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Greening Rural Development

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This is a consolidated reply published under CC license for UNDP climate community query on greeing the rural development programmes of Ministry of Rural Development. My submission are part of the …

This is a consolidated reply published under CC license for UNDP climate community query on greeing the rural development programmes of Ministry of Rural Development. My submission are part of the responses to the query. It was here I proposed community based ecostrategic planning. It is pleasure to have notices several projects where particpation of community is being emphasied for creation of ecologically safe futures.

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  • 1. Climate Change Community Water Community Poverty _____________________________ Work and Employment Community SSoolluuttiioonn EExxcchhaannggee ffoorr tthhee CClliimmaattee CChhaannggee CCoommmmuunniittyy SSoolluuttiioonn EExxcchhaannggee ffoorr tthhee WWaatteerr CCoommmmuunniittyy SSoolluuttiioonn EExxcchhaannggee ffoorr tthhee WWoorrkk aanndd EEmmppllooyymmeenntt CCoommmmuunniittyy CCoonnssoolliiddaatteedd RReeppllyy Query: Greening Rural Development Programmes - Experiences; Examples; Referrals Compiled by Ramesh Jalan, Resource Person & Moderator and Jai Kumar Gaurav, Research Associate – on behalf of Climate Change Community; Warisha Yunus – on behalf of Work and Employment Community and Sunetra Lala – on behalf of Water Community. Issue Date:7 May, 2012 From Sumeeta Banerji, United Nations Development Programme, New Delhi Posted 07 April 2012 UNDP India has a long standing collaboration with the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD), Government of India, to improve implementation and monitoring of its key poverty reduction programmes. UNDP support to Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme (MGNREGA) has focused on technical expertise, knowledge support, concurrent monitoring, ICT innovations for transparency, and strengthening social accountability mechanisms. UNDP is also supporting the National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM) through technical support and bringing perspectives of the persistently excluded groups into planning for NRLM. The Minister, Rural Development, has recently sought inputs for ‘greening’ the Ministry and its various rural development programs, primarily MGNREGA, the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (rural roads programme), Rural Housing,
  • 2. National Social Assistance Programme, Integrated Watershed Development Programme, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), and Desert Development Programme (DDP). In addition, the Schemes to provide drinking water and the Total Sanitation Campaign also fall within the scope of this request. Some of these programmes already have a clear focus on ecological restoration and strengthening related livelihoods. However, there is an opportunity to improve execution of these programmes to achieve the environmental objectives and also to improve green outcomes. MoRD and UNDP plan to organize a workshop to gather evidence on such ‘green’ results from India and other countries to understand national and international experience in this area. In this context, we would request members to share: Examples from across India of employment generation and public works programmes, rural livelihoods and entrepreneurship programmes, rural roads, watershed, drinking water and sanitation programmes that have had successful experience in terms of ‘green outcomes’ (both public funded and civil society experiences). Names and coordinates of focal persons and experts from state governments, civil society and academia who would be important resource persons for sharing experiences. Examples of any studies done to assess ways of ‘greening’ rural development programmes and its potential to promote environmental benefits (employment, livelihoods, housing, roads etc.) and sample terms of reference of similar studies. Keeping in mind the urgent nature of this request from government, we would be grateful to receive your advice and experiences by April 16. Responses were received, with thanks, from Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) 1. Sandeep Srivastava, Shohratgarh Environmental Society (SES), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 2. Gautam Choudhury, National Informatics Centre (NIC), Ministry of Communications & Information Technology (MCIT, Government of India (GoI), Guwahati, Assam 3. M S R Murthy, Department of Population Studies, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh 4. B.P. Syam Roy, Kolkata, West Bengal 5. Rahul Kumar, Professional Assistance for Development Action (PRADAN), New Delhi (Also relevant for NRLM) 6. P. S. M. Rao, Independent Researcher, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 7. Achyut Das, Agragamee, Rayagada, Odhisha 8. M. Mukhtar Alam, Centre For Ecological Audit, Social Inclusion & Governance (CEASIG), New Delhi 9. B. Muralidharan, Feinbroth Consulting, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh 10. Bansi Lal Kaul, Society for Popularization of Science (SPS), Jammu National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM) 11. Satya Prakash Mehra & Sarita Mehra, Rajputana Society of Natural History (RSNH), Udaipur, Rajasthan 12. Zeenat Niazi, Development Alternatives Group (DAG), New Delhi
  • 3. 13. P.S. Ojha, Bio-energy Mission Cell, Department of Planning (DoP), Government of Uttar Pradesh (GoUP), Lucknow 14. Ramit Basu, New Delhi 15. Jyotsna Bapat, Mumbai, Maharashtra 16. Shantanu Mitra, Department for International Development (DFID), China 17. Ritu Bharadwaj, Department for International Development (DFID-India), British High Commission, New Delhi 18. Rajshekar, Centre for Environment Education (CEE), New Delhi 19. Maroti A. Upare, International Consultant, Mumbai, Maharashtra 20. Devendra Sahai, Global Warming Reduction Centre (GWRC), New Delhi 21. S. N. Srinivas, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), New Delhi 22. Bashu Aryal, International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), Nepal 23. Sanjeev Kumar, The Goat Trust, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 24. B.Panda, North Eastern Hill University (NEHU), Shillong, Meghalaya Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) 25. Tomojeet Chakraborty, Government of West Bengal (GoWB), Kolkata, West Bengal 26. Archana Vaidya, Indian Environment Law Offices (IELO), New Delhi 27. Ramakrishna Nallathiga, Centre for Good Governance (CGG), Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 28. Sejuti Sarkar De, Society for Natural Resource Management & Community Development (SNRMCD), Indirapuram, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) 29. Rabi Mukhopadhyay, Forum of Scientists, Engineers & Technologists (FOSET), Kolkata, West Bengal National Watershed Development Project in Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA) and the Watershed Development in Shifting Cultivation Areas (WDSCA) 30. Ashok Ghosh, Department of Environment and Water Management, A. N. College, Patna, Bihar 31. Raj Jani, Jaipur, Rajasthan 32. Rahul Jindal, NCR Real Estate Consultant, New Delhi 33. Arun Jindal, Society for Sustainable Development (SSD), Karauli, Rajasthan 34. Biplab K. Paul, Lokvikas, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 35. Mahtab S. Bamji, Dangoria Charitable Trust (DCT), Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 36. Satyabrata Guru, Orissa Watershed Development Mission (OWDM), Odhisha 37. Karen Thorst, Humana People to People India (HPPI), Rajasthan 38. Anita Sharma, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), New Delhi Others 39. DSK Rao, Gyantech Information Systems (P) Ltd., Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (Response1, Response2) 40. Suman K Apparusu, Change Planet Partners Climate Innovation Foundation (CPPCIF), Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 41. Dhirendra Krishna, New Delhi 42. Alex Thomas, Department of Environment, SHIAT University of Agricultural Sciences, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh 43. K N Vajpai, Climate Himalaya, Dehradun, Uttarakhand
  • 4. 44. Rajan M Karakkattil, Malankara Social Service Society (MSSS), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 45. Ananya Bhattacharya, i-land informatics Limited, Kolkata, West Bengal 46. Neena Rao, Business Development & Policy Advocacy, CCCEA, MCR HRD Inst. Of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad 47. Aditi Kapoor, Alternative Futures, New Delhi 48. Raghwesh Ranjan, Institute of Development Studies (IDS), Brighton, United Kingdom 49. Nagendra P. Singh, Asian Society of Entrepreneurship Education and Development (ASEED) - International Institute of Development Management Technology (IDMAT), New Delhi Further contributions are welcome! Summary of Responses Comparative Experiences Related Resources Responses in Full Summary of Responses Greening rural development would ensure social, ecological, and economic well being of communities and contribute in achieving the national environmental goals. Countries across the world are promoting Green Economy and pursuing low-carbon development. The Rio+20 being held in June, 2012 will involve adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which will be applicable to all countries of the world. Greening the economy is a lower priority as it is considered that protection of the environment is a deterrent to economic development. However, members have highlighted several examples that could lead to sustainable development of the country. For example utilization of innovative technologies; greening with focus on plantation of multiple varieties; afforestation to yield additional income for communities; promotion of sustainable agricultural practices; participatory natural resources management; revival of traditional structures/practices, strengthening institutions, encouraging conservation practices etc.. Therefore it is essential to explore opportunities for greening the programs of Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) as even today most of our population lives in the rural areas. In addition strengthening the Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) framework has been emphasized for enhancing efficiency of national schemes being executed. The need to integrate rural development programs with other initiatives of the Government of India initiatives is the need of the hour. Several examples of rural development programs leading to green outcomes in India include the following: Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) Afforestation and Post Plantation Care of Forests: • The social forestry division of Golaghat district, Assam in 1980 planted trees on 200 hectares of land that has been maintained and extended by a local community member. It is crucial to earmark resources for maintaining plantations even after the project is completed. Orchards and Traditional Farming in Waste Lands
  • 5. • Agragamee in district Rayagada, Odhisha promoted traditional agricultural methods, zero tillage farming in waste lands by women. Through the Wadi project the Waste lands are utilized for developing orchards. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) • Shohratgarh Environmental Society (SES) in eastern Uttar Pradesh is promoting SRI. As it uses less water, enhances productivity, improves soil quality, water retention capacity it needs to be integrated with MNREGA. National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM) Biodiversity Conservation Practices for Sustainable Livelihood • Rajputana Society of Natural History (RSNH) encouraged local community for conservation of biodiversity and its utilization for making traditional handicrafts. The Eco- Development Committee (EDC) of the area has developed a marketing network for the sale of handicrafts. Bio-energy Development Programs • The UNDP Biomass Energy for Rural India (BERI) Project demonstrated biomass packages to meet rural energy needs. The project has established a 1 MW biomass gasifier power plant in Karnataka. • The Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI), Jodhpur has established energy plantations in arid zones of Western Rajasthan for biomass generation, enhancing income of SHGs and Youth Groups. • UNICEF and government of Uttar Pradesh through the “Agro-waste to energy project” installed biogas plants for meeting the energy needs for both cooking and lighting. The Government of Tripura is using Water Hyacinth that obstructs fishing activities for generating bio-gas. Similarly for safe disposal of floral waste from temples; Ghats of Ganges and Dairy Farms across the country biogas / composting plants are being encouraged. • The Village Energy Security Programme (VESP) of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has focused on generating electricity from wood-chips and also on production of biofuels from plantations. The Bio-energy Mission Cell of the Department of Planning, Uttar Pradesh is promoting bio-diesel production from Jatropha oil. Promoting Green Construction • Development Alternatives Group (DAG) and its partner organizations have promoted green technologies such as Compressed Earth Blocks, Fly-Ash bricks, Micro-Concrete Roofing tiles, Pre-fabricated brick panels etc. that could be included in rural development programs. • The work of 180 artisan group TARA Karigar Mandal in Madhya Pradesh has indicated that it is possible to service the rural market through development of green skills particularly in the field of construction and management. • Forum Of Scientists, Engineers & Technologists (FOSET) has developed a technology to construct disaster resistant bamboo houses. Programmatic and Integrated Approach for Sustainable Rural Development • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), USA is implementing the Sustainable Rural Communities Programme. The Partnership for Sustainable Communities ensures that spending, policies, and programs of different departments that support rural communities’ need to be economically vibrant and environmentally sustainable. • Global Warming Reduction Centre (GWRC), New Delhi and its partner organizations are implementing an Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) which promotes organic farming, vermi-composting, plantation of medicinal plants, soil conservation etc. • The “Jeevan Shakti Pariyojna” in the Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh is promoting cultivation of herbal and aromatic crops on marginal lands as a livelihood option.
  • 6. • The Madhya Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Project (MPRLP) supported by DFID promotes regeneration of natural resources and capacity building of local communities and has set up biogas, smokeless chulhas, solar light, treadle pump, agro-forestry projects etc. It has also assessed the effectiveness of the project in reducing climate-induced vulnerabilities and its contribution towards climate resilient, low carbon development. • Professional Assistance for Development Action (PRADAN) initiated an Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM) project in Odisha supported by UNDP through which communities acquired productive assets such as ponds, tanks, productive lands, plantations etc. Aquaculture and Goat Farming Development • In Vietnam, a rural development project has been able to provide alternative livelihoods through aquaculture managed primarily by women with adequate support from micro-finance institutions. • The Goat Trust is focusing on enhancing productivity of goats and encouraging farmers for increasing the production of fodder. Establishing Seed banks and Organic Farms • Gene Campaign, New Delhi is working with farmers in Jharkhand and Bihar in conservation of indigenous varieties of rice, millets etc. by promoting zero-energy seed banks and organic farming. Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) Plantations Around Roads • The Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) & Backward Regions Grant Fund (BRGF) needs to incorporate plantation of trees of commercial value on both sides of the roads/dividers. Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) Promoting Green Construction (Also Relevant to NRLM) • Development Alternatives Group (DAG) and its partner organizations have promoted green technologies such as Compressed Earth Blocks, Fly-Ash bricks, Micro-Concrete Roofing tiles, Pre-fabricated brick panels etc. that could be included in rural development programs. • The work of 180 artisan group TARA Karigar Mandal in Madhya Pradesh has indicated that it is possible to service the rural market through development of green skills particularly in the field of construction and management. • Forum Of Scientists, Engineers & Technologists (FOSET) has developed a technology to construct disaster resistant bamboo houses. National Watershed Development Project in Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA) and the Watershed Development in Shifting Cultivation Areas (WDSCA) Watershed Development Initiatives • Society for Sustainable Development (SSD), Karauli, Rajasthan renovated almost 300 pokhars (Rain water harvesting structures). • Aravali Institute of Management (AIM), Jodhpur, Rajasthan has developed 15 lakes through rain water harvesting structures. • Action for Social Advancement (ASA), Bhopal through micro irrigation, dug-wells, and participatory irrigation management has been able to improve the ground water availability in the area.
  • 7. • A vast tract of barren land has been converted in green area in Banka District, Bihar. The project involved field studies along with inputs from low-income communities regarding household, agricultural water demand for watershed management project design and its subsequent implementation. • In Uttarakhand, Percolation Tanks (Chal Khal in local language) have been constructed for groundwater recharge. Such tanks with improved structures to prevent silt deposition can be constructed by the Rural Development Department on village common lands, roadsides, pasture lands etc. Use of Innovative Irrigation technology • World Bank India Development Marketplace (IDM) 2007 awarded innovative irrigation technology ““Bhungroo” or ‘the straw’ is being promoted by Lokvikas in Gujarat. It involves injecting the excess surface water below the soil and storing it in a subsoil aquifer. Others: “Sabuj Safal Purashkar (Green Glory Awards)” • To recognize Gram Panchayat’s actively involved in afforestion it would be worthwhile to initiate an award involving cash prize, recognition and financial support to the gram panchayat. Capacity Building and Networking • The Malankara Social Service Society (MSSS), Kerala through the Srothas Development Mission is involved in sustainable rural community empowerment involving development of partnerships, alliances, networks etc.. • The Western Orissa Rural Livelihoods Project (WORLP), funded by DFID involves participatory planning and capacity building of community level organizations including SHGs. • The Asian Society of Entrepreneurship Education and Development (ASEED) has established Community Polytechnic in Bihar focusing on imparting multi-skill development in the areas of vermi composting, cultivation of aromatic, medicinal plants etc. • Centre for Climate Change and Environment Advisory (CCCEA), Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh is imparting Knowledge on issues related to sustainable development to primarily government officials. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) at Panchayat level • ERP could help in optimum utilization of resources through drip irrigation, zero tillage farming, reduced use of pesticides, solar air dryer processing, collective farming etc.. Studies involving assessments of ‘greening’ rural development programmes and its potential to promote environmental benefits have been conducted which can provide inputs for design / implementation of similar programs in the future: • The Monitoring & Evaluation frameworks developed by International Labor Organization (ILO) & Development Alternatives (DA) has assessed that decent work and environmental dimensions of existing jobs under NREGS based on four pillars namely, employment, social protection, dialogue and rights related indicators need to be strengthened. • The World Bank Environmental Code of Practice (ECoP) was utilized to review the environmental and social aspects of the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY). • MGNREGA has legal obligation to conduct social audit and "greening" could be a part of this exercise. Social audit could be extended to all development schemes.
