Word formation is of great interest for linguists as it sheds light on other aspects of language. There is not, though, no single “theory of word formation” The way words are constructed are interesting for linguists in the sense that it help them to classify the grammar group of words. Word formation process is a good indicator to trace back the most productive means of creating words within a language. Rinaissance and neoclacissicism have been vital for the borrowing of Latin and Greek affixes into English, especially when we talk about the fields of science, technology and medicine.
Lexicography is the procedure and profession, which deal with arranging and describing items of vocabulary in works such as dictionaries, glossaries, thesauri, synonym guides and usage guides. Alphabetical lexicography deals with the alphabetical order of wordes while as thematic lexicography classifies words by topic.
Cawdrey did not pick his 2,500 words from nowhere. For the most part, he copied from an elarlies Latin word list. Mid XVII Century Etylologies were included into dictionaries. ( around the 1650´s) In 1700 John Kersey took the step of including frequent words, too.
Doctor Johnson very much contributed to the groth of lexicography. His definitions, on the whole, are strong and clear. He made a couple of lexicographical innovations: the practice of separating and number word meanings and citing contexts to demonstrate the meaning of a word or particular usages of a word. In the XVIII Century, synonyms were added to entries in dictionaries, and some dictionaries even included lists of pronunciation. The Oxford English Dictionary would include all words in use between the year 1100 and the date of publication. The Philological Society in England intended to cite the first occurrence of each word in English writing and the last occurrence if the word had dropped out of use, together with other quotations accross the centuries to show debelopments in meaning.
In 1843 the rights of publication were purchased by Charles and G. Merrian, and the Merrian firm continued, and continues, to bring out editions of all sizes, all bering the Webster name
The form to which a rule of word formation is applied is called BASE. Once a BASE has suffered a rule of word formation may become the BASE for another derivation. “ Friend, friendly, unfriendly and undfriendlyness” is one example of this. It is possible to mix various devices, for example: compounding and derivation as in “colour blindness”
Please note that prefix “non-” is always follwed by an hyphen. Most prefixes in English has a Latin, Greeek or French origin except for “be-”,”fore”,”mis-”, “un”.
Please note that “in-” becomes “il-” before “l”, or “im-” before labials, or “ir-” before “r”.
Please note that prefix “co-” when used to refer to position of status will be written with an hyphen.
English uses a mixture of Greek and Latin prefixes to express number.
The following are suffixes which may be added to verbs to form nouns.
The following are suffixes which may be added to adjectives to form an abstract nouns expressing state, quality....
There are very few of these in English.
Compounding – or composition – is, roughly speaking, the process of putting two words together to forma third, as in the examples above.
Compounds can be divided according to the function they play in the sentence, or according to the type of item that make up the compound, or its semantic type and its semantic funciton.
The plural forms of compound nouns change according to the type of words they consist of. If the final word of a compound nouns is a countable noun, the plural form is placed in this word when the compound noun is plural. Coumpound nouns which consist on two nouns linked by the prepositions of or in, or a noun followed by “to be”, have a plural form in which first noun in the compound is plural.
Lexicon. Characteristics of word formation in English. Prefixation, suffixation and compounding . Unit 10
1. Lexicon 1.1. Lexicography. 1.2.The Evolution of the modern dictionary.
The evolution of modern dictionaries. First English to English word list “ A Table Alphabeticall” by Robert Cawdrey 1603. It contained 2,500 words. By the 50´s of XVII Century “Etylomologies” were Included in dictionaries as well
In 1700, John Kersey dares to add frequent words in dictionaries. The gratest figure in English lexicography in the XVIII was Samuel Johnson. The gratest lexicographical effort ever made was The Oxford English Dictionary.
A few compound adjectives are made up of more than two words and they are often written with hyphens when they are used in front of nouns, and without hyphens when they are used as the complement of a link verb.