salt Most sodium in a person's diet comes from eating processed and prepared foods, such as canned vegetables & pickels, soups, meats, poultry, dairy products and frozen foods. Food manufacturers use salt or other sodium-containing compounds to preserve food and to improve the taste and texture of food.
  10. 11. Too much salt causes 'vasoconstriction' of the blood vessels, which means they shrink in size or constrict because the salt has dehydrated the cells, forcing water out of them and making them narrow. When blood vessels become narrower, the heart has to work harder to force the blood around the body and this increases the risk of high blood pressure, heart attacks and strokes.
  11. 12. Narrowing of arteries due to high Cholesterol
  12. 13. <ul><li>Cholesterol is an important substance used by our bodies to form parts of our cells and hormones. It is transported through our bodies by several forms of particles called lipoproteins. The most important of these lipoproteins are high-density, low-density and very-low density (triglycerides). High-density lipoproteins (“good” cholesterol) carry cholesterol out and away from the blood vessels. Low-density lipoproteins and triglycerides (“bad” cholesterol) can lead to cholesterol deposits in the arteries and the formation of plaque.* Smoking decreases HDL (good) cholesterol levels in the body* </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><ul><li>Left Anterior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descending ( LAD ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left Circumflex ( LCX ) </li></ul></ul>Right Coronary Artery Left Coronary Artery
  14. 15. Effect of stress on short term blood pressure can be dramatic, leading to mean arterial pressure increases of 30%-40%. These changes are short lived, though, with heart rate, blood vessel diameter, and blood pressure returning to normal as the hormones are eliminated. But behaviors linked to stress such as overeating, drinking alcohol and poor sleep habits cause high blood pressure. it may be that the hormones produced when you're emotionally stressed may damage your arteries, leading to heart disease.
  15. 16. Effect of High Blood Pressure on Your Body
  16. 17. Stroke in Brain High blood pressure is the most important risk factor for stroke. Very high pressure can cause a break in a weakened blood vessel, which then bleeds in the brain. This can cause a stroke. If a blood clot blocks one of the narrowed arteries, it can also cause a stroke.
  17. 18. Impaired Vision High blood pressure can eventually cause blood vessels in the eye to burst or bleed. Vision may become blurred or otherwise impaired and can result in blindness.
  18. 19. Blood Vessels (Arteries) As people get older, arteries throughout the body &quot;harden,&quot; especially those in the heart, brain, and kidneys. High blood pressure is associated with these &quot;stiffer&quot; arteries. This, in turn, causes the heart and kidneys to work harder.
  19. 20. Kidney Damage The kidneys act as filters to rid the body of wastes. Over time, high blood pressure can narrow and thicken the blood vessels of the kidneys. The kidneys filter less fluid, and waste builds up in the blood. The kidneys may fail altogether. When this happens, medical treatment (dialysis) or a kidney transplant may be needed.
  20. 21. On Heart Heart Attack High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart attack. The arteries bring oxygen-carrying blood to the heart muscle. If the heart cannot get enough oxygen, chest pain, also known as &quot;angina,&quot; can occur. If the flow of blood is blocked , death of portion of Heart tissue due to lack of blood supply occurs (Myocardial Infarction) which results in heart attack.
  21. 22. Coronary Bypass Surgery
  22. 23. Congestive Heart Failure High blood pressure is the number one risk factor for congestive heart failure (CHF). CHF is a serious condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to supply the body's needs.
  23. 24. Atherosclerosis is the common cause due to “Plaques”
  24. 25. Coronary angioplasty is a medical procedure in which a balloon is used to open a blockage in a coronary (heart) artery narrowed by atherosclerosis .This procedure improves blood flow to the heart. Atherosclerosis is a condition in which a material called plaque builds up on the inner walls of the arteries. This can happen in any artery, including the coronary arteries, which carry oxygen-rich blood to your heart. When atherosclerosis affects the coronary arteries, the condition is called coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary Angioplasty
  25. 26. Coronary Angioplasty
  26. 27. <ul><li>Healthy lifestyle changes are an important first step for lowering blood pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise at least 30 minutes a day </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain normal weight </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce salt intake </li></ul><ul><li>Increase potassium intake </li></ul><ul><li>Limit alcohol consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Consume a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products while reducing total and saturated fat intake. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Normal Heart: <ul><li>Size of fist. </li></ul><ul><li>300 gm. </li></ul><ul><li>6000 litres/d </li></ul><ul><li>Top disease </li></ul>
  28. 30. THANK YOU ALL