  • 8. Right To Information (RTI) Act • Section 4 of Right To Information (RTI) Act provides the required legal framework that could ensure disclosure and disseminate of information for holding public authorities accountable. MoRD needs to frame guidelines for suo-moto disclosure to enable every citizen to ascertain whether the reported "progress" is being achieved or not. Comparative Experiences Andhra Pradesh Capacity Building of Government Officials on Climate Change, Hyderabad (fromNeena Rao, Business Development & Policy Advocacy, CCCEA, MCR HRD Inst. Of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad) The Centre for Climate Change and Environment Advisory (CCCEA), Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh is imparting expertise and knowledge on issues related to Climate Change. It conducts several capacity building programmes for government officials and other practitioners. CCCEA is strengthening the existing ‘Framework of Impact Analysis of Capacity Building Programmes'. Read more Assam Care of Plantations By Local Community Member, Jorhat (from Gautam Choudhury, National Informatics Centre, Ministry of Communications & Information Technology, Government of India, Guwahati, Assam) Mr. Jadav Payeng was involved in an afforestation project in 1980 by the social forestry division of Golaghat district. He continued to protect the saplings even after the project was completed. With the help of his support a forest has developed on a sand bar in the middle of the mighty Brahmaputra River in Assam's Jorhat district. The 30-year-long effort led to growth of woods stretching over an area of 550 hectares. Read more Bihar Watershed Management Planning With Inputs from Local Communities, Banka (from Ashok Ghosh, Department of Environment and Water Management, A. N. College, Patna, Bihar) A collaborative project involving academia, financial institution, local community and NGO has converted vast tract of barren land into a green area in Banka District, Bihar. The project involved seeking inputs from local community regarding watershed management along with utilization of modern scientific techniques. Read more Training Institutes Focusing on Capacity Building Related to Green Economy, Bhojpur (from Nagendra P. Singh, Asian Society of Entrepreneurship Education and Development (ASEED) - International Institute of Development Management Technology (IDMAT), New Delhi) The Asian Society of Entrepreneurship Education and Development (ASEED) has implemented a three year intensive project on capacity building for the green economy in Bhojpur District, Bihar. It has established a Community Polytechnic encouraging medicinal, aromatic plant cultivation, vermi composting and other non farm skill training including financial literacy for women and youth from rural community. Gujarat
  • 9. Innovative Technologies for Region Specific Problem Works Wonders (from Biplab K. Paul, Lokvikas, Ahmedabad, Gujarat) Lokvikas supported small and marginal women farmers to ensure food security and enhance income through the use of its innovative irrigation technology. It helped in improving their perennially water logged, salinity affected lands and enabled women farmers to earn higher income within first two seasons. It is controlling desertification reducing salinity and helping desert areas get green crops in both monsoon and winter. Karnataka From S. N. Srinivas, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), New Delhi Biomass Energy for Rural India (BERI) Project BERI Project has demonstrated that biomass packages can meet rural energy needs. It also facilitated removal of technical, institutional, market and policy barriers to promotion of biomass packages. The project has established 1 MW biomass gasifier power plant in Koratagere taluka. These systems together have generated approximately 951 MWh (approximately 1 million units) of electricity till now contributing to reduction of 780 tCO2. Read more Public-Private-Panchayat model for Energy Planning at the Gram Panchayat Level Government of Karnataka initiated a program for preparation of Energy Plans with involvement of GP members and President supported by the Zilla Panchayat project engineers. 27 GPs from each of 27 districts in Karnataka were chosen based on a set of criteria. The plans were prepared and implemented. Read more Kerala Srothas Development Mission (from Rajan M Karakkattil, Malankara Social Service Society, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala) The mission involves convergence of development programming with a Rights Based Approach with following four core principles including developing partnership, alliances, networks; adopting integrated, holistic, inclusive approach; ensuring community participation and sustainability. Madhya Pradesh Participatory Irrigation Management To Improve Ground Water Availability, Bhopal (from Ramit Basu, New Delhi Action for Social Advancement (ASA), Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh is promoting micro irrigation systems and dug wells along with Participatory Irrigation Management. It includes enhancing involvement of farmers in all aspects and levels of irrigation management. It is expected that such an approach will help ensure reliable and equitable distribution of water supply. Read more Madhya Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Project (MPRLP), Madhya Pradesh (from Ritu Bharadwaj, DFID India, British High Commission, New Delhi) The MPRLP aims at eliminating rural poverty by empowering rural households in nine mainly tribal districts of the state. It adopts a bottom-up approach, facilitating, inspiring and guiding community-driven collective and individual action to reduce poverty through Gram Sabhas. It involved several green initiatives that lead to creation of employment opportunities in the state and promoted regeneration of natural resources. Read more Odisha From Achyut Das, Agragamee, Rayagada, Odisha
  • 10. Entitlement to Land and Natural Farming Boosts Livelihood Opportunities for the Poor, Rayagada To augment their income, an organization worked with tribal women to implement NRM related activities, cultivating and protecting the Dangar land. These women have planted 1200 cashew trees in 15 acres of Dangar land and have also made a stone fencing around the land. The emphasis is waste land identification and process of entitlement for the land less women under Forest Rights Act (FRA). Institutional Mechanism Helps in Promotion of Greening Activities, Rayagada An organization promoted community based institutions to monitor and implement the village development plans. They created three Udyan Vikash Samiti, one Youth Group, one Mahila Mandal, two Farmers Club and three SHGs. These groups assisted the villagers in reviving and utilizing their waste lands. Farmers were provided with technical inputs and financial assistance to develop orchards that benefited 43 families with plantation in 38 acres. Leveraging the Strengths of Flagship Programmes Yields Positive and Greener Outcomes, Kandamal (from Rahul Kumar, Professional Assistance for Development Action (PRADAN), Odisha) PRADAN created livelihoods of the poor by utilizing the extensive reach and resources of MGNREGS with possibilities of further convergence with other agencies or programmes. Thus, target families in the project area could not only accessed employment but also acquired productive assets such as ponds, tanks, productive lands, plantations and well under this convergence program and enhanced their livelihoods through improved agriculture. Inclusion of Poorest Must be Top Priority, (from Satyabrata Guru, Orissa Watershed Development Mission (OWDM), Odisha An organization focused on including the poorest at the forefront of interventions. The project employed participatory method of Well-Being Ranking for positioning of project interventions. This ensured that the interventions for the poor were planned and implemented as first priority which led to almost 75 percent of the poorest reporting inclusion of their interests in the micro planning process in 2008 as members of SHGs and Common Interest Groups (CIGs). Western Orissa Rural Livelihoods Project (from Shantanu Mitra, DFID - China) The WORLP contributes to reducing poverty by promoting livelihoods initiatives for the poorest. It involves development of sustainable livelihoods based on natural resource management within the context of watershed development but with the scope to address broader issues of sustainable livelihoods including savings, credit, access to common property resources, off- farm/non-farm activities, non-timber forest products etc.. Read more Rajasthan Renovation of Rain Water Harvesting Structures, Karauli (from Arun Jindal, Society for Sustainable Development, Karauli, Rajasthan) Society for Sustainable Development (SSD) in Karauli District of Rajasthan has implemented several rain water harvesting projects with the help of various donors in the backward “Daang” area of Rajasthan. Around 300 pokhars (Rain Water Harvesting Structures) have been renovated by involving members of the local communities as labor. Rain Water Harvesting and Development of Green Cover on Saline Land, Jodhpur (from Raj Jani, Jaipur, Rajasthan) Aravali Institute of Management, Jodhpur has developed a green cover despite saline soil, harsh climate and rough terrain. It has utilized rain water harvesting structures for developing 15 lakes
  • 11. with around 6 crore litres of water. Over 6000 trees have grown up to 15 feet tall and the campus has 3 large lawns of around 2.5 acres each, 6 smaller lawns, a meditation centre on the natural mound surrounded by 1500 plants and vegetables grown organically. Promoting Energy Plantations, Jodhpur (from Ramit Basu, New Delhi) The Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur has established energy plantations in arid zones of Western Rajasthan with involvement of local communities through Self Help Groups (SHGs), Youth Groups etc.. These plantations have enhanced the income of local communities. Read more Biodiversity Conservation Practices for Sustainable Livelihood Bharatpur from Satya Prakash Mehra & Sarita Mehra, Rajputana Society of Natural History Udaipur, Rajasthan) Rajputana Society of Natural History (RSNH) trained Self Help Groups (SHGs) of women in making handicrafts and artifacts from local plant species in village Chak Ramnagar in Bharatpur, Rajasthan. The community is encouraged to revive the traditional art of making handicrafts. The Forest Department of Keoladeo National Park (KNP) along with the Eco Development Committee (EDC) provided a platform for the sale of the handicrafts. Read more Uttar Pradesh Promoting System of Rice Intensification (SRI), Siddharthnagar (from Sandeep Srivastava, Shohratgarh Environmental Society (SES), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh) Shohratgarh Environmental Society (SES) is promoting System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in District Siddharthnagar of Uttar Pradesh. Saving of irrigation water up to 50 to 60 % as compared to traditional practices is possible through this technique. It involves transplanting seedlings at a very young age of 8 to 12 days instead of the usual 3-4 weeks or more. Read more Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) (from Devendra Sahai, Global Warming Reduction Centre (GWRC), New Delhi) The IRDP involves implementation of several green initiatives through a comprehensive and holistic approach with the ultimate aim of optimizing the income and improving the quality of life of the village folk. Global Warming Reduction Centre (GWRC), New Delhi and its partner organizations are promoting organic farming, vermi-composting, plantation of medicinal plants, soil conservation etc. as part of IRDP. Read more Bioenergy Mission (from P.S. Ojha, Bio-energy Mission Cell, Department of Planning, Government of Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow) The Government of Uttar Pradesh has initiated the Bioenergy Mission involving plantation of Jatropha in waste lands. The Jatropha seeds would be utilized for production of biodiesel in pilot projects established by the government. Goat Farming and Cultivation of Fodder (from Sanjeev Kumar, The Goat Trust, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh) The Goat Trust is improving goat farming by enhancing productivity of goats rather than inducting new goats. It facilitates financing for replacing low quality often in bred or chronic diseased goats. It is enabling improved fodder production and has initiated "Bakari Palak Pathshala (Shepherding School)" to train farmers. West Bengal Construction of Disaster Resistant Bamboo houses, West Bengal from Rabi Mukhopadhyay, Forum of Scientists, Engineers & Technologists (FOSET), Kolkata, West Bengal)
  • 12. Forum Of Scientists, Engineers & Technologists (FOSET) has developed a detailed technology to construct disaster resistant bamboo houses that would last for at least for 30 years. The construction meets the National Building Code (NBC). A modern bamboo treatment facility to treat bamboo as per IS 9096, improved as recommended in International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR) has been installed. Read more Multiple States The Village Energy Security Programme (VESP) (from Rajshekar, Centre for Environment Education, New Delhi) Ministry of New and Renewable Energy is implementing VESP that involves formation of Village Energy Committees (VEC), financing of projects for generating electricity from wood-chips and producing biofuels from plantations. The Operation & Maintenance (O&M) charges are to be paid by VECs through collection of required monthly charges from beneficiary. Green Construction in Rural Areas from Zeenat Niazi, Development Alternatives Group, New Delhi) Development Alternatives Group and its partner organizations are promoting utilization of green technologies for construction. The use of such technologies leads to savings in cement, steel, energy and other natural resources. DA has developed 180 artisan group known as TARA Karigar Mandal in Madhya Pradesh that are involved in green construction activities. Read more Biogas Generation from Different Wastes from P.S. Ojha, Bio-energy Mission Cell, Department of Planning, Government of Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow) The Government of Uttar Pradesh along with UNICEF initiated Agro-waste to energy project that established biogas plants. Following the success of the biogas projects several states including Tripura and Gujarat are implementing biogas projects based on different wastes. Conservation of Germplasm Through Community Involvement (from Ramit Basu, New Delhi) Gene Campaign has been conserving the germplasm of traditional crops, chiefly rice, from the important centers of rice diversity including Odhisha, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh. The seed is scientifically processed to reduce seed moisture by desiccation and is stored in Zero Energy Gene-Seed Banks which are located in villages under the stewardship of local communities. Read more International Vietnam Aquaculture Development for Livelihood (from Maroti A. Upare, International Consultant, Mumbai, Maharashtra) UNDP implemented the Aquaculture Development Project in Northern Provinces of Vietnam for providing livelihoods through aquaculture specially managed by women with appropriate microfinance support. Loan recovery was 95% in the project. Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) has replicated the project in other parts of the country. United States of America Sustainable Rural Communities Programme (from Suman K Apparusu, Change Planet Partners Climate Innovation Foundation (CPPCIF), Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh) The Partnership integrates housing, transportation, environmental policy, coordinates federal investments to yield better results by meeting multiple economic, environmental and community
  • 13. objectives. For example, communities, and other stakeholders are provided assistance to clean up and develop brownfields into green areas. Read more Related Resources Recommended Documentation Water management in developing country: A case study of a watershed development program in the state of Bihar, India (from Ashok Ghosh, Department of Environment and Water Management, A. N. College, Patna, Bihar) Paper; by Ghosh A., Bose N., Kroesen O, Bruining H., Bawane V.H, Chaubey P.K.; Delft University of Technology; Netherlands. Available at http://repository.tudelft.nl/view/ir/uuid%3A84a3d0dd-9e06-4895-a260- 56d4ca963fc6/ (HTML) The case studies highlight the importance of participatory approach in effective watershed management. From DSK Rao, Gyantech Information Systems (P) Ltd., Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh Inclusive Growth in Agriculture and 127 Other Vocations Through Design of Integrated Community Information System and it’s implementation by customization of ‘Web Based ERP’ Paper; by DSK Rao; Gyantech Information Systems (P) Ltd., Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. Available at ftp://ftp.solutionexchange.net.in/public/clmt/cr/res07041201.pdf (PDF; 64.5 KB) The paper provides details of implementing Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) at the Panchayat level. Transformation of Waste Land into Green Belt In Jodhpur Article; by Varun Arya; Jodhpur, Rajasthan; October, 2011 Available at http://www.esamskriti.com/essay-chapters/Transformation-of-Wasteland-into- Greenbelt-in-Jodhpur-1.aspx (HTML) The article provides information regarding conversion of saline waste land to green belt by Aravali Institute of Management. From Suman K Apparusu, Change Planet Partners Climate Innovation Foundation (CPPCIF), Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh NREGA - A review of decent work and green jobs in Kaimur district in Bihar Report; by Raghwesh Ranjan and Kiran Sharma; Development Alternatives Group; New Delhi; 2 July 2010. Available at http://www.ilo.org/newdelhi/info/WCMS_142539/lang--en/index.htm (PDF 3.3 MB) The study assessed the decent Work and environmental dimensions of the existing jobs created under NREGS. Study on Environmental and Social Aspects of Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) Report; by LEA Associates South Asia Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi; New Delhi; February, 2004. Available at http://pmgsy.nic.in/archives/esmf/dacc.pdf (PDF; 1.5 MB) The report highlights the potential environmental and social risks in implementation of PMGSY and recommends associated mitigation mechanisms. Supporting Sustainable Rural Communities
  • 14. Report; by U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA);; USA; 2011. Available at http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/pdf/2011_11_supporting-sustainable-rural- communities.pdf (PDF; 2.8 MB) The report elaborates on the Partnership for Sustainable Communities program being implemented by several government agencies in USA. Distribution Reform, Upgrades and Management (DRUM) (from Alex Thomas, Department of Environment, SHIAT University of Agricultural Sciences, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh) Information Platform; by USAID-India; New Delhi; 2004. Available at http://www.usaid.gov/in/our_work/health/environment_doc1.htm (HTML) The program is being implemented to upgrade and transform the electricity distribution sector in India. P3 (Public-Private-Panchayat) model for IREP Programme in Karnataka State (from S. N. Srinivas, UNDP, New Delhi) Paper; by N Sivasailam, Ritu Kakkar, S N Srinivas, Yabbati Nagaraju, C K Jalajakshi and H H Ninga Setty;Bangalore, Karnataka; 2004 Available at ftp://ftp.solutionexchange.net.in/public/clmt/cr/res07041207.pdf (PDF ; 822 KB) The paper describes in detail the cluster village plan based on the P3 – model, i.e. Public- Private-Panchayat partnership. Environment and Poverty Times No. 7 (from Satya Prakash Mehra & Sarita Mehra, Rajputana Society of Natural History Udaipur, Rajasthan) Newsletter; by United Nations Environment Program (UNEP); Norway; February, 2012. Available at http://www.grida.no/publications/et/ep7/ (HTML) The newsletter highlights the water management activities across different countries. Man creates forest single-handedly on Brahmaputra sand bar (from Gautam Choudhury, National Informatics Centre, Ministry of Communications & Information Technology, Government of India, Guwahati, Assam) Article; by The Asian Age; Itanagar; 25 March, 2012 Available at http://www.asianage.com/india/man-creates-forest-single-handedly-brahmaputra- sand-bar-972 (HTML) The article provides details of conservation of a forest area planted by government through efforts of a community member. From K N Vajpai, Climate Himalaya, Dehradun, Uttarakhand Does Green Matter? Article; by Dr. Sudhirendar Sharma; Climate Himalaya; New Delhi; 16 September 2011. Available at http://chimalaya.org/2011/09/16/does-green-matter/ (HTML) The article highlights the challenges in transition to green economy that will cost an average annual investment of no less than US$ 1.3 trillion. Watch The Shades Of `Green Economy’ Article; by Dr. Sudhirendar Sharma; Climate Himalaya; New Delhi; 27 October 2011. Available at http://chimalaya.org/2011/10/27/watch-the-shades-of-green-economy/ (HTML) The article highlights that putting price tag on natural services can open a Pandora’s box of conflicting situations. From Raj Jani, Jaipur, Rajasthan
  • 15. Scorched Land Now Verdant Campus Article; by Purba Kalita; Organization; 1st Holistic.Com. Available at http://www.1stholistic.com/reading/prose/A2007/power-of-vision-and-might.htm (HTML) The article highlights the efforts by Aravali Institute of Management at Jodhpur in greening the institute's campus. Aravali Site: The Transformation Video; by Jagdeesh Saraik; Youtube; 11 January, 2012. Available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hx7e3-bJXM (Video) The video informs regarding the transformation of saline land to green area in Jodhpur. Synthesis Report: Effects of Climate Change in Western Orissa Rural Livelihoods Project (WORLP) (from Shantanu Mitra, DFID - China) Report; by Dr Satyanarayan, Dr Bhabani Das, Mr Ashok Singha and Ms Lopamudra; DFID; New Delhi; 2010. Available at ftp://ftp.solutionexchange.net.in/public/clmt/cr/res07041202.pdf (PDF; 3.5 MB) The report elaborates the impacts of climate change in areas where WORLP project is being implemented. From Ritu Bharadwaj, DFID India, British High Commission, New Delhi Climate Change Impact Assessment Study: Risk Management, Adaptation and Mitigation Co-benefits for Madhya Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Project (MPRLP) Report; by Dr. Kinsuk Mitra, Rishu Gargitle, Sunpreet Kaur, Md. Aatish Khan and Neeraj Srivastava; Winrock International; New Delhi; February 2012. Available at ftp://ftp.solutionexchange.net.in/public/clmt/cr/res07041203.pdf (PDF; 3.35 MB) The report provides details of the impact of MPRLP on vulnerability reduction and low carbon development. Success Stories of Madhya Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Project (MPRLP) Success Stories; by Winrock International; New Delhi; February 2012; Available at ftp://ftp.solutionexchange.net.in/public/clmt/cr/res07041204.pdf (PDF; 952 KB) The document includes success stories of the MPRLP project and best practices compilation, Developing Green Skills for Green Entrepreneurship (from Ananya Bhattacharya, i-land informatics Limited, Kolkata, West Bengal) Article; by Ananya Bhattacharya; Banglanatak Dot Com; Kolkata, West Bengal; 2012. Available at ftp://ftp.solutionexchange.net.in/public/clmt/cr/res07041205.pdf (PDF; 80 KB) The article highlights the initiatives related to development of green entrepreneurship in Bihar and West Bengal amongst rural artisans. Village Energy Security Programme (VESP) (from Rajshekar, Centre for Environment Education, New Delhi) Case Studies; by Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE); New Delhi; 2011. Available at http://mnre.gov.in/file-manager/UserFiles/case_study_vesp.htm (HTML) The platform provides details of the successful projects implemented through VESP. Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) (from Devendra Sahai, Global Warming Reduction Centre (GWRC), New Delhi ame, Organization, Location) Article; by Devendra Sahai; Global Warming Reduction Centre (GWRC); New Delhi; 2012. Available at ftp://ftp.solutionexchange.net.in/public/clmt/cr/res07041206.pdf (PDF; 64 KB)
  • 16. The article provides information regarding the activities within the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) of GWRC. Rajasthan tackles drought through pokhars (from Arun Jindal, Society for Sustainable Development, Karauli, Rajasthan) Article; by Neha Sakhuja; Down To Earth; Rajasthan; 2007. Available at http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/node/37121 (HTML) The study highlights projects in Rajasthan implemented for tackling drought using Pokhars. Engendering the Climate for Change: Policies and practices for gender-just adaptation (from Aditi Kapoor, Alternative Futures, New Delhi) Report; by Aditi Kapoor; Alternative Futures; New Delhi; 2011. Available at http://alternativefutures.org.in/userfiles/Engendering%20the%20Cilmate%20for%20Change.pdf (PDF 7.41 MB) The report highlights that climate change would put an extra pressure on women activities ranging from agriculture, fetching water to fodder collection. Implementing Integrated Natural Resource Management Projects under the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 (from Rahul Kumar, PRADAN, New Delhi) Resource book; by Professional Assistance for Development Action (PRADAN); New Delhi. Available at http://www.pradan.net/images/Media/inrm_eng_prelim_pages.pdf (PDF; 1.14 MB) The resource book could be utilized to identify opportunities with an INRM perspective for generating wage employment under NREGA. Iron Gabion to Human Gabion in Social Forestry under NREGA (from B. Muralidharan, Feinbroth Consulting, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh) Presentation; by Shri. S.M Raju; Rural Development Department, Bihar; 2009. Available at http://www.nrega.net/csd/Forest/field-initiatives/Bihar.pdf (PDF; 1 MB) The presentation elaborates on the need for implementing human gabion project for creating employment and protecting trees. From Karen Thorst, Humana People to People India, Rajasthan Lessons Learnt from the Practical Experience of Scaling Up the Water Related Technologies at the Community Level Report; by Humana People to People India (HPPI) and International Water Management Institute (IWMI) Available at http://www.gaia-movement.org/files/HPPI%20Report%202.pdf (PDF; 728 KB) Contain experiences of 3,000 farming families and 10 villages participating in the Challenge Program for Water and Food in Alwar District. Analysis of Issues in the Delivery, Adoption and Long Term Interest by Farmers to Carry Out Farmer Led Research Report; by Humana People to People India (HPPI) and International Water Management Institute (IWMI) Available at http://www.gaia-movement.org/files/HPPI%20Report%203.pdf (PDF; 1.46 MB) Findings state that the needs of the farmers and their interest can be taken care of by making them equal partner in the project implementation. The Forest Rights Act (from Achyut Das, Agragamee, Rayagada) Act; Available at http://www.forestrightsact.com/ (HTML)
  • 17. The Act recognises forest dwellers' rights and makes conservation more accountable. Recommended Contacts and Experts From Raghwesh Ranjan, Institute of Development Studies (IDS), Brighton, United Kingdom Kiran Sharma, Development Alternatives (DA), New Delhi B-32, TARA Crescent, Qutub Institutional Area, New Delhi 110016; Tel: 91-11-26134103; Fax: 91-11-26130817; ksharma2@devalt.org; www.devalt.org Professional working with DA conducted a study about MGNREGA from the perspective of decent work and environmental sustainability. Zeenat Niazi, Development Alternatives (DA), New Delhi B-32, TARA Crescent, Qutub Institutional Area, New Delhi 110016; Tel: 91-11-26134103; Fax: 91-11-26130817; zniazi@devalt.org; www.devalt.org; Associated with DA and has experience in conducting studies about MGNREGA from the perspective of environment sustainability along with promotion of decent work. S. M. Raju, Government of Bihar, Bihar (from M. Muralidharan, Feinbroth Consulting, Greater Noida) Divisional Commissioner, Munger Division Worked for promoting Social Forestry under MGNREGS that addresses not only social exclusion but provides sustainable solutions to livelihoods issues of the poor. Sandeep Tambe, Government of Sikkim, Sikkim (from B. Panda, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya) Special Secretary and Nodal Officer, MGNREGS, Department of Rural Management and Development, Sikkim Has considerable experience of greening Rural Sikkim through MGNREGS and other rural development programmes. From Rahul Kumar Achintya Ghosh, Professional Assistance for Development Action (PRADAN), New Delhi E-1/A, Kailash Colony, Ground Floor and Basement, Kailash Colony, New Delhi 110048; Tel: 91- 11-29248826; achintyaghosh@pradan.net; http://www.pradan.net/index.php?option=com_frontpage&Itemid=1; Has immense experience in implementing and managing PRADAN's integrated work in the area of natural resource management and livelihood promotion. Dibyendu Chaudhry, Professional Assistance for Development Action (PRADAN), New Delhi E-1/A, Kailash Colony, Ground Floor and Basement, Kailash Colony, New Delhi 110048; Tel: 91- 11-29248826; dibyendu@pradan.net;http://www.pradan.net/index.php?option=com_frontpage&Itemid=1; Expert is working on promotion of rural livelihoods through natural resource management and environmental conservation. From Ashok Ghosh, Department of Environment and Water Management, A. N. College, Patna, Bihar
  • 18. K. K. Sharma, Indian Rural Association (IRA), Banka, Bihar ira_jharkhand@rediffmail.com Director of IRA involved in implementation of watershed management project in Bihar. Nabin Roy, NABARD, Bhagalpur and Bankaame, Bihar rnabin@yahoo.com District Development Manager at NABARD providing financial support to initiatives within the watershed management project in Bihar. Partrhasarathi Mukhopadhyay, Bengal Engineering and Science University (BESU), Shibpur, West Bengal (from Rabi Mukhopadhyay, Forum of Scientists, Engineers & Technologists (FOSET), Kolkata, West Bengal) http://www.becs.ac.in/ The expert could be involved in promotion of green construction in rural areas. From Arun Jindal, Society for Sustainable Development, Karauli, Rajasthan Sachin Sachdeva, ARAVALI, Jaipur, Rajasthan Patel Bhawan, HCM RIPA, Jawahar Lal Nehru Marg, Jaipur - 302017, Rajasthan; Tel: 0145- 2671853.; aravali-rj@nic.in; http://www.aravali.org.in/ The expert is working on rural development programs focusing on livelihood creation and Natural Resource Management. Jaipal Singh, Center for Micro Finance, Jaipur, Rajasthan Centre for microFinance (CmF), 30, Jai Jawan Colony II, Tonk Road Near Durgapura, Jaipur; Tel: 91-141-2546037; http://www.cmfraj.org/ The professional could be involved for supporting green initiatives through microfinance in rural areas. Hira Lal Rai, Zila Vikas Parishad, Jaipur, Rajasthan Jaipur Zila Vikas Parishad, 80/179, Maharishi Gautam Marg, Mansarover, Jaipur – 302 020; Tel: 91-992-807-1112.; Fax: 91-141-2786340; jzvp@jaipurparishad.org; http://www.jaipurparishad.org/ The professional is working with organization promoting sustainable livelihoods in rural areas of Rajasthan. G. V. Ramanjaneyulu, Centre for Sustainable Agriculture (CSA), Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh (from P. S. M. Rao, Independent Researcher, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh) 12-13-445, Street no-1 Tarnaka, Secunderabad 500 017; http://www.csa-india.org/ Expert is promoting adoption of sustainable agriculture through adoption of new technologies. Recommended Organizations and Programmes Institute of Public Auditors of India (IPAI), New Delhi(from Dhirendra Krishna, New Delhi) Institute of Public Auditors of India 223 2nd Floor C Wing AGCR Building I P Estate New Delhi 110002; Tel: 011-23702369.; Fax: 011-23702295; ipai@bol.net.in; http://www.ipaiindia.org/ 2-line abstract (between 25-30 words. Include keyword terms) From Satya Prakash Mehra & Sarita Mehra, Rajputana Society of Natural History, Udaipur, Rajasthan
  • 19. Rajputana Society of Natural History (RSNH), Rajasthan Shanti Kutir, Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur 321001; Contact Dr. Satya Prakash Mehra; Scientific Advisor; drspmehra@yahoo.com RSNH works in the north-eastern region of Rajasthan on rain water harvesting, waste water treatment, recharging of wells and livelihood promotion. Natural Solutions (NS), Maharashtra 301, Sudama Chhatra CHS.Near Saibaba Mandir, Pandurang Wadi,Dombivli (East) 421201; Tel: 91-251-2881173; Contact Dr. Ajith S. Gokhale; ajit.naturalsolutions@gmail.com Organization involved in promoting rainwater harvesting in rural and urban areas, water recycling, organic farming as well as environmental literacy. Shohratgarh Environmental Society (SES), Uttar Pradesh(from Sandeep Srivastava, Shohratgarh Environmental Society (SES), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh) 9, Prem Kunj, Adarsh Colony Shohratgarh, Siddharth Nagar-272205 Uttar Pradesh; Tel: 05544- 263271.; http://sesindia.org/. SES is working on agriculture, food security, livelihood, health, education, disaster management, water and environment related issues. Climate Himalaya, Uttarakhand(from K N Vajpai, Climate Himalaya, Dehradun, Uttarakhand) Secretariat, O/o Prakriti group, P.O. Silli (Agastyamuni), District-Rudraprayag, State-Uttarakhand India. Pin: 246 421; Tel: 91-7607481242; info@chimalaya.org; http://chimalaya.org/ The organization is involved in knowledge networking through innovative means to develop adaptation actions in Himalayan region. Fragrance & Flavour Development Centre (FFDC), Uttar Pradesh(from P.S. Ojha, Bio- energy Mission Cell, Department of Planning, Government of Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow) 107-A, Industrial Estate, Fazal Ganj, Kanpur -208012, Uttar Pradesh, India; Tel: 0512-2216731; ffdcknj@gmail.com; http://www.ffdcindia.org/ The centre serves, sustains and upgrades the status of farmers and industry engaged in essential oil, fragrance & flavour activities. From Ramit Basu, New Delhi Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Rajasthan CAZRI, Jodhpur - 342 003, Rajasthan India; Tel: 91-291-2786584.; Fax: 91-291-2788706; director@cazri.res.in; http://www.cazri.res.in/ The organization is promoting energy plantations in arid zones of Western Rajasthan which have resulted in income generation for SHGs and Youth Groups. Action for Social Advancement (ASA), Madhya Pradesh E-5/A, Girish Kunj, Above State Bank of India (Shahpura Branch), Bhopal - 462 016, Madhya Pradesh; Tel: 91-755-405 7926.; Fax: 91-755-4057925; asa@asabhopal.org; http://www.asaindia.org/. The organization is involved in watershed development activities in Western Madhya Pradesh, Eastern Gujarat and Southern Rajasthan. Gene Campaign, New Delhi Gene Campaign, J-235/A, Lane W-15C, Sainik Farms, New Delhi-110 062; Tel: 91-11-29556248; Fax: 91-11-29555961; mail@genecampaign.org; http://www.genecampaign.org/ The organization is promoting conservation and multiplication of indigenous varieties of rice, millets etc. through setting up of seed banks,
  • 20. National Centre for Human Settlements and Environment, Madhya Pradesh E-5/A, Girish Kunj, Arera Colony, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, Pin: 462016; Tel: 091-0755- 2463731; Fax: 091-0755-2465651; nchsebpl@gmail.com; http://www.nchse.org/ NCHSE is working on watershed management, integrated development of rural areas, afforestation, etc. From Rabi Mukhopadhyay, Forum of Scientists, Engineers & Technologists (FOSET), Kolkata, West Bengal Forum of Scientists, Engineers & Technologists (FOSET), West Bengal http://www.fosetonline.org/; Contact Rabi Mukhopadhyay; rabimukh@gmail.com FOSET is a group of conscious and socially committed scientists, engineers and related professionals. International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR), China No. 8, Fu Tong Dong Da Jie, Wang Jing Area, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100102, P.R. China; Tel: 86-10-6470 6161.; Fax: 86-10-6470-2166; info@inbar.int; http://www.inbar.int/ Network involved in promotion of use of Bamboo and Rattan for livelihood generation and sustainable development. Centre for Climate Change and Environment Advisory (CCCEA), Dr. Marri Channa Reddy Human Resource Development (MCR HRD), Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh(from Neena Rao, Business Development & Policy Advocacy, CCCEA, MCR HRD Inst. Of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad) Dr. MCR HRD Institute of AP, Road No. 25, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad - 500 169, Andhra Pradesh; Tel: 040-23558026.; cccea.hyd@cccea.in; http://www.hrdiap.gov.in/html/center_ccceas.html. The centre is involved in developing and imparting expertise on issues relating to environment and climatic change. Development Alternatives, New Delhi(from Zeenat Niazi, Development Alternatives Group, New Delhi) B-32, TARA Crescent, Qutub Institutional Area, New Delhi - 110 016, India; Tel: 91-11- 26134103.; Fax: 91-11-26130817; tara@devalt.org; www.devalt.org Development Alternatives (DA) has acted as a research and action organisation, designing and delivering eco-solutions for the poor and the marginalised. Biomass Energy for Rural India, (from S. N. Srinivas, UNDP, New Delhi) Biomass Energy For Rural India Society ‘FORTI’ Campus, Doresani Palya, Arekere (MICO) Layout, Bannerghatta Road, Bangalore-560076; Tel: 91-080-26484931.; Fax: 91-080-26484930; bioenergyindia@gmail.com; http://www.bioenergyindia.in/ The project has implemented biomass based rural electrification projects in Karnantaka. Alternative Futures, New Delhi(from Aditi Kapoor, Alternative Futures, New Delh) B-177, East of Kailash, New Delhi 110 065, India; Tel: 91-11-2684-7668.; AFmailbox@gmail.com; http://alternativefutures.org.in/ Organization is focusing on creative and meaningful policy, social and technological alternatives for rural development. Integrated Development Management Technology & Services Pvt. Ltd. (from Nagendra P. Singh, Asian Society of Entrepreneurship Education and Development (ASEED) - International Institute of Development Management Technology (IDMAT), New Delhi)
  • 21. dm@idmatservices.org; http://www.idmatservices.org/ Organization provides support services on development education for multifaceted agencies. Centre for Good Governance, Andhra Pradesh(from Ramakrishna Nallathiga, Centre for Good Governance, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh) Road No. 25, (Dr. MCR HRD Institute of A.P. Campus), Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad 500033, Andhra Pradesh (India); Tel: 91-40-2354-1907.; Fax: 91-40-2354-1953; info@cgg.gov.in; http://www.cgg.gov.in/ Institution providing guidance on governance reforms to the state governments. Humana People to People India (HPPI), Rajasthan(from Karen Thorst) A - 179, Shivanand Marg, Malviya Nagar, Jaipur - 302017, Rajasthan; Tel: 91-141-2753616.; cdpjaipur@gmail.com; http://www.humana-india.org/ The organization is implementing Harit Sankalp (Greening Effect) project involving 3000 families leading to improvement of the local environment. Centre for Sustainable Agriculture (CSA), Andhra Pradesh(from P, S. M. Rao, Independent Researcher, Hyderabad) 12-13-445, Street No. 1 Tarnaka, Secunderabad 500017; Contact Dr. G. V. Ramanjaneyulu; Executive Director; ramoo.csa@gmail.com Organization involved in educating farmers about adopting the practice of sustainable agriculture by setting up demonstration farms. From Achyut Das, Agragamee, Rayagada, Odhisa National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), Maharashtra Plot No. C-24, "G" Block, Bandra-Kurla Complex, P. B. No 8121, Bandra (E), Mumbai 400051; Tel: 91-22-26539244.; Fax: 91-22-26528141; nabmcid@vsnl.com; http://www.nabard.org/roles/microfinance/index.htm Apex institution providing loans/funds to NGOs for natural resource management, forest and agricultural projects like the Wadi Project. Agragamee, Odhisha At Post Office Kashipur, District Rayagada 765015; Tel: 91-6865-285174; Fax: 91-6865-285174; agragamee@satyam.net.in; www.agragamee.org;; Contact Achyut Das; Director; achyutdas@agragamee.org Organization working with tribal communities for livelihood enhancement through natural resource management and forest conservation. From Nagendra P. Singh, Asian Society of Entrepreneurship Education and Development (ASEED) - International Institute of Development Management Technology (IDMAT), New Delhi Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) Ministry of Agriculture; http://india.gov.in/citizen/agriculture/viewscheme.php?schemeid=1293; Aims at achieving 4% annual growth in the agriculture sector during the XI Plan period, by ensuring a holistic development of Agriculture and allied sectors. Asian Society of Entrepreneurship Education and Development (ASEED) - International Institute of Development Management Technology (IDMAT), Delhi Aseed House, C-8/8007, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi 110070; Tel: 91-11-26130242; Fax: 91-11- 26130242; training@aseedinternational.com; http://www.aseedinternational.com/about.htm
  • 22. Works in the field of development management and makes contribution in the area of livelihood creation and sustainable development. The Goat Trust, Uttar Pradesh(from Sanjeev Kumar) 529 Ka. 54A Khurram Nagar Lucknow; Tel: 91-522-4102995; Contact Sanjeev Kumar; Chief Executive Officer; Tel: 91-9956059595; sanjeevconsultant1@gmail.com Works for livelihood promotion of the poor through goat rearing and developing a model called Greening Goats Field Approach. From Biplab K. Paul, Lokvikas, Ahmedabad Lokvikas, Gujarat Saket House, 1, Panchsheel Society, Usmanpura, Ahmedabad 380013, Gujarat, India; Tel: 91-79- 7551931.; teamleader@lokvikas.org; http://www.lokvikas.org/ Lokvikas is a public charitable trust and is implementing projects to achieve sustainable development. Rural Innovation and Farming (RIF) Venture, India 54, 1st Cross, Domlur Layout, Bangalore 560071; Tel: 91-80-42745777; info@ashoka.org; http://india.ashoka.org/rural-innovation-and-farming-rif-venture Ashoka will support a wide range of innovative work in areas from land improvement to citizen participation systems to improve public policy. World Bank, New Delhi 70, Lodhi Estate, New Delhi – 110003; Tel: 91-11-24617241.; Fax: 91-11-24619393.; http://www.worldbank.org.in/ It assists various state-level and national level projects through its agriculture and rural development programme. Aga Khan Foundation (AKF), New Delhi Sarojini House, 6 Bhagwan Dass Road, New Delhi 110001; Tel: 91-11-47399700.; Fax: 91-11- 2378 2174; Email; www.akdn.org Organization is focusing on development of the marginalized communities and awards innovations in the field of agricultural development. Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY), Himachal Pradesh(from Archana Vaidya, Indian Environment Law Offices (IELO), New Delhi) Ministry of Rural Development, Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi 110001; Tel: 91-11-23782373.; Fax: 91-11-23385876.; http://pmgsy.nic.in/ Launched in 2000, it aims to provide all weather road connectivity in rural areas of the country. Society for Natural Resources Management and Community Development (SNRMCD), Ghaziabad(from Sejuti Sarkar De) C 30, Divine Park View Apartment, Abhay Khand III, Indirapuram, Ghaziabad 201014; Tel: 91- 120-6487969.; www.snrmcd.in Organization involved in sustainable management of the natural resources through empowerment of communities including women. Professional Assistance for Development Action (PRADAN), Odisha(from Rahul Kumar) E-1/A, Kailash Colony, Ground Floor and Basement, Kailash Colony, New Delhi 110048; Tel: 91- 11-29248826; Fax: 91-11-26514682; headoffice@pradan.net; http://www.pradan.net/
  • 23. Promotes Self-Help Groups, develops locally suitable economic activities, mobilizes finances and introduces systems to improve sustainable livelihoods of the rural poor. From Satyabrata Guru Western Orissa Rural Livelihood Project (WORLP), Odisha Watershed Mission Complex, Siripur, Bhubaneswar 751003; Tel: 91-674-2397308/309; Fax: 91- 674-2397988; general@worlp.com; http://www.worlp.com/default.aspx The project supports livelihoods of the poorest in four districts of Odhisha and works with the goal of promoting more effective approaches to sustainable rural livelihoods. Department for International Development (DFID)- United Kingdom, New Delhi British High Commission, B-28 Tara Crescent, Qutab Institutional Area New Delhi 100016; Tel: 91-11-26529123.; Fax: 91-11-26529296; enquiry@dfid.gov.uk; http://www.dfid.gov.uk/Where- we-work/Asia-South/India/?tab=0 Bilateral agency providing financing the WORLP project supports livelihood promotion through watershed management. Orissa Watershed Development Mission (OWDM), Odisha Watershed Mission Complex Siripur, Bhubaneswar 751003 Orissa; Tel: 91-674-2397309; Fax: 91- 674-2397988; owdm@worlp.com; http://www.orissawatershed.org/owdm.php; It plans, monitors, supervises and implements all watershed programmes in a coordinated manner in the State. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS), New Delhi Ministry of Rural Development, Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi 110001; Tel: 91-11-23782373.; Fax: 91-11-23385876.; http://www.rural.nic.in Poverty alleviation program of the government is guaranteeing 100 days of employment to the rural poor. Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD), New Delhi Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi 110001; Tel: 91-11-23782373.; Fax: 91-11-23385876; http://www.rural.nic.in Initiated SGSY, a poverty alleviation programme that provides micro credit and group insurance services to the poor through SHGs now transformed into NRLM. Recommended Portals and Information Bases basin- South Asia, Development Alternatives, New Delhi (from Zeenat Niazi, Development Alternatives Group, New Delhi) http://www.basinsa.net/taranet/websitepages/basinsadefault.aspx basin-South Asia Regional knowledge Platform (basin-SA) is committed to developing knowledge systems and promoting collaborative action within South Asia. Related Consolidated Replies Financing Adaptation to Climate Change, from Shantanu Mitra, DFID, New Delhi (Experiences; Advice). Climate Change Community, New Delhi, Issued 08 December 2010. Available at ftp://ftp.solutionexchange.net.in/public/clmt/cr/cr-se- clmt-18101001.pdf (PDF,160 KB)
  • 24. Experiences on innovative adaptation financing and advice regarding integrating adaptation financing into government budgetary processes. Involving Self Help Groups in Addressing Climate Change, from Mathews Mullackal, Green- Harmony, Kollam, Kerala (Experiences; Referrals). Climate Change Community and Microfinance Community, New Delhi, Issued 23/August/2010. Available at ftp://ftp.solutionexchange.net.in/public/clmt/cr/cr-se-clmt- mf-05071001.pdf (PDF,640 KB) Experiences of involving SHGs in tree plantation by providing innovative interest free credit through microfinance were highlighted. Micro Finance options for access to clean energy, from Svati Bhogle, Sustaintech India Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, Karnataka, India (Experiences; Referrals). Climate Change and Microfinance Community, New Delhi, Issued 08/November/2011. Available at ftp://ftp.solutionexchange.net.in/public/clmt/cr/cr-se- clmt-mf-10101101.pdfl (PDF,104 KB) Includes innovative models, methods, mechanisms to provide microfinance services for purchase of fuel efficient energy products.. Enhancing Participation of Women in the Green Economy, from Karuna A. Singh, Earth Day Network, Kolkata, West Bengal (Experiences; Advice). Climate Change Community, New Delhi, Issued 20/January/2012. Available at ftp://ftp.solutionexchange.net.in/public/clmt/cr/cr-se-clmt- 16121101.pdf (PDF,308 KB) 2-Includes suggestions for enhancing participation of women in green economy and in technical education particularly in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Responses in Full Ashok Ghosh, Department of Environment and Water Management, A. N. College, Patna, Bihar My research group is working on watershed management in Banka District of rural Bihar since last five years. A vast tract which was barren and sterile in the early stages of our work has been converted in green tract with active collaboration of academia (Dept. of Environment and Water Management ,A. N. College, Patna); Financial Institution, National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD),local community and NGO (Indian Rural Association). A research paper has been also presented by us related to this work in European Roundtable on Sustainable Consumption and Production- Environmental Management for Sustainable Universities (ERSCP-EMSU) International Conference held at Technical University, Delft, The Netherlands in 2010. The paper emphasizes that it has for long been assumed that low-income communities do not know their infrastructure needs, so that decisions have been made by authorities without obtaining information and understanding of household and agricultural water demand. This top- down approach has been the reason for the failure of many water management initiatives, particularly in areas of erosion and reduced soil fertility.
  • 25. Watershed management plays a crucial role in sustainable development along the dry northern fringe of the Indian Peninsula. Two such watershed schemes of Banka District in the state of Bihar, India – Baratanr and Heth Chanan watersheds, both located in the Chandan drainage basin – have been studied to assess the impact on the environment and society, The methodology involved field study, obtaining data on various physical and social parameters, inputs from maps and GPS data, GIS mapping and final analysis. It is found that there are increases in surface water availability, ground water level and soil moisture. Rapid soil erosion due to deforestation is controlled both by treatment and by reforestation procedures. Immediate impact is felt in agriculture productivity, with an increase of irrigated land and single cropping gradually giving way to multiple cropping patterns. The case studies show the importance of participatory approach in effective watershed management. Notable also is the innovation in standard procedures of watershed management that is based upon traditional knowledge and existing resources. Ultimately the sustainability of these projects is gradually paving the way for socio-economic development and gender equity of the otherwise deprived zone The paper can be downloaded through the following link of the Institutional Repository of TU Delft: http://repository.tudelft.nl/view/ir/uuid%3A84a3d0dd-9e06-4895-a260-56d4ca963fc6/ The focal persons for this work are: Academia - Dr. Ashok Kumar Ghosh - Professor In charge, Dept. of Environment and Water Management (EWM), A. N. College, Patna NGO – Mr. K.K.Sharma - Director, Indian Rural Association (IRA) ,Banka, Bihar Financial Institution -Mr. Nabin Roy -District Development Manager of NABARD at Bhagalpur and Banka More details may be provided as per requirements. Satya Prakash Mehra & Sarita Mehra, Rajputana Society of Natural History Udaipur, Rajasthan Greetings from Rajasthan! As per the need of time, the steps taken by MoRD are appreciable. If we could provide opportunities for the rural people within their territory, by and large we could check urbanization, which is otherwise deteriorating the natural environment. Rajputana Society of Natural History (RSNH) is a registered organization working in the field of Nature Conservation & Environment Protection in the rural areas of Rajasthan. The prime focus is “Conservation Practices for Sustainable Livelihood". For the very first time, RSNH selected village Chak Ramnagar (Bharatpur, Rajasthan) as the model village for executing the work. Chak Ramnagar is a village of Banjara community (Gypsies of India). It was due to support of Drought Relief Trust (DRT) of Oil Industry Development Bank (OIDB) and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) work of Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) along with the technical guidance of Natural Solutions, Mumbai; a plan of improvement of the water problem was executed under the Project Boond through community participation in 2009-10: (http://www.grida.no/publications/et/ep7/).
  • 26. After solving the water problems of the village, the community people especially women and children were encouraged for other conservation activities (Let us share with you that it was possible only due to the availability of water within the village which was otherwise carried from other sources in nearby villages at a distance of two kilometres and more). The Self Help Groups (SHGs) of the women were formed and they were trained by RSNH Team in utilizing the waste in forming artefacts. The banjara women have their own cultural and traditional art of making handicrafts from the local plant species especially grasses. They were encouraged to revive their traditional art. Further, the convincing step of the Forest Department, Keoladeo National Park (KNP) - World Heritage Site to provide the platform via Eco Development Committee (EDC) for the sale of those articles ignited the inner instinct of the community to move ahead. During the execution, RSNH Team focused on few points which are of great importance but are mostly overlooked by implementing agencies: Involvement of local community in planning of the work for resolving local problems. Due respect to the traditional heritage and experiential approach of the old people of the community related to their traditional knowledge on the subject of water (let us share you with..... banjara community is known for their traditional knowledge of water storage and harvesting. It is evident from the pokhars- talaos/ lakes, baories/ tanks/ wells etc. in the arid & semi-arid land of Rajasthan & Gujarat); Local sources of income in form of natural heritage or cultural heritage; Community participation at every step from planning to execution of the project; Encouraging gender equality and children at every level; etc. Today, not only the community is engaged in resolving local environmental problems on their own but also acting as mentors for other villages in resolving their problems. The income generation within the village has inducted the community to revive their local heritage for the betterment of their community as well as nature/ environment. Thus, we would like to share that whatever work plan is prepared that should be linked with the benefit for the local community in such a manner so that they are self-dependent. The capacity building of the locals should be taken up on top priority keeping in view the local traditions and heritage linked with local employment/ income generation which are more eco-centric and eco- friendly than those planned by external agencies. RSNH (www.rsnh.org) and its Team could be used in Rajasthan by any group/organization along with expertise of the team members in the field of Capacity Building, Resources Development, and Training Programs for the Stakeholders, Scientific Intervention, etc. Also, one could take advantage of the approach of Natural Solutions for the environmental problems being faced all over the country. DSK Rao, Gyantech Information Systems (P) Ltd., Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (Response 1) Greetings! I had attended the launch of 'Prime Minister's Rural Development (PMRD) Fellows Programme' on 7th April 2012 at APARD, Hyderabad which was graced by both Hon. Minister for Rural Development Sh. Jairam Ramesh & Hon. Minister of Panchayati Raj & Tribal Affairs - Shri Kishore Chandra Deo. Both the ministers have genuinely expressed their keen desire for 'Inclusive Development'.
  • 27. Sadly, however, the programme leaflet explains that the programme is to have 158 PMRD fellows for 78 backward districts showing common characteristics like high poverty ratio, high forest cover and low human development indicators. No Root Cause Analysis (RCA) was done to find out why these 78 'green' districts are so backward even after 64 years of Independence and the suggested Metrics & Model that would be followed at least now to guarantee sustainable development. Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS) is facilitating the PMRD Fellows Programme. The Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) proposed by us as a model can be deployed at the Panchayat level covering vocations like farming, horticulture, Dairy Farming and many more as best Practices are introduced for every vocation/activity of the community to achieve the desired objectives. As an example for Farming the Best Practices can be on creating a value chain with introduction of a Dairy Farm and using the manure as Fertilizer and the Cow’s urine with other bio substances like NEEM cakes etc. for bio pesticides or having vermi-compost plant or use drip irrigation methods or zero tillage farming or controlling the use of pesticides & fertilizers or predator keeping for pest control or apiculture for Hybrid Vigor and pollination or Multi Cropping or Water Shed harvesting or Wind Arresters by plants on Bunds or Solar Air Dryer Processing or Seed banks or Direct Selling or Zero Energy Cold Storage or Collective farming or any other techniques which help in sustained increase in productivity and decrease in costs. The details of this proposal have been sent to the Hon. Minister's office. Further information is available at: ftp://ftp.solutionexchange.net.in/public/clmt/cr/res07041201.pdf (PDF; 64.5 KB) I have an excellent case study of land use and water management including creating a 'Green Oasis' in almost a barren saline land in Jodhpur, Rajasthan. The effort can be taken as a lesson in Management, Technology and Ecological restoration by everyone. Please see link below for further details: http://www.esamskriti.com/essay-chapters/Transformation-of-Wasteland-into-Greenbelt-in- Jodhpur-1.aspx There have been other instances in a number of villages in Andhra Pradesh, where the community has joined hands together to build internal roads and roads to highways without seeking any financial support from the government. There are also several failed attempts by 'Forest Department' and other departments wherein tens of thousands of saplings were planted incurring huge expenditure which wither away in a short period of time due to improper care and follow up. Appropriate Models & Metrics are essential for any initiative and the rest is actualizing these through community involvement. Suman K Apparusu, Change Planet Partners Climate Innovation Foundation (CPPCIF), Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh It might be worthwhile to consider evaluating and extending the Monitoring & Evaluation frameworks developed by International Labour Organization (ILO) & Development Alternatives (DA) combine. The study developed a systematic approach for identifying and reviewing the Decent Work and environmental dimensions of existing jobs under NREGS. It includes recommendations for the further enhancement of the Decent Work and environmental dimensions of existing and future jobs under NREGS, including skills development. The assessment of Decent Work under NREGS was based on the assessment of the four pillars namely, employment, social protection, dialogue and rights related indicators. Further details are available at: http://www.ilo.org/newdelhi/info/WCMS_142539/lang--en/index.htm)
  • 28. The World Bank Environmental Code of Practice (ECoP) was applied to provide an unbiased review of the environmental and social aspects of the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY), to identify potential environmental and social risks and to recommend associated mitigation mechanisms for the identified risks. Details are available at: http://pmgsy.nic.in/archives/esmf/dacc.pdf. The above developed frameworks have already been used to assess the 'green' outcomes of the Government of India’s flagship programmes of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA) and Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY). On the international experiences, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA's) documentation of the Sustainable Rural Communities programmes may prove a useful starting point. Rural communities across America are working to strengthen their economies, provide better quality of life to residents, and build on assets such as traditional agriculture, natural amenities and resources. The Partnership for Sustainable Communities—made up of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)—is coordinating with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to reinforce these initiatives and ensure that the four agencies’ spending, policies, and programs support rural communities’ efforts to be economically vibrant and environmentally sustainable. It has developed “Partnership for Sustainable Communities Guiding Livability Principles” including: Providing transportation choices. Promoting equitable, affordable housing. Enhancing economic competitiveness. Supporting existing communities. Coordinating and leveraging federal policies and investment Valuing communities and neighborhoods The document further highlights the Common Strategic Framework (CSF) of ' innovative partnerships' among federal departments for programmatic success. Further details are available at: http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/pdf/2011_11_supporting- sustainable-rural-communities.pdf The experience exemplars, if standardized, for a generic green outcomes framework for flagship national rural development missions, can potentially pave the way for an integrated delivery mechanism through MoRD. Hope the inputs prove useful. Sandeep Srivastava, Shohratgarh Environmental Society (SES), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh Shohratgarh Environmental Society (SES) is an Uttar Pradesh based organization. We have been working on several social issues in Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Livelihood is one of our prime focus areas. The area that we are working in presently is flood prone. In the changing climate scenario, frequency of floods has increased. It affects yield of crops in the area. Rice is one of important crops in the area. I am sure, you have heard about System of Rice Intensification (SRI). We are practicing SRI with few farmers of District Siddharthnagar, UP. As it uses less water & enhances productivity,
  • 29. ultimately improving income for the farmers. SRI has potential for reducing vulnerability to impact of climate change. For example, SRI has been practiced to reduce the risk of ground water contamination and enhance soil quality, including water retention capacity of the soil which results in enhanced resilience of the natural resources base being impacted by multiple stresses, including those related to the climate. Keeping green rural development in mind, SRI can help the community to enhance its livelihood options. Further, we can also integrate MNREGA with SRI as it is in line with its objective of "land development” and “water conservation". It is my suggestion that before integrating MNREGA with SRI, one should evaluate carefully, the pros & cons involved. For example, MNREGA entitles a job to a manual laborer rather than to a farmer. In rural area, people interchange their employment role in order to suit their present needs. SRI can help in greening rural areas. Dhirendra Krishna, New Delhi One needs to address the problem of why "Greening" has acquired such a low priority in the schemes of socio-economic development in rural areas such as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (Rural Roads Programme), Rural Housing, National Social Assistance Programme, Integrated Watershed Development Programme, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Desert Development Programme (DDP) etc. . These schemes have centralized administrative control and highly decentralized implementation. There is a need for emphasizing the direct accountability of grass-root public authorities to the beneficiary of these schemes. Section 4 of Right To Information (RTI) Act provides the required legal framework which makes it obligatory to disclose and disseminate information required by citizens for holding public authorities accountable to them. This has to be implemented in letter and spirit by every public authority. If the provisions regarding "greening" are not properly implemented, the beneficiaries of the scheme need to step in to "audit" it. These issues were examined in a Workshop of Social Audit organized by the Institute of Public Auditors of India on 26-27 July, 2011. The proceedings are available at: http://www.ipaiindia.org/ Greening is an essential part of any project that alters the s ecology of the surroundings. MGNREGA has legal obligation to conduct social audit and "greening" could be a part of this exercise. As recommended in the Workshop, social audit should be extended to all development schemes. Grass-root implementing agencies could disclose and disseminate information to all citizens affected by the schemes, to enable direct accountability of personnel involved in these projects to the beneficiaries, apart from being accountable to their administrative superiors. Administrative aberrations such as over-stated achievement of physical targets can be avoided only in a regime of total transparency that enables physical verification of achievements reported by grass-root authorities. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) has a Chapter on Transparency and Accountability, Public Vigilance and Social Audit. NREGA envisages social audit as a continuous
  • 30. process at every stage of project formulation, implementation and review. Vulnerabilities at every stage have been identified and there are steps to ensure transparency. "Greening" is a vulnerable area, where progress reports may not show actual facts on ground. Similar provisions could be made mandatory for all centrally sponsored schemes. Ministry of Rural Development needs to frame guidelines for suo-moto disclosure and dissemination of information under section 4(2) of RTI Act, to enable every citizen to ascertain whether the reported "progress" actually exists on the ground. A proposal was sent to the Planning Commission as a follow-up of the recommendations of the Workshop on Social Audit and a response from them is awaited. Alex Thomas, Department of Environment, SHIAT University of Agricultural Sciences, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh I would like to share my response based on field experience on water management and rural power usage. This has reference to the Distribution Reform, Upgrades and Management (DRUM) project funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The Ministry of Power, Government of India, and USAID, India jointly designed the DRUM project to demonstrate "the best commercial and technological practices that improve the quality and reliability of 'last mile' power distribution in selected urban and rural distribution circles in the country". I happened to interact with the team and other NGO’s involved in similar work in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. My response is limited to rural power supply and involvement of the community for such projects. The idea is important as it reduces CO2 emission and brings about efficient water management practices. Details of the DRUM project are available at: http://www.usaid.gov/in/our_work/health/environment_doc1.htm The challenge: In rural areas power for irrigation is supplied during a particular time. In most cases the farmers leave their pumps “ON” so that it gets started as soon as the power is available. Secondly, pumps of higher capacity than required are installed by the farmers to avoid burning of motors. This contributes heavy load on the rural power supply network causing tripping and wastage of electricity. The solution: 1. Farmers in a watershed village could be made aware of ground water, its availability, sustainable usage for agriculture, suitable capacity of pumps required, required depth of irrigation for crops and the number hours required for the designed pump to operate. 2. It is crucial to emphasize on water harvesting structures and its relation to ground water levels. The quantity of ground water that could be drawn for each season by the community for agriculture and rural households needs to be ascertained. Simple measuring devices could be installed in existing wells and to consider necessary action in case water level falls. 3. Subsidy /incentives could be provided to farmers for installing the right capacity pumps required for their crops. Communities could be involved in collection of tariffs from the members and depositing the amount in the office of the power distribution agency. Mechanism for reporting malfunction and repairs could be established.
  • 31. Perhaps a research project on these important aspects could be considered. If the community is involved it is possible to reduce power wastage, have an efficient power supply, reduce cost of maintenance for the distribution agency. Gautam Choudhury, National Informatics Centre, Ministry of Communications & Information Technology, Government of India, Guwahati, Assam Mr. Jadav Payeng known as 'Mulai' amongst the local community helped grow a forest on a sand bar in the middle of the mighty Brahmaputra River in Assam's Jorhat district. The 30-year-long effort to grow the woods, stretching over an area of 550 hectares, has been hailed by the Assam Forest Department as 'exemplary'. He began work on the forest in 1980 when the social forestry division of Golaghat district launched a scheme of tree plantation on 200 hectares at Aruna, Chapori situated at a distance of five Kms from Kokilamukh in Jorhat district. He was one of the laborers who worked in the project which was completed in five years. He chose to stay back after the completion of the project not only to look after the plants but also to plant more trees on his own to slowly transform the area into a forest. The department plans to launch another plantation program in the area this year, as there is ample scope to extend the forest by another 1,000 hectares. The forest, known in Assamese as 'Mulai Kathoni' or Mulai forest, has around four tigers, three rhinoceros, over a hundred deer, rabbits besides apes and innumerable varieties of birds, including a number of vultures. It has several thousand trees among which are Valcol, Arjun, Ejar, Goldmohur, Koroi, Moj and Himolu. There are bamboo trees too covering an area of over 300 hectares. A herd of around 100 elephants regularly visits the forest every year and generally stay for around six months. They also gave birth to 10 calves in the forest in recent times. Mulai’s efforts were noticed by the forest department only during 2008 when a team of forest officials went to the area in search of a herd of 115 elephants that sneaked into the forest after damaging property of villagers at Aruna, Chapori, around 1.5 km from the forest. Mulai, an avid nature lover, has constructed a small house in the vicinity of the reserve and stays with his family which comprises wife, two sons and a daughter. He earns his living by selling milk of cows and buffalos. The state government has so far not provided any financial assistance except for the Forest Department which from time to time supplies him saplings for plantation. A few years back when poachers tried to kill the rhinos staying in the forest, Mulai alerted forest department officials. Various implements being used by the poachers to trap the animals were seized. Member of Parliament from Jorhat and former Minister for Development of North Eastern Region, Mr. B.K. Handique would recommend converting the area into a wildlife sanctuary. Details are available at: http://www.asianage.com/india/man-creates-forest-single-handedly-brahmaputra-sand-bar-972 Similar collaborative efforts between rural communities and government departments could lead to development of forest areas in several other rural areas, also.
  • 32. K N Vajpai, Climate Himalaya, Dehradun, Uttarakhand In my view the realization of 'Green' (economy, development, businesses, industries,..) from Sustainable Development almost took 20+ years. We are now aiming at something which is more of a new variant of economic development which diffuses the focus of people on the important dimensions of 'social' and 'environment' development by painting everything as 'green'. According to Dr. Sudhirendar Sharma in an article at Climate Himalaya's Expert column, “Why is the developed world that is obsessed with the idea of `greed economy’, thrusting its new capitalist variant – green economy – on the growing economies? Is it a calculated move to pin down the growing differences between the north and the south with a green business model? ...In its simplest expression, a green economy is low carbon, resource efficient, and socially inclusive. In a green economy, growth in income and employment should be driven by public and private investments that reduce carbon emissions and pollution, enhances energy and resource efficiency, and prevents the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. The crucial question remains: isn’t the `green economy’ pathway more appropriate for the debt-ridden western economies that have the onus of generating more jobs for their disgruntled youth?.. " He further says “....it has been acknowledged that nearly a quarter of greenhouse gas emissions is attributed to land use changes (agriculture and deforestation), the National Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation Bill 2011 is hinged on the inevitability of urbanization a’la land use change. Cities not only account for 75 per cent of energy consumption but 75 per cent of carbon emissions as well, and for the first time in history more than half of the world population lives in urban areas....". For details please visit: http://chimalaya.org/2011/09/16/does-green-matter/ The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 (MNREGA 2005) enacted by the Government of India aims at enhancing the livelihood security of people in rural areas by guaranteeing 100 days of wage-employment annually to an adult member of a rural household to do unskilled manual work. The major issues in this programme, as pointed out by the people in villages, think tanks and researchers are related to poor implementation process. This, they say, defeated the purpose of guaranteeing employment to the rural poor and ultimately gratified a different clan of people. It is perceived that the new Minister leading the scene is on his way to reforming the whole scenario of MNREGA and many such rural development programmes including rural drinking water and sanitation. He feels that a re-look into the aspects of agriculture, watershed management, horticulture, agro-forestry, various livelihood options (like fishery, poultry, craft making, etc.) etc. will in a real sense help the people in getting the guaranteed employment in a sustainable manner. In rural and urban context the Water Resources Ministry of Government of India is also revising its ‘water policy’ (since 2002) while the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation is looking seriously into its drinking water supply monitoring and quality systems and the ‘Total Sanitation Campaign’ (TSC; a sanitation drive of government of India) in its newer version with school sanitation as priority. On the water policy draft the Government of India also asked for suggestions from people, where questions are being raised regarding the deliberate inclusion of ‘business’ of water in the policy; given that water has two dimensions in India – the first one it’s a state subject and the other one has been declared as a basic ‘right’. While the present draft water policy document contains some inclusive provisions, there are speculations related to the implementation, monitoring and coordinated efforts in the direction of laid down provisions. On the rural sanitation front India could just crossed 40% coverage recently. However, the responsible ministry is planning to increase the provisions of subsidy and
  • 33. removing the divide of Above Poverty Line (APL) & Below Poverty Line (BPL) and village as a unit to have full sanitation coverage by 2022. As far as coordinated or integrated approach by the Rural Development Minister is concerned, he needs to consider that almost 20 years ago, the Planning commission of India clearly advised the government to restrict the numbers of programmes and improve the quality of programme implementation and fiscal management which has clearly remained the crux of the problem till now. The disconnect and linkages between major rural development programmes, like MNREGA, SSA (Sarva Siksha Abhiyan- Education for All Programme), NRHM (National Rural Health Mission), National Rural Livelihood Mission, Indira Aawas Yojana (Rural Housing Scheme), Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC), Rural Water Supply Programme, Integrated Child Development Scheme, Land Reform programme, Horticulture Mission, etc. are among the few those certainly need a serious thought on three important premises of Institutional Coordination, Financing and Monitoring. If required the number of programmes could be reduced or merged together for better results. To develop a programme/project or do a social audit in a rural development programme there should be adequate provisions for open discussion and debate, after which only the approval could be sent to the district or state level bodies for their action (mainly for technical support and release funds). Therefore, while devising new policies or revising the existing policies and plans, the poor and marginalized rural people of India want reassurance that they at first hand are involved in the process and discourse of development. This applies to all major sectors like water, agriculture, education, sanitation, land development, forest, livelihood, and housing, among others. In above context, the bureaucratic system needs a serious push in terms of giving more powers at the bottom of the pyramid (to the people) in planning, managing and auditing their progress in a systematic and planned way which is only possible when we empower and develop their (people’s) capacity at a level, where they can lead the scene. In this way not only government agencies, we need to also consider the institutional functioning of businesses, civil society groups and international agencies working in India in rural development sectors. In the words of Dr. Sharma, “In the run up to the Rio+20 conference, the world is likely to be painted green with optimism. For the west it offers an opportunity to divert attention from the core issue of curtailing its carbon-guzzling lifestyles. But should the developing world fall prey to the over-hyped but unsubstantiated gains from green economy projections is a billion-dollar question…." For details please visit: http://chimalaya.org/2011/10/27/watch-the-shades-of-green-economy/ Zeenat Niazi, Development Alternatives Group, New Delhi (Inputs also relevant for Indira Awas Yojana (IAY)) This is in response to query by Sumeeta Banerji on Greening of Rural Development Programs. Rural Housing and infrastructure development holds special importance in this case. The programs such as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) and Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) are designed to strengthen natural resource assets and are "green" at least considering the environmental aspects. However the social aspect of generating decent work and sustainable workplaces could be improved. The social infrastructure such as Anganwadis, Panchayat Bhavan's, schools and housing need attention towards greening.
  • 34. One clear approach could be the application of green/environment friendly and resource efficient construction technologies incorporating features such as rain water harvesting, ecological sanitation and waste management. This approach not only addresses the concerns of unsustainable extraction of resources such as soil, stones, water and reduces carbon footprints of buildings but also contributes to the creation of "green jobs" and promotes the "Green economy”. Through the large number of artisans skilled in green techniques of construction we could create the "green housing and habitat/social infrastructure and large number of local enterprises required to produce and supply green building materials. Several examples of such construction exist in many parts of India. Our own (Development Alternatives Group) experiences in Puducherry (post Tsunami reconstruction-2008/ 2009), Bathinda (social housing for the government of Punjab in association with Ambuja Cements Foundation-2010), Post Cyclone reconstruction in Orissa in association with CARE India (2001), Indira Awas Yojna, social housing project in Tikamgarh, Madhya Pradesh (1996, 2006, 2010- 2011), and those of our partners from the basin-South Asia network such as Trust for Village Self Governance (Tamil Nadu), Auroville Earth Institute (Puducherry), Maithri (Kerala) and Unnati (Rajasthan) amongst others have indicated that resource efficiencies in construction through green technologies such as Compressed Earth Blocks, Fly-Ash bricks, Rat-trap techniques of masonry, Micro-Concrete Roofing tiles, Pre-fabricated brick panels etc. contribute to reduction in virgin resource use such as soils and water. These lead to savings in cement and steel leading to reduction in both energy and resource use. They promote new green skills and production systems that are local and entrepreneurial in nature. New technologies of brick production such as the Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln (VSBK) produce bricks that consume 50% less energy thus contributing to GHG reduction. The Micro-Concrete Roofing (MCR) tiles and ferro-cement roofing channels use stone crusher waste, reduce cement, steel usage, reduce the energy and resource content of construction. The DA group has helped set up many small production units for the above mentioned technologies and trained a large number of artisans in the eco-construction techniques across India and also in some South Asian countries. The work of 180 strong artisan group TARA Karigar Mandal in Madhya Pradesh has indicated that it is possible to service the rural market through “green skills in construction and management” while also enhancing the quality of physical assets. Lessons from experiences indicate that the large scale greening of rural housing and social habitat infrastructure requires: Supports to small entrepreneurs for setting up supply chains of ecological materials that are resource efficient, reduce the use of virgin materials especially those identified as critical in ecologically sensitive zones. Active Promotion of alternative materials such as bricks from VSBK technology, fly-ash, stabilized compressed earth blocks, planks, MCR tiles, rat trap bond techniques etc. is required. Incentives such as tax rebates for producers of eco-materials and for contractors who provide related services could be provided. Interest subsidies to rural consumers who seek housing loans to construct eco-friendly houses can be considered. Inclusion of eco-materials and construction techniques in public procurement processes could be mandated. This will create a market for the producers of eco-materials and artisans.
  • 35. Current limitations are: • While BIS standards for some of these materials exist, states do not have Standard Schedule of Rates for the eco-techniques (Madhya Pradesh has initiated a process) and in absence of these, engineers cannot provide approvals for these techniques. • There is no technical, credit, management and market development support for producers of such materials. • Skill certification for artisans trained in eco-techniques is not formalized and as public buildings do not use their skills the market is constrained. • Public engineers are neither sensitized nor trained in application of eco-techniques and do not promote them. The public buildings in blocks, district towns and villages also do not use these materials and techniques Advantages can be summarized as: • The setting of small eco-materials production units across villages and block towns would enhance availability of eco-materials and provide green jobs leading to promotion of green economic growth. • There would be limited demand for virgin materials as efficiencies in construction are continuously promoted at all levels. All eco-techniques would eventually lead to “energy and carbon saving”. • The states could leverage the savings in carbon emissions to generate carbon credits and raise additional financing. Monitoring tools now exist to quantify emission reductions through utilization of such techniques. For details visit: www.devalt.org and www.basinsa.net Raj Jani, Jaipur, Rajasthan Aravali Institute of Management at Jodhpur is a noteworthy example of greening the institute's campus amidst adversaries including saline soil, harsh climate and rough terrain of a rural desert landscape. To build its campus, six years ago the management had purchased 236 bighas (around 94.4 acres) of private high salinity wasteland at Village Kaparda, Tehsil Bilara, District Jodhpur in Rajasthan. It was difficult to grow any plants or construct buildings as there was no water in and around the area. Ever since, the land has been painstakingly transformed. It now contains 15 lakes with around 6 crore litres of water collected through rain water harvesting structures. Migratory birds also visit the water bodies in the campus. Over 6000 trees have grown up to 15 feet tall and 60 solar lights have been installed. The campus contains 3 lawns of around 2.5 acres each, 6 smaller lawns, a meditation centre on the natural mound surrounded by 1500 plants, and vegetables grown organically. The campus also includes the Aravali Gurukul Ashram, the unique educational project combining traditions with modernity. Details are available at: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hx7e3-bJXM • http://www.1stholistic.com/reading/prose/A2007/power-of-vision-and-might.htm
  • 36. • http://www.esamskriti.com/essay-chapters/Transformation-of-Wasteland-into-Greenbelt- in-Jodhpur-1.aspx The interventions to develop the campus are worth emulating especially in the context of Greening of Rural Development Programmes. P.S. Ojha, Bio-energy Mission Cell, Department of Planning, Government of Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) is focusing on agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, sanitation etc. under MNREGA-II. We are working on herbal and aromatic crop cultivation program in the marginal lands of Uttar Pradesh. The routine agricultural practices are not affected due to the implementation of our project. The “Jeevan Shakti Pariyojna” has led to inspiring results. For example in Hamirpur, Jalaun and Jhansi in Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh farmers have started cultivation and visible sign of socio-economic changes are being observed. The Bio-energy Mission Cell of the Department of Planning, Government of Uttar Pradesh is working for development of renewable energy resources based on biological inputs. Bio-diesel production from Jatropha oil seeds is being considered. The projects would lead to employment opportunities for youth on a sustainable basis by end of 2017. The project is under plantation phase presently. A pilot biodiesel unit would be established in Kanpur by the end of May 2012. In the meantime, we have worked with UNICEF on our model “Agro-waste to energy project” under the slogan “Kachara Lao-biogas le jao (Come with agro-waste and get biogas totally free). After successful operation of the pilot units since 2007 we have published a report with UNICEF and Department of Panchayati Raj, Government of Uttar Pradesh highlighting the salient features of the project. Recently we have proposed to the Rural Electrification Corporation to install our model in the remote and non-electrified villages of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh for fulfilling the energy demands for cooking and lighting. The state level sanitation committee in UP will establish such units in each village in a phased manner under the solid waste management component of the Total Sanitation Campaign. We are providing technical guidance to concerned division of Government of Tripura for their initiative in one of the fishermen community in West Tripura to fulfill the local energy demands from biogas. The raw material to be used in Tripura would be Water Hyacinth that obstructs fishing activities. The District Collector of Banaskantha district of Gujarat has also proposed to establish our model at “Amba Devi Temple Trust” as part of their sanitation program. Your support to our model will help our community to be self reliant in their energy needs through local natural resources. Such steps would help our economy as well as environmental conservation. It is an effective method to implement the Gandhian model of economic development. The Shungul Committee has recently recommended energizing the rural community with population less than 500 in a similar manner. It will reduce the cost of electrification, its maintenance and would help replace Kerosene in the Public Distribution System. In addition we are working on the following projects: Safe disposal of floral waste from temples of Varanasi and Ghats of Ganges. It would be implemented with UNICEF, Department of Tourism, Government of Uttar Pradesh,
  • 37. Aghore Fooundation, various temple trusts and Fragrance and Flavor Development Centre (FFDC), Kannauj. Fragrance & Flavour Development Centre (FFDC) was set-up in 1991 by the Government of India with the assistance of UNDP / UNIDO and the Government of Uttar Pradesh (UP). UNDP/UNIDO had provided technical expertise and imported equipment. Government of UP had provided land, building and infrastructure, while Government of India is contributing grant-in-aid for the recurring, non-recurring and indigenous equipment. FFDC aims to serve as an interface between essential oil, fragrance and flavor industry and the R & D institutions both in the field of Agro Technology and chemical technology. The Main objective of the center is to serve, sustain and upgrade the status of farmers and industry engaged in the aromatic cultivation and its processing. Further details are available at: http://www.ffdcindia.org/ Dairy based biogas plants and composting units are being promoted. Banks are wiling to finance such units based on a cluster approach. Commercial banks along with National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) are providing financing to scale up such interventions. We would like to highlight our model that is in working condition and has already led to visible impacts to beneficiaries. Tomojeet Chakraborty, Government of West Bengal, Kolkata, West Bengal My observations on 'greening' the rural development schemes:- The Individual Beneficiary Schemes under Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) catering to Horticulture are mostly encouraged in the rainy season for obvious reasons. However, round the year horticulture and all plantations including Mango, Litchi can be planned under MGNREGA. We had forwarded a proposal for Sericulture in our block and it has been approved. For projects under Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) & Backward Regions Grant Fund (BRGF) or for that matter all regional development schemes funded by MoRD, plantation of trees of commercial value with suitable enclosures or dividers need to be made mandatory. The trees in the long term provide shade and consequently reduce the glare effect making road traffic safer. For 13th Finance Commission (FC) and 3rd State Finance Commission (SFC) funds, Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI's) may be incentivised for planting trees. A scheme “Sabuj Safal Purashkar (Green Glory Awards)” could be launched as elaborated below, with the following objectives: To recognise Gram Panchayats which are greener in terms of developmental schemes of afforestation of MoRD. To inspire the PRIs to participate in greening its landscape. To reduce the propensity of PRIs to reduce forests by cutting trees for the sake of laying roads.
  • 38. The following methodology could be adopted: Annual Recognition at the Central Level. Best 20 Gram Panchayats from each State/UT to be awarded. Best 10 Municipalities from each State/UT to be awarded The incentive for each of the awardees would be: Each Panchayat will be given a cash award of Rs. 5 Lakh which will form a part of the Corpus of the Gram Panchayat (GP) and used for capacity building / skill development of its members. Citation, highlighting its contribution. The parameters that would be considered while evaluating the panchayate for the award would be: Planting, fencing and upbringing more than 5000 saplings per GP/Municipality being the lower cut off. Undertaking development projects that would contribute to enhancement of the green cover of the area. Number of youth/student enlisted as Green Champions. The award could be in the lines of Nirmal Gram Panchayat (NGP) awards instituted by the Government of India. NGP award is for "open defecation free" Panchayats, Blocks, and Districts that have become fully sanitized. The incentive provision is for Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) as well as individuals and organizations that are the driving force for achieving 100 % sanitation. The proposed award would lead to significant outcomes for enhancing the green cover as NGP award is supposed to achieve in the case of sanitation. Rajan M Karakkattil, Malankara Social Service Society, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala I would like to share the following note regarding a program being implemented by Malankara Social Service Society (MSSS), one of the leading NGOs in southern districts of Kerala involved in sustainable rural community empowerment. MSSS celebrated its Golden Jubilee Year in 2011 with a focal theme of Social Equity and Sustainable development. Srothas proposes to enhance the capacities of marginalized and weaker sections of the society. The organization has molded the development approach with holistic involvement of all sectors in an inclusive manner. In order to continue the development activities evolved during the Jubilee Year, it has framed a mission mode of operation called “SROTHAS DEVELOPMENT MISSION” to be implemented over the next five years. The basic idea is to converge srothas projects in rural settings for increased socio-economic development called Grama Srothas. In 2011 MSSS implemented 50 SROTHAS projects. Development is often defined as the ability of individuals, families and communities to have informed choices. In other words development needs to ideally revolve around empowering communities with adequate knowledge and skills to take the right decisions regarding their lives. Thus it’s imperative that all development programming, be it related to
  • 39. social, economic, political, environmental, health, nutrition, education, water, sanitation etc. have a strong component of working with communities. Grama Srothas is the convergence of development programming with a Rights Based Approach with following four core principles: Partnership, Alliances, Networks: A multi-stakeholder partnership with the government playing a central role is critical for best results. This approach envisages the coming together of the government and various sections of civil society including communities to ensure effective implementation. Integrated/Holistic/Inclusive Approach: The Rights Based Approach discourages vertical programming and strongly recommends an integrated approach to programming. Community Participation: A human rights approach requires participation and empowerment of children, parents and families living in poverty. It’s not enough to view community participation as a means to achieving the programme objectives. Sustainability: Any project that is initiated needs to be sustainable. In other words all programming could be based on the principle of sustainability where the sociology- economic-political and environmental factors of the grass root level organizations and individuals are applied. We plan to implement all Srothas projects in the rural context with convergence in planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating the impact of the project for the next five years. It is envisaged that the model ultimately developed would be eco-friendly and result in sustainable livelihoods. Ramit Basu, New Delhi (Inputs also relevant for Watershed Programs) I would like to suggest the following names of institutions with whom I have been associated in some capacity and which have done exemplary work in rejuvenating natural resources and restoring the lost ecological balance. 1. Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur - Energy plantations in arid zones of Western Rajasthan which have resulted in not only faster growing species of trees exclusively for the purpose of biomass but also income generation for SHGs and Youth Groups who takes care of these plantations and ensures optimal utilization. For details visit: http://www.cazri.res.in/ 2. Action for Social Advancement (ASA), Bhopal - Excellent results through watershed development activities in Western MP, Eastern Gujarat and Southern Rajasthan. The activities have led to increase in the water table and retention of water even in peak summer months thus ensuring irrigation and livestock survival. For details visit: http://www.asaindia.org/ 3. Gene Campaign, New Delhi - Sustained efforts with the small and marginal farmers of Jharkhand and Bihar in conservation and multiplication of indigenous varieties of rice, millets etc., setting up of seed banks, conservation of plants especially with local medicinal values through setting up of herbal garden, help identify biodiversity with nutritional values for the local tribals and initiate its conservation etc.. For details visit: http://www.genecampaign.org/
  • 40. 4. National Centre for Human Settlements and Environment, Bhopal - Watershed management activities in the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh. For details visit: http://www.nchse.org/ I can remember the above four with whom I have worked and been a part of the activities. Will share with you more as I come across more names in the next few days. Hope the above helps. Jyotsna Bapat, Mumbai, Maharashtra Ministry of New and Renewable Energy supported green energy production and distribution systems through an initiative across 9 states in India during 2008 -2009 that was financed by the World Bank. It focused on generating wood chip based electricity generation in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Chattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam and production of biofuels in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The technology utilized is proven, generates energy and could be used to set up rural enterprises to create employment opportunities. Biofuel produced could be used as fuel for locally assembled “Jugad” vehicles in rural areas. The initiative faced several obstacles including the following: Ensuring that a particular village will not be electrified was virtually impossible as it was a politically sensitive topic. For Street lighting state provides the Gram Panchayats monthly expenses which could have easily recovered the Operation and Maintenance costs of wood chip based energy generation systems. However the state electricity Board resisted this proposal. For locally assembled “Jugad” vehicles to travel short distances the Gram Panchayat could issue operating licenses but the Road and Transport Office (RTO) prohibits its use. Local entrepreneurs willing to operate the electricity distribution system and use it for their factories or processing units could not do so due to political pressure. The only success stories are projects implemented by international NGOs supported by external bi-lateral funding. The possibility of generating electricity on its own is a crucial requirement for a self sufficient village. Engaging the community in such initiatives is not difficult but it disrupts the status quo. The challenge is to create/ identify committed entrepreneurs with political ambitions. Community supports such a leader and the project would then succeed. This is a lesson that each of the success stories indicates where an international NGO is not involved. Shantanu Mitra, DFID - China “The Western Orissa Rural Livelihoods Project, funded by DFID and implemented by the State Government’s Orissa Watershed Development Mission, was set up in the year 2000 with the aim of reducing poverty by making the livelihoods of rural people in the project area more sustainable. Although it was not designed with climate change considerations in mind, it could be expected that the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach around which the project was designed, and the more stable livelihoods that are the anticipated outcome of this, might be a rational
  • 41. platform from which to postulate an increased capacity of people to adapt to increased levels of climate-induced change and stress. Preliminary evidence from this study appears to support this hypothesis. The report suggests that the project has made a contribution in several areas. The adverse effects of climate variability may have been lessened through natural resource interventions, where groundwater tables have risen, land use patterns have altered, and levels of crop diversification and production have increased. In the farm, off-farm and non-farm sectors, livelihoods have become increasingly diversified and thus more resilient. Much effort has gone into participatory planning and capacity building processes, and community level organizations mainly in the form of SHGs have grown in both number and strength, with increasing levels of federation. The increased stock of social capital that has thus been generated has seemingly gone a long way to ensuring quicker reactions, and responses which are both better informed and more appropriate in stress situations. People in the project area, in particular women, now appear to be better prepared for, and adapted to, extreme weather events and variability. Vulnerability for the poorest has been reduced, and their strategies for coping rendered more confident.” Further details, analyzing the contribution of the Western Orissa Rural Livelihoods Programme to climate resilience as well as potential for greenhouse gas reduction co-benefits are available at: ftp://ftp.solutionexchange.net.in/public/clmt/cr/res07041202.pdf (PDF; 3.5 MB) DFID has recently commissioned a similar study looking at the Madhya Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Programme. The findings are being shared in a subsequent response to this query. Ritu Bharadwaj, DFID India, British High Commission, New Delhi The report on the assessment of the Madhya Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Project (MPRLP), tries to assess the: • Effectiveness of the project interventions in reducing climate-induced vulnerabilities • Contribution towards climate resilient development (Ecosystem based adaptation) • Contribution towards low carbon development (climate change mitigation) • Cost-effectiveness of the climate resilient and low carbon development activities MPRLP addresses the livelihood needs of the poorest people in nine predominantly tribal districts of Madhya Pradesh. The objective of the project is to create sustainable livelihoods in selected villages by focusing on the regeneration of natural resources and capacity building of local communities. One of the key learning has been the realization of the integral importance of environmental concerns in a livelihood program. Vulnerability assessment of the MPRLP project area on five aspects lead to the development of five vulnerability indices, i.e. Water Vulnerability Index (WVI), Agriculture Vulnerability Index (AVI), Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI), Gender Vulnerability Index (GVI) and Social Vulnerability Index (SVI). The outcome of vulnerability assessment demonstrates a positive impact on vulnerability level.
  • 42. The carbon footprint analysis clearly demonstrates that the low-carbon activities undertaken by MPRLP measures are focused towards climate resilient development. Climate Compatible Development is the need of the hour. We cannot continue to indefinitely develop at the cost of the environment. Often, development and environment are considered sequentially with the former being the priority, and the latter as the deterrent. The outcomes of MPRLP implementation demonstrate how both could be addressed parallelly. Further details are available at: ftp://ftp.solutionexchange.net.in/public/clmt/cr/res07041203.pdf (PDF; 3.35 MB) A number of case studies that detail some small, low-cost MPRLP activities and the processes that have made significant impact on making the lives and livelihoods of the poor households climate resilient have been discussed. A compilation of the case studies is available at: ftp://ftp.solutionexchange.net.in/public/clmt/cr/res07041204.pdf (PDF; 952 KB) Rabi Mukhopadhyay, Forum of Scientists, Engineers & Technologists (FOSET), Kolkata, West Bengal We at Forum Of Scientists, Engineers & Technologists (FOSET) (http://www.fosetonline.org/), an NGO working as voluntary workers in the field of technology development and dissemination for the society, have developed a detailed technology to construct disaster resistant bamboo houses that would last for at least for 30 years. I have been trained in China regarding application of bamboo, at the behest of the Department of Science & Technology, Ministry of Science & Technology, Government of India. The engineering calculations to withstand the wind and other loads as per National Building Code (NBC) have been made to design and construct a two tier house on stilts with pucca floor finish on bamboo under structure. We have installed a modern (but small) bamboo treatment facility to treat bamboo as per IS 9096, improved as recommended in International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR) (http://www.inbar.int/) technical report 20. A trial construction has been done at our Birati Building Centre at Birati, North 24 Parganas, West Bengal. It is felt that with a little more effort, nice healthy houses, at least up to 2 floors on stilts can be constructed in mass scale to provide economic disaster resistant houses in rural areas, especially in such areas that get frequently inundated with floods. In such flood-prone areas, these houses would help residents overcome tremendous frequent hardship to face floods, and to help the Government form incurring huge recurring relief expenditure. The construction material being bamboo, the raw material is unquestionably green. The expert from civil society and academia who would be an important resource person for sharing experiences is Partrhasarathi Mukhopadhyay, Bengal Engineering and Science University (BESU), Shibpur. BESU is over 150 years old and the second oldest university of its kind in India. Yet as time advanced, it has been able to adapt to suit the surroundings. Established in 1856 occupying three rooms in Writers' Building to meet the requirement of trained Engineering personnel for Public Works Department as Civil Engineering College. It was affiliated to the Calcutta University in May 1857. From 1865 to 1879 the College functioned as Civil Engineering Department of Presidency College. In 1880 the college shifted to its new and permanent home at Bishop's College, Howrah. It got its name, Bengal Engineering College in 1921. On 1st October, 2004 it became a University. For further details, please visit: http://www.becs.ac.in/ Rahul Jindal, NCR Real Estate Consultant, New Delhi
  • 43. Greetings!!! As this has been captioned as "experiences”, I would like to share the experiences of the watershed project in District Pratapgarh, Rajasthan at the site "Badi Dotar”. I was assisting the state and local bodies to create the master plan for development and nourishment of the Land and to increase the ultimate productivity in terms of capital, livestock etc. . Experiences • I found Pratapgarh as a district in Rajasthan which has really changed a great deal due to various types of watershed projects in that area. • Department of Forest, Rajasthan is a trust worthy agency for this kind of function as long as the officers in charge have no personal interest in the project. Advice • Social Audit shall be looked after directly by the Collector and shall be mandatory in all those projects where people from BPL families are involved directly and indirectly. • Government should make some space for the professional organization to be involved in Rural Development Projects and conduct a thorough assessment of the Programmes. • They must incorporate young professionals from Institute of Rural Management Anand (IRMA), Anand, Xavier Labour Relations Institute (XLRI) Jamshedpur, Indian Institute of Rural Management (IIRM), Jaipur or other professionals Institutes which offer courses on Rural Development in assessment and execution. M S R Murthy, Department of Population Studies, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh The efforts of Government of India are laudable. In some places Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is facing challenges in implementation due to shortage of water. A recent article in The Hindu newspaper highlighted that the poor attendance for MGNREGA programs is due to shortage of drinking water in mandals of Adilabad district of Andhra Pradesh. People need to wake up at 4 a.m. to fetch water for use at the work site. A person has to forgo his/her wages to ensure water availability for his family. Due to water shortage workers are unable to bathe as well. Therefore, it is crucial to promote rain water harvesting and ensure that water is available for workers involved in MGNREGA and other rural development programs. DSK Rao, Gyantech Information Systems Private Limited, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (Response 2) Greetings! Though the efforts of the DFID funded Madhya Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Project (MPRLP) was a good attempt to improve the poor districts in Madhya Pradesh. On discussion with people from the six predominantly tribal districts of Adwani, Dhar, Jhabua, Mandla, Dindor and Shahdol, all amongst the poorest in Madhya Pradesh, it was evident that the situation has not improved much and most of the initiatives were not sustainable.
  • 44. It is essential that 'Transparency & Accountability' needs to be created with precise details of the benefits accrued & beneficiaries along with continuity plans as most of these projects end up in claims that are difficult to verify. There is a strong and urgent need to use Information & Communication Technologies (ICT) to bring about clarity in the Project. Poverty & Hunger are alarmingly increasing in Tribal & Backward Districts in India as against the MDG targets of their alleviation. Ananya Bhattacharya, i-land informatics Limited, Kolkata, West Bengal This refers to the query below. As you may be aware we work in rural areas for fostering pro-poor growth and sustainable development using culture based approaches. Our organisation Banglanatak Dot Com has a unique initiative called the “Art for Life” (AFL) which targets augmenting sustainable livelihood options for rural people based on their traditional cultural heritage. We have proven the model in West Bengal and are now working in Bihar. The AFL growth model based on cultural heritage is highly inclusive. It gives our indigenous communities, especially women, livelihood opportunities which are not available in conventional job markets. It may be noted that conventional skill development programmes put a high premium on level of education while this approach also includes those who lack formal education. Augmenting rural livelihood options based on cultural heritage also contributes to environmental sustainability as they have low use of natural resources/do not need to natural resource depletion and reduces migration and hence the pressure on urban areas. It also provides a viable income option to women from their home. The women have the choice to work at their own convenience. India, being a country so rich in intangible cultural heritage and folk traditions has a huge potential of utilizing these community based unique skills to generate self employment and thus contribute to poverty alleviation. Conventional skill development programmes related to agriculture and labour work for local industries for rural poor are failing to generate sustainable employment because skill development systems are not planned based on local resources- cultural, human, and environmental. Skill mapping and matching training programmes to the huge traditional knowledge and skill base already exiting in rural India may be the key to effective and resource efficient economic development and social inclusion. Further details are available at: ftp://ftp.solutionexchange.net.in/public/clmt/cr/res07041205.pdf (PDF;80 KB) We specialize in social and behavior change communication. Our culture based communication approach has proven to be effective in mobilizing community led total sanitation movement in West Bengal and Rajasthan (Udaipur/Dungarpur). Neena Rao, Business Development & Policy Advocacy, CCCEA, MCR HRD Inst. Of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad Centre for Climate Change and Environment Advisory (CCCEA), Dr. Marri Channa Reddy Human Resource Development (MCR HRD), Institute of AP, Hyderabad, (http://www.hrdiap.gov.in/html/center_ccceas.html) is imparting expertise and knowledge on
  • 45. issues related to Climate Change. It has been set up to provide policy assistance to the State Government and support to the public and private sector specifically in the areas of Training and Capacity Building, Policy Advocacy, Strategy Development, Action Research and Policy Input It conducts several capacity building programmes on issues concerning Climate Change and Development for the Government functionaries at all levels as well as other stakeholders in the such as the finance sector, health etc. Awareness regarding Greening of rural development is an important part of this capacity building programme. In this context it conducts trainings such as: NREGA Water Services and Climate Change Adaptation Climate Change, Green Livelihoods and Sustainable Development Strategies Micro Insurance and Green Financing for Climate Change Integrated Tribal Development and REDD as an Adaptation for Climate Change Watershed Development as a Response to Climate Change Climate Change, Food Security & Public Health At least forty such training programmes are conducted for officers from the Mandal/Block Level Officers to Group One Officers of the State and Central Government of the country. Currently, we are also working on a study called, “Assessment of NREGA waters services as a model tool for Climate Change Adaptation” supported by Rural Development Department, AP. This study is to be scaled up further to assess all the environmental services of NREGA with the same perspective, the findings of which are going to be shared with the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India. Rajshekar, Centre for Environment Education, New Delhi I presume Jyotsna Bapat is referring to the Village Energy Security Programme (VESP) of Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) for villages which do not have access to grid connectivity. In this programme all energy needs of villagers including domestic, commercial, agricultural, industrial and motive power will be met by locally available biomass /bio sources of energy. This programme is run by implementing agencies such as forest department, department of rural development, reputed and recognized NGOs, cooperatives etc. The participation of village community is very important in this programme. The constitution of village energy committees through gram sabha/ gram panchayat is also essential. She may be happy to know that I visited 5 VESP projects in Maharashtra in the last few months and found 3 of them working. 2 for the last 1.5 years and 1 for the last 4 years! All of them to the best of my knowledge are being managed by local NGOs with community involvement. Case studies of successful VESP projects are available at: http://mnre.gov.in/file- manager/UserFiles/case_study_vesp.htm I agree with her that the Gram Panchayat could have done more to make the projects viable. Maroti A. Upare, International Consultant, Mumbai, Maharashtra The query raised by Sumeeta Banerji is important for country’s progress since village is the focal point for development of the nation. As, I had an opportunity to formulate ,implement and
  • 46. evaluate rural development projects in India as well as in other countries including Sierra Leone, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Malawi, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan ,Nepal etc. funded by international organizations, I would like to share few thoughts and experiences: The present planning of rural development is sectoral and not integrated. Each Department works independently as a result right hand does not know what left hand is doing .Secondly ,there is misconception in planners mind that rural development can be done through agricultural development only .There is a need for integrated planning for rural development which has been shown by UNDP in Africa by funding Integrated Rural Development Project in Sierra Leone which covers agriculture, livestock, fisheries, health, nutrition, gender, education and infrastructure development .I was involved in implementation of project in Sierra Leone. UNDP has selected eleven villages and implemented the project successfully. It is possible to adopt such an approach in India also. The World Bank funded projects in India i.e. Karnataka Community based Tank Management Project, Andhra Pradesh Community-based Tank Management Project, Assam Agriculture Competitiveness Project has shown encouraging results .The village community of tank command area highly benefited by repairing tanks in enhancing irrigation ,enhancing drinking water supply in wells, additional livelihoods from fish farming ,livestock improvement etc. Assam project has supported village roads, market linkages besides increase in employment and production for crops, horticulture, fish and milk. Increase in fish production reported from 500 to 3000 kgs per hectare /annum on sustainable manner. Considering encouraging outputs from these projects new project `West Bengal Accelerated Minor Irrigation Project’ is sanctioned by the World Bank. Rural Development Department needs to study these projects especially for community participation and need to replicate. International Fund For Agriculture Development (IFAD) prepared Coastal Area Development Project for West Bengal which covers overall development of coastal community but the project was not implemented by the state Government. It may be worthwhile to take up a pilot project of an integrated nature in each state .The National Rural Livelihoods Mission launched by the Government of India through Rural Development Department need to take up pilot projects covering few districts for developing natural resources with human resources. Aquaculture development in Northern Provinces of Vietnam is considered to be a very successful project for providing livelihoods through aquaculture specially managed by women with appropriate microfinance system. Loan recovery was 95%.This was funded by UNDP .The project replicated in other provinces by DANIDA funding. Such projects can be replicated in India. The important aspect for rural development is need of policy for education reforms -70% workforce comes for agricultural background and have been dropout students of village schools but nothing is taught about agriculture in our schools rather they teach English from 1st standard. There is a need to introduce agriculture as subject in rural schools from 5th standard which will facilitate better workforce in agriculture and allied sector and can make rural youth more productive. The Ministry of Rural Development is proposing workshop on Greening Rural Development programmes, it is a welcome action and the workshop should have follow-up action and should not remain as a document of proceedings. I shall be glad to share my experience for great cause of rural development. Devendra Sahai, Global Warming Reduction Centre (GWRC), New Delhi
  • 47. Global Warming Reduction Centre (GWRC), New Delhi and its sister organizations, Himalaya Consortium for Himalayan Conservation (HIMCON) and Centre for Development of Rural Areas (CDRA), were all founded by their Founder President late Dr M L Dewan. They have been working on rural development for a number of years. These Organizations are very fortunate to have as their Patron Prof M. S. Swaminathan, Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha, father of India’s Green Revolution and the world’s leading Agricultural scientist. However, GWRC’s rural development activities are headed by K K Goel, Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) which is actively involved in villages located in Muzaffarnagar district of Uttar Pradesh as well as in NCT Delhi and elsewhere. It aims at an IRDP which comprises a comprehensive and holistic approach for the development of a village, with the ultimate aim of optimizing the income and quality of life of the village folk as well as enhancing the Eco System of the village. IRDP comprises the following elements: 1. Organic Farming. Vermi-composting / Village waste management / Bio pesticides. Select one man – one woman team. Arrange to train them in the above operations. 2. Medicinal Plants. Development of Herbiculture. Tie up with manufacturers of Herbal Medicines, such as Dabur, Baidyanath, Himalaya Drug House, Zandu etc. for quality inputs as well as for assured off take of farm produce. Tie up with TERI, National Medicinal Plants Board (NMPB) etc. 3. Soil Conservation. Tie up with Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute (CSWCRTI), Dehradun as well as Soil Conservation Society of India (SCSI), New Delhi for testing of village soil and recommendations for soil enrichment, conservation and management. 4. Water Conservation and Management. Rain water harvesting. Recharging of ground water. Micro irrigation. Drinking water supply. To follow National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) / HIMCON) design of “Slow Sand” filter. And also tie up with Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), Pusa. 5. Better Quality Seeds (for grains, pulses, vegetables). High yielding varieties. Pest resistant. Longer shelf life of farm produce. China has a much higher yield per acre. Obtain technical information through FAO in India / China. 6. Dairy Development. Subodh Kumar to provide detailed proposal and guidance for the village. 7. Horticulture. (fruit and nut trees). Introduction of high quality planting stock. Training in organic horticulture including pit preparation, filling in of soil / compost mix, maturing period, planting of saplings, regular / periodic watering, protection from animals, birds and pests, spraying pesticides, covering with nets at time of flowering and fruition, harvesting of crop, safe storage and marketing.
  • 48. 8. Food Processing and Value Addition. Specific proposals formulated by expert, Nawab N R Siddiqui after survey of the Village. 9. Renewable Energy. Solar panels / lighting / cookers. Bio gas (gobar gas) plant. Cultivation of bio diesel plants and algae. 10. Village Centre. To include Auditorium for meetings or cultural events; Panchayat office; Library cum Reading Room; TV and Radio; Computer and Printer with Broad Band connection; facilities for indoor and outdoor games / sports; Day Clinic; Vocational Training Centre. 11. Tie up with Corporates. for Technical guidance. High quality planting stock. Organic pesticides. Storage of farm produce. Assured buy back of farm produce. 12. Tie up with Agri- Universities and Research Centres. Pusa Institute. Sardar Patel University for Agriculture and Bio Technology, Meerut. Pant Nagar University. M S Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai. 13. Formation of Village Cooperative. The cooperative to have overall responsibility including procurement of planting stock, technical guidance during cultivation for achieving optimal output, safe storage and marketing of farm produce. For further details please visit: ftp://ftp.solutionexchange.net.in/public/clmt/cr/res07041206.pdf (PDF; 64 KB) S. N. Srinivas, UNDP, New Delhi Trust you will find this of interest and use. We shall definitely wish to participate in the subsequent workshop. I would like to highlight two interventions that have green outcomes. Firstly, Biomass Energy for Rural India (BERI) Project aims to demonstrate biomass packages to meet rural energy needs. It also aimed at removing technical, institutional, market and policy barriers to promote biomass packages. The project has now established 1 MW biomass gasifier power plant in three villages in Koratagere taluka. These systems together have generated approximately 951 MWh (approximately 1 million units) of electricity till now contributing to reduction of 780 tCO2. An analysis during the last year showed cost of power produced ranged from approximately Rs 4.50 to Rs 8.28 Rs per kWh depending on PLF, quality and cost of biomass, optimisation in operation, etc. The revenue generated by selling to the grid was only Rs 2.85 per kWh (tariff support by the government). Hence the tariff support needs to be addressed to encourage small scale power production.
  • 49. The small scale power production generates significant intangible benefits of green cover, increasing rural economy, providing employment etc. About 3,000 hectares (expected to yield 12,000 tons annually, however it is yielding about 5,000 tons per year) of forestry plantations, social forestry, common lands and farm bunds/borders in the vicinity of power plants have been developed as energy plantations, for meeting the biomass requirement of the gasification power plants. Biomass is pruned and further processed to appropriate sizes for the biomass gasifier to generate power. One of the estimates indicate that these plantations have resulted in sequestering approximately 239,222 tCO2 till January 2011 (26580 tCO2 annually). The gasifier plant purchases pruning’s from bund plantation from farmers at a price of Rs 1,200 ton per ton. 51 group biogas plants were installed and as per survey carried out in 2010, 40 of them were functional. These reduce 148 tCO2 annually. Project details and technical performance data is uploaded on the website which is perhaps the only project uploading the basic data. Details are available at: www.bioenergyindia.in The distribution of cost of production of this biomass power is as follows; 57% on fuel cost (biomass), 18% fixed cost, 15% maintenance, and 10% on labour. Thus the project provided enormous social benefits as 45% of total generation cost remain within the community. The project spread over in 31 villages also provided 32 bore-wells for 127 farmers, and 20 community bore-wells. These have resulted into increased crop intensity – more than 2 crops per year now which in turn has increased farm income by 20 to 30% (now it is about Rs 40000 to 50000 per acre). The project established 26 Village Bio-energy Management Committee, 26 Village Forest Committee (VFC), 72 new SHGs formed and 68 old SHGs strengthened covering 2244 households (hhs) (74%), 31 Water Users Associations (216 hhs) and 33 Biogas User Groups (BUGs). The project thus invested about Rs 7 Crores on 1 MW power plant, when fully operational can generate revenue of about Rs. 2.0 Crores per year by selling power. Assuming per capita income of Rs 12,,000 per year (Tumkur district), a typical Gram-Panchayat (GP) with about 8000 persons, total income is about Rs 9 crores per year. The project is spread over 4 GPs and therefore the total income is about Rs 36 crores. Thus such a green intervention can enhance overall income by about 6 %. It can also add to employment as about 100 people can be employed in the management of bioenergy packages that includes largely biomass power generating unit. In addition, employment in the plantations management and nursery arrangement can also add to green outcomes. Second, Government of Karnataka almost a decade ago took an initiative under the leadership of Mr N Sivasailam (then Secretary, Rural Development and Panchayati Raj (RDPR), Government of Karnataka) to make energy planning at GP level. The initiative took a unique step of getting the plan prepared by the Zilla Panchayat project engineers with full participation of GP Presidents and members. 27 GPs from (One from each of 27 districts in Karnataka) were chosen based on a set of criteria. The plans were prepared and implemented. I had the opportunity to guide the Zilla Panchayat Engineers and GP functionaries in designing, implementing this intervention. It may be worthwhile to go back to these villages to understand what kind of results and green outcomes the interventions have produced. A Public-Private-Panchayat model for The Integrated Rural Energy Programme, (IREP) Programme in Karnataka was developed. Details are available at: ftp://ftp.solutionexchange.net.in/public/clmt/cr/res07041207.pdf (PDF; 822 KB) Arun Jindal, Society for Sustainable Development, Karauli, Rajasthan
  • 50. (Inputs also relevant for MGNREGA) Society for Sustainable Development (SSD) in Karauli District of Rajasthan for livelihood and Natural Resource Management program is working in this area since the last 18 Years. In rural India livelihoods are dependent upon greening of surroundings. We have implemented many projects with the help of various donors in the backward “Daang” area of Rajasthan. These projects gave immense benefit and long term support for the villagers. Villagers also voluntarily support the project in the form of labour. Examples from across India of employment generation and public works programmes, rural livelihoods and entrepreneurship programmes, rural roads, watershed, drinking water and sanitation programmes that have had successful experience in terms of ‘green outcomes’ (both public funded and civil society experiences). The following case studies are being highlighted: In Karauli district we constructed /renovated almost 300 pokhars (Rain water harvesting structures) to improve agriculture production. This work has been done by the farmers, no machinery has been used. ARAVALI and Aga Khan Foundation have published a brochure on Pokhar and SSD work. Private/Common Land development is directly supported by farmers in semi arid region for employment and livelihood improvement. We implemented two projects with UNDP on this issue. Watershed based treatment of natural resources is very useful for land based activity and lifelong improvement of villages for livelihood. Center for Science and Environment (CSE), New Delhi published a case study on Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA). http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/node/37121 Names and coordinates of focal persons and experts from state governments, civil society and academia who would be important resource persons for sharing experiences: Mr. Sachin Sachdeva, ARAVALI, JAIPUR Mr. Jaipal Singh, Center for Micro Finance, Jaipur Mr. Hira Lal Rai, PO (LR), Zila Parishad, Jaipur Examples of any studies done to assess ways of ‘greening’ rural development programmes and its potential to promote environmental benefits (employment, livelihoods, housing, roads etc.) and sample terms of reference of similar studies. The study highlights how Rajasthan has tackled drought using Pokhars. Details are available at: http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/node/37121 B.P. Syam Roy, Kolkata, West Bengal (Inputs also relevant for Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) and Watershed Program) We usually do not follow landscaping and green shaping as a conscious planning effort in the rural areas in spite of having a large number of schemes/projects. It is for the simple reason that we take it for granted that greening the rural areas is the functional domain of the Forest department of the State. Normally, Forest departments concentrate their activities within the forest land and do not take much interest in non-forest lands. It is, however, a fact that in some areas some GPs did wonderful tree lines and executed model social forestry schemes. Unfortunately in some states those were just cut off immediately before the Panchayat Election and valuable natural resources and greenery are lost. It is also a fact that some institutions and
  • 51. NGOs did wonderful jobs but the focus of rural development by local bodies and government departments has never been aimed at generation of greenery on a sustainable basis, least of land shaping and green shaping of our rural areas as a planning agenda. I mention below some schemes through which greening of rural development is possible: Under the General Framework of Convergence issued by the MoRD, road side plantation may be taken up under National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) on roads constructed under Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY). If tree lines along the roads cover one particular species of fruit bearing trees, this will also meet future needs of fruits and fruit- based horticulture industries. Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) is the flagship programme for all watershed programmes in the country. It aims to restore ecological balance by harnessing, conserving and developing degraded natural resources such as soil run off, regeneration of natural vegetation, rain water harvesting and those recharging of ground water table. Under NREGA, 50%of works relate to soil conservation. Synergies between NREGA and IWMP may enhance vegetation cover to a great extent. There is scope of convergence of NREGA with the programmes of the Ministry of Agriculture like National Food Security Mission, Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY), National Bamboo Mission, National Horticulture Mission etc. for greening the rural areas. Similarly there is great scope for convergence of NREGA with the programmes of Ministry of Environment and Forest. The National Afforestation Programme (NAP) which aims to achieve one third of land area, as envisaged under the National Forest Policy, 1999 provides opportunities to take up its nine items under NREGA. In short, there is no dearth of schemes in this country for greening the rural areas. What is lacking is the absence of land use plan and the urge to increase the green cover as planning agenda on focused land shaping with greenery. Aditi Kapoor, Alternative Futures, New Delhi I would like to just address two critical areas relating to governance for greening of all rural development schemes: (1) Learning from, and developing capacities of, women and enabling them to play a central role in planning and implementing rural development schemes and (2) In the wake of climate change, integrating adaptation with village development plans by empowering the Panchayats to develop what may be called Local Action Plans on Adaptation (or LAPAs!) in conjunction with their powers to develop Village Development Plans. According to a National Commission for Women 1995 study, women alone handle about 60% of agricultural operations like sowing of seeds, transportation of sapling, winnowing, storage of grain etc. and help men perform the other tasks. An FAO March 2011 Paper further says that women spend up to 60% of their time in agriculture-related activities. The Ministry of Rural Development's guidelines for its Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP) say that the climate-sensitive agriculture sector employs 80% of all economically active women. And that ‘almost all women in rural India can be considered as ‘farmers’ in some sense, working as agricultural labourers, unpaid workers in the family farm enterprises or combination of the two.’
  • 52. According to the 11th Five-year Plan, there is an increasing feminization of the agriculture sector, including agriculture labour, and an increasing number of women-headed households in the agriculture sector. About a fifth of the rural households are now women-headed. The dominance of women workers is also seen in animal husbandry, collection of minor forest produce and, the FAO 2011 paper says that about a quarter (24%) of all fishers/fish farmers are women. Women are also typically responsible for providing their homes with water, firewood, fodder, food and herbs - all of which are also sensitive to climate change. The 11th Plan says that ‘women and girls spend a great deal of time gathering fuel, adversely affecting their (health), productivity and education. Officially, 92% of rural domestic energy still comes from unprocessed biofuels (firewood, crop waste, cattle dung), and 85% of rural cooking fuel is gathered from forests, village commons, and fields. The National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) flags this gender divide and highlights that ‘the impacts of climate change could prove particularly severe for women. With climate change, there would be increasing scarcity of water, reduction in yields of forest biomass, and increased risks to human health with children, women and the elderly in a household becoming the most vulnerable. With the possibility of decline in availability of food-grains, the threat of malnutrition may also increase. All these would add to deprivations that women already encounter and so in each of the adaptation programmes, special attention should be paid to the aspects of gender’. Several studies (UNDP 2010, IPCC 2007), Oxfam 2005, IUCN (undated)) have also shown that weather-related disasters affect women more than men, both in terms of number of deaths and post-recovery well-being. Women also shoulder a greater care-taking burden during the rehabilitation phase and men return to their productive roles faster than women. Thus, women's role in pro-actively adapting to climate change becomes critical in our villages. SHGs, unfortunately, function outside the system and the only way that rural development can be greened is when PRIs, mandated with functional, administrative and financial powers, plan and implement schemes together with all (men and women) gram-sabha members and in collaboration with scientific/agricultural research institutions and NGOs - the latter for their expertise in bringing in 'soft skills' and innovations. Our own study, 'Engendering the Climate for Change: Policies and Practices for Gender-just Adaptation' elaborates the above points and can be downloaded from: http://alternativefutures.org.in/userfiles/Engendering%20the%20Cilmate%20for%20Change.pdf I will be happy to share citations quoted above for those interested. Raghwesh Ranjan, Institute of Development Studies (IDS), Brighton, United Kingdom I work with Development Alternatives (DA), New Delhi and am currently in a sabbatical year at Institute of Development Studies (IDS), UK. In collaboration with International Labour Organization (ILO), New Delhi we had studied Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme (MGNREGP) from the perspective of decent work and environmental sustainability. The study focused on Kaimur district in Bihar to elucidate the potential of MGNREGP in creating ‘green jobs’. As the Principal Investigator of the study I would like to inform the members that especially MGNREGP performs well on the indicators of environmental sustainability primarily due its programmatic features such as restrictions on use of machinery and emphasis on natural resource conservation. However, there are some concerns with regard to social protection and social dialogue related dimensions.
  • 53. Though the results of the study cannot be extrapolated to the whole of the country where the way MGNREGP is implemented is quite diverse; but the study of course puts forth a methodology that can be used to assess public services in the light of greening the programme. The detailed report is available at: http://www.ilo.org/newdelhi/whatwedo/publications/WCMS_146013/lang-- en/index.htm My colleagues in our New Delhi office, Kiran Sharma and Zeenat Niazi can be good resource for supporting the endeavor of the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD). I am more than willing to provide necessary support to the dialogue process, if required. Rahul Kumar, PRADAN, New Delhi I am sharing experience of PRADAN in working on Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM). The approach was adopted for promoting livelihoods amongst poor families. This strengthens local farming systems in each of the agro-ecological zones and would provide better foundation to the farmers for greater choices, including adoption of commercial agricultural practices to take advantage of emerging markets. A major proportion of India’s poor live in the Central and Eastern plateau and the hilly regions across the South eastern part of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, South Bihar and Western West Bengal. The region falls under the agro-climatic zones VII and VIII. The regions are devoid of well-developed aquifers and are often underlain with impervious substrata. The terrain has many seasonal and perennial streams and many small dispersed sites for rainwater harvesting. The combination of an undulating, hilly terrain and high rainfall causes soil erosion and drought in many parts of the area due to lack of storage coupled with poor land and water management. A greater part of these regions fall under severely eroded areas. One encounters diverse conditions with regard to soil, slope, water availability, soil depth and so on within the boundaries of even the smallest villages. In the absence of irrigation, agriculture is almost entirely rain-fed and mono- cropped. Therefore, the area is characterized by uncertain and low level of productivity, poor crop and resource husbandry. Moisture stress, drought, soil acidity, iron toxicity, high population growth are the major factors that result in low productivity. There is little diversity in the farm sector, little value addition, and the region is net importer of most farm products. Crop yields are between one-half to a third of the national average. PRADAN defines INRM as “optimizing the use of the natural resources of an area to maximize the income of residents, generation after generations.” INRM combines managing the use of natural resources along with their conservation and sustenance by augmenting social, physical, human, natural and financial capital. It promotes the construction and rational use of simple structures depending on the topography that will help land development and water harvesting towards sustainable livelihoods. The potential benefits of an INRM based approach to land and water harvesting in predominantly rain-fed and mono- cropped Indian agriculture are enormous. INRM has the potential to bring about equitable and sustainable economic growth and eliminate mass poverty and hunger in the region. Such an approach requires participatory planning, at the level of hamlets and villages, to develop production and management systems suitable to the
  • 54. resources. The movement of rainwater overtime and across space is a key consideration in resource management in such terrains. The process of intervention adopted by PRADAN starts with the mobilization of the community at the grassroots into women’s Self Help Groups and livelihood planning, keeping in the mind the local resources and community skills. PRADAN initiated an INRM based MGNREGA program at Kandhamal in Odisha, a pilot project supported by UNDP. PRADAN embarked on this project with the idea of expanding its current base in Kandhamal using the extensive reach and resources of MGNREGS with possibilities of further convergence with other agencies and programmes. The primary objective of the project was to help families dependent on wage employment, demand and access their entitlements under MGNREGS towards generating sustainable livelihoods from their own resources. Thus, target families in the project area could not only access employment but also acquire productive assets such as ponds, tanks, productive lands, plantations, under this convergence program and enhance their livelihoods through improved agriculture. As a result, the district spent over Rs 64 crores in 2009-10 as compared to just over Rs 22 crores in the year 2008-09 under MGNREGS and the number of families receiving at least 100 days of work increased from 1020 in 2008-09 to 7305 in 2009-10. In Kandhamal, more than 56% of the eligible families were covered under MGNREGS while the national average is only about 23%. The district was awarded as being one of the top 10 districts, which has implemented the MGNREGS scheme effectively. Similar programs has also been implemented by PRADAN in Jharkhand, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh and other districts of Odisha. For further information on the interventions of PRADAN please visit: http://www.pradan.net. Further, PRADAN has also published a Manual for implementing INRM in conjunction with MGNREGS, which is available at: http://www.pradan.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99&Itemid=80 P. S. M. Rao, Independent Researcher, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh It is really a commendable idea to work towards greening the rural development programmes. The community support for this would be a major challenge because we generally do not see the individuals showing interest in protecting the common property resources, however important they are for the human sustenance; in other words, for their collective interest which is very important to them even individually. To ensure peoples participation, plantation can be taken up on the private lands of the small, marginal and medium farmers, if not on their main lands; they can be planted on the fences as per their need and willingness. Since the trees so planted will become their property, they will take care of their maintenance with enough interest. To be more attractive, tree varieties which are environmentally beneficial and economically useful should be selected. Similarly, in order to educate the people on adopting the practice of sustainable agriculture , with low or no pesticide use and with water conservation technology, three or four demonstration farms in each village should be set up on the lands left fallow, either private or government with the help and participation of the farming community.
  • 55. This will surely be an effective tool for educating the people. No amount of persuasion without showing something practically is going to work. Seeing is believing. The farmers who observe the success will themselves adopt and propagate the concept of sustainable farming later. I would suggest the Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, working in Andhra Pradesh for sharing their experiences and knowledge in the area. The contact details of the organization are: Dr. G. V. Ramanjaneyulu Executive Director Centre for Sustainable Agriculture (CSA) 12-13-445, Street no-1 Tarnaka, Secunderabad 500 017 Nagendra P. Singh, Asian Society of Entrepreneurship Education and Development (ASEED) - International Institute of Development Management Technology (IDMAT), New Delhi The Asian Society of Entrepreneurship Education and Development (ASEED) have been associated with green enterprise programme in Bihar in rural areas of Bhojpur District. We had three years intensive project experience with nodal role in the region - ASEED COMMUNITY POLYTECHNIC BIHAR promoted green enterprise encouraging medicinal and aromatic cultivation as high value agriculture along with vermi composting. It was a unique blend of marginalized farmers and farm women/wage earners adding to their income through vermi compost and complimenting medium and large size holding medicinal plant cultivators. A Research article has been published as Evolving Green Enterprises in Rural Bihar. The center has already acquired nodal status of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME), Government of India (GoI) and many other agencies where ASEED Rural Community Polytechnic Bhojpur has been working on multi skill learning mode for quite some time on solar lantern, poly house, vermi compost and other non farm skill training including financial literacy for women and youth from rural community to reinforce the process and give momentum to the rural community on Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) and allied rural development process in selected region. It has already gained attention at the District level vermi compost massive support programme for marginalized, small and medium sized famers to help gain advantage from GoI’s Rastriya Krishi Vikas Yojna I shall ask the editorial team of International Institute of Development Management Technology (IDMAT) www.idmatservices.org; dm@idmatservices.org to reconnect with you and send you the hard and soft copy of the research article (managing editor anupama@aidmat.com) for your perusal. Though I am travelling these two months but we will be happy to extend support of any kind for your collective mission if we know the time of proposed seminar well in advance. Sanjeev Kumar, The Goat Trust, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh We at The Goat Trust, along with field partners are working on a livelihood source, which is much maligned against greening. However goat rearing has been one of the oldest livelihood sources and is of significance when we talk about rural poor. It becomes important for us to share with you all how we are working on a model trying to develop Greening Goats Field Approach.
  • 56. We work with 2 - 10 goat keepers, who agree to enhance productivity of goats rather than induct new goats. Through providing finance for replacing low quality often in bred or chronic diseased goats, we enhance quality of asset without much affecting the number of goats in any hamlet. Project partners have made it essential to help farmers select right fodder plants and trees and as collectives set rules for plantation and fodder production. This all is coupled with regular training and now "Bakari Palak Pathshala (Shepherding School)" to make them understand the different quality of goats and for maximizing returns through available fodder and feed use. We are assuming that trees and plants can be grown and saved by the people, whose livelihood depends on that resource. Poor Goat Farmers have been potentially one such serious stakeholder, whose livelihoods shall always depend on available grasses, shrubs and common lands regeneration. Unfortunately they had been seen another way round by those whose livelihoods does not depend on it. We are yet to have documented proof through more field research and quantification of outputs. Our efforts and experiences made clear to us that identifying true stakeholder, educating them and involving them shall be critical. Unfortunately they are far off in making greening efforts and we urge to bring them at the forefront and lead the way. We are reposing our trust in Goat Farmers and we hope similar confidence grows once we work seriously with other partnerships. Achyut Das, Agragamee, Rayagada, Orissa Thanks for raising the issue of Greening Rural Development Programmes. We have a lot to say as we have confronted this issue since last 30 years of our interventions in the Tribal Hinterland of Odisha. As I look back, the space for the GO- NGO/CSO inter-face has terribly shrunk in the changing context of governance and the implementation of various Policies and Programmes. I have always upheld the view that a collaborative framework will be the only solution. Years back, under the aegis of the Planning Commission, there was a JOINT MACHINERY established with support of the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) and Council for Advancement of People’s Action and Rural Technology (CAPART) but it did not go beyond a few meetings. This Joint Machinery desired the participation of some 15 odd Secretaries of the Government of India (GoI) and some 5-6 selected NGOs. (I was privileged to be a member of the First Joint Machinery.) Perhaps the successive governments did not bother to see the importance of convergence at the highest level which would have had a bearing at the village level. I am happy to note that such ideas are being revived and I wish all success. However, collaboration and convergence of programmes can not have a Text book Approach. It has to be innovative and situation specific. I can illustrate a few examples where some degree of success has been achieved despite many road-blocks and systemic bottlenecks. First of all, we have to understand the Tribal Context, the area which needs the maximum attention. The PEACE and GOOD GOVERNANCE in these areas have been very badly affected,. The tribals face various insecurities – Food and Livelihood, Water and Health, Energy and Ecology. While a number of Laws and Policies of the Government are pro-tribal, quite a few are anti-tribal. Tribals are facing displacement and migration. There is a tremendous decline in their quality of life. The Tribals are caught between Left Wing Extremism and deployment of Para- military forces. The loss of Culture and Identity of the tribals are visible. There is widespread exclusion. Agragamee has always believed that any development programme in these areas can bring success if there is a simultaneous effort to ensure Food Security and a strong Voice of Empowerment and Entitlement. Only one aspect is not enough. The Greening Rural Development must start with this assumption. The Land Rights issues must go with the best practices
  • 57. of Land Use. This is true for Water, Forest and other Natural Resources. We must underscore the importance of community approach to self-reliance and indigenous practices. If we believe that Small Land Holders will be the focus of our Agriculture Production, we have to question the relevance of Contract and Corporate farming. Both can not go together. What I want to emphasise that we have to decide the path of development. Here are the Case-studies: CASE STUDY - I Name of the Village: - Y. Kebidi Name of the G.P.:- Chandragiri Name of the Block:- Kashipur Name of the District:- Rayagada Y. Kebidi village is situated in the remote pocket of Chandragiri G.P., Kashipur block of Rayagada district. Total 63 families reside in this village and belong to both SC & ST communities’. In comparison to the population, the existing cultivable land is very less. So the poor people (majority are poor) in this village necessarily have to depend on the Dangar land for their livelihood. The shifting cultivation (Podu chaas) is the primitive method of agriculture of the local people. Due to the prolong practice in the limited dangar area, the fertility of soil has declined gradually. Rapid soil erosion and large scale forest degradation have taken place over time. The productivity of dangar land has decreased beyond expectation and is creating alarming situation in their food security every year. The livelihoods of large number of poor families were at stake. The root cause of low productivity of land was unknown to the people. Fortunately some of the women from that village attended the meeting cum training programme on natural farming organized by Agragamee. They were able to perceive the bad effect of Podu cultivation and learnt about natural farming process, plantation and impact of collective effort of the Mahila Mandals in nearby villages. They were awe-struck by the results of natural farming. They organized meeting in village and intend to form Mahila Mandal in their own village to take up Natural Resource Management (NRM) related activities to enhance their income by protecting the Dangar land from degradation. Finally, they formed Mahila Mandals consisting of women members from all families in the village. Initially, they contributed some funds and opened an account in Kashipur State Bank of India (SBI). To improve saving amount, they collect membership fees and also deposit in the account. Besides this, in Banjimaska community Dangar land, they have planted 1200 cashew in 15 acres of land. Now, they have made 3000 ft of well stone fencing around this Dangar land for cattle prevention. From next year, they have targeted to plant cashew and miscellaneous plants in more than 50 acres of land. In the years to come, not only the livelihood situations of poor families would be more stable…they will be able to earn handsome incomes which will help them pull out of this poverty trap. People have also started taking courage to experiment with their traditional agricultural methods for betterment of their livelihood. In few places, they have started practicing zero tillage farming. They are not complaining with their initial results but also encouraged other villagers to start in few of their patches. The emphasis is now given on waste land identification and process of entitlement for the land less women under Forest Rights Act (FRA). Further it was decided that each Mahila Mandal would select a Dangar plot for its entitlement and will take up plantation programme in that particular Dangar.
  • 58. S. No. Name of the village G.P Block District Name of Mahila Mandal Total Members Name of Demand Danger land Total Area acres 1 Y. Kebidi Chandragiri Kashipur Rayagada Y. Kebidi 45 Banjimaska 20 The households have also been participatory in terms of village meetings and ensuring the project funds come to their village under National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) and FRA. They are also active in improving governance through Right to Information (RTI). Things are expected to improve further. The salient features of success are as follows: 1. 45 farmers have been given Patta under Forest Land Rights Act 2. Under NREGS, 10 families have developed their land with a sanction of Rs.2,98,900. 3. Four families have got support under National Horticulture Mission (NHM). 4. A dam has been constructed under NREGS with a sanction of Rs.3,50,000 5. 11 families are doing NO TILLAGE Agriculture 6. 1 family is raising a Nursery 7. 1 Mahila Mandal has been spearheading Social Mobilisation. CASE STUDY - II • Village Name: Bonasil • Gram Panchayat: Chikamba • Block: Dasmanthpur • District: Koraput • State: Odisha In Agragamee strategic implementation plan, Village - Bonasil has been one of the key focus points. The village a few years back (before Agragamee decided to reintervene and work) was struck with dire poverty and distress migration was rampant, the gory picture a pre implementation survey revealed the development indicators of the village were lower than that of Sub Saharan regions. Then a diligent process of planning was undertaken, through participatory micro planning and need assessment and certain needs that surfaced and the people themselves suggested measures to tackle it. Agragamee then laid plans to perk up the community based institutions to monitor and implement the plans, whereby, three Udyan Vikash Samiti (UVS), one Youth Group (Yuvak Sangh), One Mahila Mandal (consisting of all the adult women of the village), two farmers club and three self help groups were created. The UVS and Yuvak Sangh’s were a part of the Agragamee’s, National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) supported Wadi project, these groups consisted of both women and men who monitored the implementation. Under which assistance was provided to the villagers to revive and utilize their idle waste lands. The people were provided with technical inputs and financial assistance to develop orchards. Under this plans the following has been facilitated. Natural Resource Management: Sl no. Item Nos. Units 1 Total Plantation 38 Acres
  • 59. 2 Beneficiaries 43 Families 3 Grafted Cashew 1520 Plants 4 Mango 950 Plants 5 Litchi 380 Plants 6 Stone Fencing 20 Acres 7 Green Fencing 18 Acres 8 Land Development 30 Acres 9 Irrigation System (Earthen Canal) 1600 Meters 10 Vegetable Intercropping 25 Acres 11 Boundary Plantation (Simarua, Acacias, Karonjo, Chakunda) 9500 Plants Community Based Institutions: Sl no. Item Nos Units 1 Yuvak Sangha (45 Members) 1 Group 2 Mahila Mandal (91 Members) 1 Group 3 Farmers Club (40 Members) 2 Group 4 SHG’s (60 members) 3 Group 5 UVS (43 Members) 3 Group Village Level Participatory Action: Sl no. Item Nos Units 1 FRA Claims 53 ( Person) 160 Acres 2 MGNREGS 85 Job Cards Today the villagers have seen a new ray of hope the migration has reduced to nil, the SHG’s formed are also active in income generation, making nurseries and selling it for plantation. The youth group and Mahila Mandals are engaged in raising village issues at the Block-District-State levels thus ensuring a participatory and comprehensive process of change in the community. A village which had not achieved much under a micro-watershed programme or under Van Surakshya Samiti (VSS). The dream of Banasil village is to set-up a training centre to train the other villages in their approach of greening the village. Already, the neighboring villages have visited them to share their articulation. We have many more successful case studies of convergence which are worth sharing. Biplab K. Paul, Lokvikas, Ahmedabad, Gujarat The query raises some very good points. We and our BPL (Below Poverty Line) women groups have tried some process - which might be coined as greening of rural development. It has been done in desert and salinity affected areas of Gujarat (Patan District) and now it is getting expanded to other countries in South East Asia through Ashoka Globalizer and South East Asia Popular Communications Programme (SEAPCP) along with Rural Innovation in Farming. In last seven years we have supported small and marginal women farmers to have their food security and also income generation (by more than 100%) by use of our World Bank India Development Marketplace (IDM) 2007 awarded innovative irrigation technology from their perennially water logged and salinity affected lands. It enabled our women farmers to come above poverty level within first two seasons. But the ecological impact is telling. It is not only controlling the desertification but also augmenting subsoil aquifer by more than 2 lakh liters per
  • 60. units in each year which is actually reducing the salinity problem and gradually the desert areas are getting green crops in both monsoon and winter - whereas in last 50 years these areas were water logged with near zero productivity. This has been covered by CNBC, ETV, Doordarshan and good number of global agencies. It has won World Bank IDM 2007 award, Aga Khan Foundation (AKF) recognition, Ashoka Recognition and Jal Star award from Gujarat. Currently it is in expansion model in other parts of India. Please let us know if you need further detail. Archana Vaidya, Indian Environment Law Offices (IELO), New Delhi I recently had an opportunity to witness roads constructed under Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) in Himachal Pradesh. It can not be denied that under this scheme roads have reached a lot of villages and hamlets. A lot of good work is indeed happening but at the same time it is extremely painful to see the manner in which work is being executed in some of these places. Trees are cut indiscriminately (at least it looks like that, though are taken by the Forest Department) and I did not see any compensatory forestation in lieu of the trees that were cut or had to be cut. There does not seem to be any strategy or plan in place to scientifically dispose off the excavated material. The dug up material is dumped in to people's fields where they have to fight with the contractor to have the material removed from their fields which in some cases are sources of their livelihood as they till those fields. The rainwater and surface water disposal is not given adequate attention and their flow is not channelized scientifically .The cumulative effect of all these factors lead to instability and enhanced soil erosion and land degradation in these areas. Any road construction work which is undertaken by PMGSY especially when it entails cutting of trees or going through hilly terrain or ecologically sensitive areas all the associated environmental issues need to be given adequate attention. Ramakrishna Nallathiga, Centre for Good Governance, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh There have been a good number of public works undertaken with greening incorporated into them. The details of such works are vested with the concerned authorities and not with a particular nodal agency, therefore, it is little tedious to collect the same. The expansion of Highways in various parts of the country (especially in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka, to which multilateral agencies lent) was done in consideration of the greening requirement especially through tree plantations and translocation (as in Hyderabad Vijayawada highway). In certain cases, thick green corridors with wildlife are given a skip when it came to expansion/ widening. Some urban development authorities also did that in their own project. Hyderabad Urban Development Authority had developed green belts along major highways within urban limits and HUDA in NCR appears to have done some similar work but in isolated manner. The social and environmental guidelines of some of the lending agencies (World Bank, JICA and ADB) as well as the plans/ proposals of Urban/ Infrastructure Corporations (APUFIDC, APRDC, RSRDC, TNUDP, KUIDFC) may offer some details.
  • 61. Mahtab S. Bamji, Dangoria Charitable trust, Hyderabad Greening efforts -tree plantation, succeed as long as there is some water source. Land with water source is seldom left uncultivated. Intensity of cultivation can be increased by raising mixed orchards and planting trees on borders, using water conservation is another green method of farming. Our efforts to raise trees on land with no water source met with problems. We were advised to bring water in tankers, which was not possible. B.Panda, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya I had undertaken an appraisal of Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) in Sikkim and Meghalaya in 2008-09. Two case studies in two blocks in Sikkim provide ample understanding of the potential of MGNREGA in 'greening' rural development. CASE STUDY 1: DUGA Block in Sikkim • Fusion of employment generation through MGNREGS and technical empowerment of villagers/workers through the expertise provided by the Horticulture officer. • Convergence among the various line departments like Horticulture, Community and Rural Development, irrigation. • The rejuvenation in a private land by other villagers showed the development of community feelings among the villagers. This is social capital creation. • The spillover benefits of this work under MGNREGS are visible in this particular work and is acknowledged by all the stakeholders. When the private asset like orchard is rejuvenated by the help of the community, the direct benefit obviously goes to the particular owner of the asset. However, when this particular type of work is replicated for different people having orchards or other works, then everybody is benefited and the community as a whole is benefited. The consequential benefits like preserving green cover, avoiding soil erosion accrue to everyone residing in the village and nearby. • Community deciding to work for individual and subsequent replication also leads to the creation of social assets in form of community cohesion and trust. This was gracefully acknowledged by every villager. • This kind of experimentation helps in avoiding the tragedy of commons problem visible in the mainland. Public assets/properties are prone to destruction because of neglect of common man in maintaining it. When the workers under MGNREGS work in private orchards, the ownership of the property is well taken care of. The convergence of the institution of private property with the interventionist ethos and practices of the Government in the form of MGNREGS ensures that the property is well taken care of along with employment generation and social capital building and reduction in moral hazard in community living. CASE STUDY 2: Khamdong Block Promotion of Sustainable Development: The way the BDO of Khamdong Block in Sikkim had linked up MGNREGS works and the three elements of sustainable development i.e. economic sustainability (through development of market place, tourist centre, land productivity
  • 62. enhancement), social sustainability( through participation of workers, social capital creation) and environmental sustainability(through orange plant cultivation, land terracing) is praiseworthy. Dr. Sandip Tambe, Special Secretary and Nodal Officer, MGNREGS, Government of Sikkim is an Officer from the Indian Forest Service and is having considerable experience of greening Rural Sikkim through MGNREGS and other rural development programmes. He can be a very good resource person. Sejuti Sarkar De, Society for Natural Resource Management & Community Development (SNRMCD), Indirapuram, Ghaziabad (Inputs also relevant for Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)) Society for Natural Resource Management and Community Development (SNRMCD) is working for participatory management of natural resources and also supporting the communities through capacity building mechanisms for livelihood development. While preparing district-level plans we have ensured integration of funds available from Central Sector Schemes for development of agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, watershed etc. We have felt that some points which may be included for greening the Ministry of Rural Development schemes are as follows: • Under MGNREGS, women members can be trained to prepare vermicompost where inputs will be supplied by Panchayat. The organic compost may be packaged and sold by the Panchayat at cheaper rate to farmers of that village. • Plantation is done under MGNREGS both by Forest Department and Panchayat in village common land and wasteland. In addition, plantation can be done bordering farmers’ land and household land for better care. Rights of these plants can be given to the farmers for getting fuelwood, leaves etc. • Some additional clause may be added to PMGSY for making plantation of trees mandatory on both sides of the road constructed. In Agra Forest Division, saplings have been planted under MGNREGS on both sides of PMGSY road. • In Uttarakhand, Percolation Tanks (Chal Khal in local language) have been constructed in forest land by Forest Department for groundwater recharge. Such tanks with improvement in structure to prevent silt deposition can be constructed by Rural Development Department in village common land, roadside area, pasture land. This will help in aquifer recharge, drinking water of livestock etc. • Fruit trees and wood trees can be planted around the water holding structures like ponds, reservoirs, tanks, irrigation channels etc. The products of these trees will be Common Property Resource for the village to ensure food security and nutrition security. • Around civil structures created like Community Hall, Primary School, Primary Health Centre, Anganwadi etc. live hedge can be created with species like Berry, Ber, Plum, Ashok etc. Multiutility species like Ber can be host for Lac and Tasar cultivation. • In dry areas, species like mulberry, Palash etc. may be planted in village community land and waste land. With collaboration of Sericulture Department, training and inputs may be given for mulberry cultivation, Tasar cultivation etc.
  • 63. These may ensure ‘green’ livelihood opportunities and will also help in conservation of natural resources. M. Mukhtar Alam, Centre For Ecological Audit, Social Inclusion & Governance, New Delhi I agree that the “Land Rights issues must go with the best practices of Land Use. In late 90s and early year of the 2000s of the new millennia, I had the privilege of planning and implementing programmes with Achyut Das ji and his team members of Agragamee as regional coordinator of terre des hommes Germany India Programme www.childrensrightsindia.org. I strongly believe that socially inclusive, distributive just and ecologically safe development framework must have community in foreground. Looking at case studies that Achyut Das ji has shared, I feel more and more convinced that grass root interventions and support to the community remains relevant adopting the approach of participatory and consultative development process. I recall my proposal for community based ecostrategic planning and implementation shared with this community earlier and it is indeed pleasure to share how Agragamee has been planning processes at the process level with local community based institutions. Migration from the region has been reported to be nil in recent years. Agragamee’s work is organically connected to the ecologically safe community practices and to me it remains a model of rural development social work in India. Responding to the query, I would like to emphasize on attention of marginal farmers and farmers in general with reference to development of their private owned properties once the greening of all the common resources in the rural and urban areas has been accomplished. There are several farmers who would like plantation support and this could be done easily through gram panchayats under Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MNREGS). B. Muralidharan, Feinbroth Consulting, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh I am happy to share a unique project in Bihar on Social Forestry under MGNREGS that addresses not only social exclusion but provides sustainable solutions, even if at the basic level. This project under the MGNREGS is the brain-child of Mr. S. M Raju, IAS, Divisional Commissioner, Tirhut Division, Bihar. I will, therefore, be brief about what I see as the advantages of this approach and leave the tool/methodology adopted by Shri. Raju to his power point presentation (Please see http://www.nrega.net/csd/Forest/field-initiatives/Bihar.pdf). • USE AVAILABLE DATA INITIALLY: The project utilized already available data on exclusion and its problems in Bihar [and neighboring states]- the aged, widows, women in general and the handicapped. • CONSULT, EVEN IF ON A PILOT BASIS, THE STAKEHOLDERS: In selected villages project officials did a stakeholders meeting with Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) and MGNREGS staff • IDENTIFY WHY A SCHEME IS NOT WORKING TO ITS POTENTIAL: The project identified why MGNREGS was not as big a 'success' in Bihar and found a solution -
  • 64. Problem: land availability; Solution: Social forestry in Public and private lands with special focus on Sl. No. 1 above. • CONVERGE MANY DESIRED OUTCOMES: Including the excluded: addressed in Sl. No.1 above; innovation: addressed in Sl. No. 3 above; Sustainability: Public assets providing recurring income; 4. Environment: Not only an environment friendly initiative but an environment protecting one. Based on the experience from the field the project is undergoing changes and is awaiting approval from the Government of Bihar. The scheme was also planning to promote the use of locally available fertilizer like cow manure and urine, for which standard prices were to be fixed. Please contact Mr. Raju if you want an update. He is currently the Divisional Commissioner, Munger Division, Bihar Satyabrata Guru, Orissa Watershed Development Mission (OWDM), Odhisha The Watershed Programme under brand name Western Orissa Rural Livelihoods Project (WORLP) has already taken some unique innovations in watershed management with a clear focus on ecological restoration and strengthening related livelihoods options. Those sustainable delivery mechanisms helped the programmes to achieve the environmental objectives and also to improve green outcomes. I am sharing with you some of the good lessons in terms of ‘green outcomes with a scope of replication. Delivery Mechanism for Sustainable Outcomes in WORLP - An Overview: The WORLP is a ten-year project (2000-2010), implemented by the Orissa Watershed Development Mission (OWDM) of Government of Orissa (GoO) and funded by the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID). The goal of the project is More Effective Approaches to Sustainable Rural Livelihoods adopted by government agencies and other stakeholders in KBK districts and elsewhere. The project has been guided by the following purpose “Sustainable Livelihoods, particularly for the poorest, promoted in 4 districts in replicable ways by 2010”.The project was designed for 290 watersheds (phase 1), subsequently extended to 387 additional watersheds (phase 2) in the four WORLP districts (total 677 watersheds). WORLP has also been supporting participatory watershed development approach in GoO funded Jeebika project (6 districts and 460 watersheds). Fostering institutional changes has been important consideration of WORLP for empowerment, sustainability and structural changes. With this as the wireframe, WORLP imperatives have been for community mobilization and institution building, capacity building, policy advocacy, knowledge sharing and dissemination. These have resulted into institutional outcomes at community level, service provider level and at policy level. The following sub-sections describe the innovative delivery mechanism of WORLP for better outcomes: Inclusion of Poorest: Land based programmes such as watershed development is essentially biased towards the landowning groups especially large landowners. Thus the land less and resource poor often get left out in the process and the benefits of such land based initiatives do not percolate as appropriate benefits to these communities. With the focus on land, the poorest are also not represented in the governance and management regimes. WORLP has been a pioneering project for addressing this critical issue through the watershed plus approach. The approach takes cognizance of these groups and brings them into the intervention focal.
  • 65. The plus component of the approach brings in the poorest into the forefront of interventions. WORLP employs the participatory method of Well-Being Ranking for positioning of project interventions. This ensures that the interventions for the poor are planned and implemented as first priority. During the OPR 2008, almost 75 percent of the poorest have reported inclusion of their interests in the micro planning process. This has been complemented with organizing the poorest into inclusive groups for concurrent development of the social capital. As evident in OPR study that almost 71 percent of the poorest are part of inclusive groups in the form of Self Help Groups (SHGs) and Common Interest Groups (CIGs). Along with mobilization of the poorest into groups, substantial project investment has gone into imparting the requisite capacities for group functioning and management such that these groups function as peer collectives harnessing the social capital. The project components of Revolving Fund and Grants are specifically focused at these groups and adequately address the issues of the resource poor and the resource-less. The two pronged strategy of WORLP of positioning and community organization has ensured that the poorest are included and get sufficiently benefitted ensuring equitable distribution. Transparent and Accountable Governance: WORLP has fostered a regime of decentralized natural resource governance and livelihoods promotion in the project target area. The fostered regime has brought the watershed communities at the forefront of planning, implementation and associated decision-making process. With the philosophy, Watershed Associations have been formed in all the project watershed and Watershed Development Committees have been formed as executive arm of these institutions crafted for decentralized governance. The community mobilization and institution building processes have been complemented with investments in imparting the necessary capacities to these institutions such that they effectively discharge their mandate of sustainable institutions of democratic governance. The management processes anchored by these crafted institutions have furthered a model of transparent and accountable governance. WORLP interventions in a project watershed are initiated through the participatory process of microplanning. This ensures that there is resource literacy as well as functional engagement of the primary stakeholders at the very first stage of the intervention. It ensures that the interests of various groups, often conflicting may be harmonized and are included in the intervention design. For all management decision-making WDC is the platform. Agenda is developed and communicated to the WDC members well in advance so as to facilitate informed participation. All the management decisions are taken in these WDC meetings and documented. Well defined financial transaction protocols and adherence has been ensured. Reading out the financials during the meetings is an agenda item in all the meetings across the project area. Elaborate financial documentation system in the form of cash-book, ledger etc are maintained by the WDC. Resulted in communities could recall the interventions undertaken in the watershed at the same time were aware of operational and financial procedures. High degree of participation of the watershed community in the governance processes, well defined operations and financial systems contributed towards transparent and accountable participatory governance in the watersheds. Behavior Change in the Facilitators: The Orissa Watershed Development Mission (OWDM) under the aegis of Department of Agriculture, GoO is the executing agency for WORLP. Per se, the project is housed in the government department. WORLP has been among the very first of the interventions experimenting with decentralization and therefore devolution of power. This also translated into change in role of the service providers or the Project Implementing Agency as well as modus operandi of government functioning. The role of service provider/PIAs as envisaged has been of a ‘facilitator’ catalyzing change rather than actual doers. Also, the
  • 66. traditional approach of “top-down” functioning was replaced by “Bottom-up” approach, bringing the primary stakeholder to the centre of decision-making. The shift in approach necessitated trust in people’s ability, collaborative work culture and power sharing. More concerns were about financial management aspects and accountability which rests with the government functionaries. The investments in exposure and training along with successful and effective implementation resulted in the faith in abilities of the community in managing their own development. Thus, there has been a change in the behaviour of the PIAs through the experiential process of WORLP implementation where the watershed communities are perceived as equal partners in the development process. Institutionalizing Innovative Service Delivery Mechanisms: Innovation, experimentation and adaptation have been salient characteristics of WORLP implementation. The project has actively experimented, improvised and fostered new approaches for resource development and livelihoods promotion; Watershed Plus itself being a novel approach. Innovation in service delivery has been a key feature and WORLP has crystallized and institutionalized innovative service delivery mechanisms. Livelihoods service delivery through Community Link Workers (CLW) and Cluster Livelihoods Resource Centres (CLRC) stand out as the two innovative service delivery models. The project has fostered the model of local level service delivery through Community Link Workers (CLWs). These CLWs act as local resource persons for the institutions. CLWs are village youth trained for delivering services related to agriculture, soil and moisture conservation, livestock and institutions. The model is that of Self-Employed Change Agent. During the project period, the CLW is remunerated by the institution and it is envisaged that in the long-run the communities would remunerate the CLW for the services offered. This thus is a self-sustaining revenue based model of service delivery. The project has developed a cadre of such local resource persons and this has proved to be an effective model of client-level service delivery. Requisite capacities in the specific thematic areas have been developed among these CLWs through training programmes and hand-holding support. High utilization of services offered by the CLWs has been observed. The livestock CLW has also become an interface with other service providers like Veterinary doctors and extension workers. High level of access to services offered by the CLWs has been reported with almost 87 percent of the households reporting accessing any of the services offered by a CLW in the OPR study. Most significant is evidence of remuneration of the services by the community to the CLWs that establishes CLW as an effective and self-sustaining model of service delivery. Similarly, the Cluster Livelihoods Resource Centres (CLRC) have been developed as another alternative service delivery model, networked as the Livelihoods Resource Centre Network (LRCN). The vision is to have a network of resource centres to institutionalize and sustain the capacity building processes for the primary stakeholders i.e the watershed communities. Six CLRCs have been developed for the same in the project area and they have developed their own business plans so as to ensure their sustainability. CLRCs are anchored by well established organisations that are located close to the communities delivering services through a local resource pool of trainers. These CLRCs are envisioned to act as support organizations for the Project Implementation Agencies (PIA) of the watershed projects and the Watershed Associations (WA) providing an array of training and allied services in various thematic domains of livelihoods promotion. These CLRCs position themselves as self-sustaining revenue-based models with PIAs and WAs as their clients.
  • 67. Access to Services for Livelihood Enhancement: WORLP project ensured livelihood promotion through access to different services like access to financial services, access to saving, access to credit, access to Agricultural and Non Agricultural services and information, access to Natural Resources and access to quality of life through better sanitation and drinking water. Access to financial services is a key vector to both livelihood enhancement - through provision of credit – as well as social security - through savings and insurance facilities. The project has provided a platform to bring communities into the fold of formal and quasi-formal financial systems primarily through the SHGs that function as semi-formal financial intermediary institutions. The members of SHGs engage in routine and regular collection of savings which is then used as capital to tender small loan support within the group. The groups are also supported by formal financial institutions such as banks with bulk credit for livelihood support activities. The project has emphasized the availability of two key financial services viz. savings and credit to the target communities. Savings has always been understood as a difficult service that may not be provided on a commercially viable scale to the poor under the present formal financial systems as the poor are unable to spare bulk cash at any given point in time. Here, the SHGs have provided an avenue to poor women to make micro-deposits at regular interval thus providing convenience of small amounts as well as flexibility in terms of time. Enhancing access to quality information has been one of project focus area for WORLP. Village information centres formed, act as resource centres for information pertaining to information on Agricultural and non agricultural services and also government schemes. Policy Outcomes: Policy influence for pro-poor changes through removal of lacunae and changes has been a thrust area for WORLP. Interventions in this regard have been policy analysis and research, development of innovative models and information dissemination. For addressing policy constraints influencing livelihoods, thematic studies were taken-up in the thematic areas of Non-Wood Forest Produce, land entitlements, migration and disaster coping. These studies identified policy and practice constraints to be taken for advocacy. The project has also developed policy briefs on contemporary issues of social inclusion and climate change in the context of the state and Western Orissa in particular. Key policy changes that the project has been instrumental in are: • Recruitment policy for contractual appointments: WORLP is one of the few projects that have initiated recruitment of contractual staff in the project positions through open market recruitment. This has been a change from the government policy, given that WORLP is essentially housed in a government department. While largely the project is implemented by the state department, there is a parallel structure of Capacity Building Teams and Livelihoods Support Teams with these being open market recruitment. Also, these appointees are recruited on market price again a deviation from the ‘pay scale’ brackets of government. However, the recruitment policy has been widely adopted by and has become a practice in the state government. • Lease of Ponds to SHGs: A key policy influenced for facilitating access to water bodies has been that of Panchayat Raj Department for leasing out of ponds for aquaculture. The department follows a process of open-bidding for leasing out ponds. Models developed under WORLP showcasing ability of the SHGs in managing the waterbody for livelihoods facilitated lobbying and advocacy with the department. This resulted into the policy of leasing out ponds to SHGs. As many as 784 SHGs have leased out ponds in the project area for undertaking aquaculture. • Common Guidelines for Watershed Development Projects 2008: The largest policy footprint of WORLP by far has been in the form of its influence on the Common Guidelines for Watershed Development Projects issues by Government of India in 2008. WORLP experiences
  • 68. and approaches have been instrumental in shaping the guidelines leading to adoption of the watershed plus approach for watershed development projects across the country. Almost 23 percent of the total allocation of funds to the watershed projects is now earmarked for the plus component. Also, the institutional structure of WORLP has been more or less adopted for project implementation. The guidelines would shape the implementation of all the watershed in the country, being undertaken under various programmes and schemes. This would ensure that the WORLP approaches are upscaled and replicated across the country. Karen Thorst, Humana People to People India, Rajasthan It is a very good idea to ‘green’ the programs in District Rural Development Agency (DRDA). I think we all have many examples on how the schemes of the DRDA could contribute considerably to this effect. Humana People to People India will be happy to contribute with inputs under the following headlines: I) How 3,000 farming families and the 10 villages they live in enrolled for participating in the Harit Sankalp (Greening Effect) project and each family and each village fulfilled 12 parameters for improvement of the local environment. Behror block, Alwar district, Rajasthan. (In cooperation with ‘The GAIA Movement’). II) How 3,000 farming families and 10 villages participated in the Challenge Program for Water and Food. Behror block, Alwar district, Rajasthan. (In cooperation with ‘International Water Management Institute’). The following output reports are available: 1) Water Related Agricultural Techniques 2) Water Efficient Farming and Ground Water Recharge 3) Farmer led Research III) How 200 Farming Families are constructing household Biogas plants and how the benefit from use of the by-product ‘Slurry’ have improved the soil. Mahuwa block, Dausa district, Rajasthan (In cooperation with ‘Ministry for Foreign Affairs Finland’). IV) Green Action in 30 villages where industries and farmers are working on recharge of ground water to reestablish the balance between the water used by farmers and industries and input water from rain water recharge. Neemrana block, Alwar district, Rajasthan. (In cooperation with ‘SAB Miller India’ and ‘Confederation of Indian Industries- CII’). Anita Sharma, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), New Delhi Greening has two aspects - ONE - issues where greening makes the produce or services expensive and therefore non-competitive. Such ideas become difficult to implement as well as sustain as they require financial subsidy support for the local authorities, which is difficult. Corrupt practices have a large inroads in such cases, leading to not greening but blackening. The SECOND part is where the normal deficiencies and gaps existing and using 'green' components add to development as well as better quality of life. These include aspects like (1)
  • 69. effective use of available green sources and resources - water harvesting, recycling, and use of green power (solar energy, biomass, etc.) and effective disposal of waste for generating vermi- compost, and energy. The rural development programs should have strong focus on skilling people or using their services and thereby create awareness on issues which relate with extending solar energy for rural electrification, or using biomass for energy generation, using solar power driven motors for irrigation, conserving water through check dams, planting water efficient trees, cycling crops, etc. Even reducing waste of available produce can be a contribution towards greening rural development (I have seen villagers throwing crops or not being very efficient in picking those and sometimes wonder why there should be such huge wastage when a large number of children go hungry). Even the crop packaging industry can reduce waste and become green. Lets introduce some innovative practices which create a win-win situation for all involved! Bansi Lal Kaul, Society for Popularization of Science, Jammu The suggestions put forth are very valuable. I would suggest that fertilizer trees like Acacia, Sesbania, Gliricidia, Tephrosia and Faidherbia albida be planted at the borders of farms to increase soil fertility. Fertilizer tree system helps to build soil organic matter and fertility in a sustainable manner as these trees help in supporting soil microbial environment that promotes nutrient availability and fixation of nitrogen. Bashu Aryal, International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), Nepal We are also working in Goat sector in Nepal. May I request Sanjeev from Goat Trust to send me more information about their programme. I am quite interested to know that it is not the number of goats to increase but it is the productivity to increase. This is what we are also thinking and trying to implement. I see points in sharing and exchanging the learnings. Many thanks to all who contributed to this query! If you have further information to share on this topic, please send it to Solution Exchange for the Climate Change Community in India at se-clmt@solutionexchange-un.net.in, Water Community at se-wes@solutionexchange-un.net.in and Work and Employment Community at se- emp@solutionexchange-un.net.in with the subject heading “Re Query: Greening Rural Development Programmes – Experiences; Examples; Referrals. Additional Reply.” Disclaimer: In posting messages or incorporating these messages into synthesized responses, the UN accepts no responsibility for their veracity or authenticity. Members intending to use or transmit the information contained in these messages should be aware that they are relying on their own judgment. Copyrighted under Creative Commons License “Attribution-NonCommercial- ShareAlike 3.0”. Re-users of this material must cite as their source Solution Exchange as well as the item’s recommender, if relevant, and must share any derivative work with the Solution Exchange Community. Solution Exchange is a UN initiative for development practitioners in India. For more information please visit www.solutionexchange-un.net.in