Importance of design in production


Published on

Importance of design in production

Published in: Lifestyle, Business
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Importance of design in production

  1. 1. Importance of Design in Production
  2. 2. Introduction • The design department can be considered as the research and development department of clothing industry, because it is in this department that the proto-types of garments are developed and prepared for selling and production
  3. 3. Process of Product Development For most factories the process of product development involves seven stages 1. Forecasting 2. Designing 3. Collection Planning 4. Pattern Making 5. Technology 6. Production of sample garments 7. Pattern Grading
  4. 4. Forecasting • This stage commences with the evaluation and interpretation of the market’s future needs in terms of fashion and price. • Apart from intuition and common sense, these forecasts are based on the accumulated knowledge, expertise and experience of the company to make fairly accurate prediction of the types of garments customers will buy and the prices they will be willing to pay.
  5. 5. Forecasting • Marketing is a collection of activities that include market research, consumer surveys, and customer service. • The objective is to arrive at a collection of products for sale in the future and then to promote this collection in the market. • The ultimate goal is a collection that can be produced for minimum risk and maximum return.
  6. 6. Target Group • A Target group is an identifiable sector of consumers with broadly similar characteristics, such as –fashion consciousness, –buying habits, –types of shops used, –brand awareness, –brand loyalty and –quality requirements.
  7. 7. A target group can be defined according to the following criteria. Attitude and Lifestyle Fashion Awareness and Expectations Women’s wear Menswear Women’s wear Menswear Anti-Fashion, no demands Trendy fashion follower Avant-garde Avant-garde Nonconformist Younger, confident, demanding Fashion Conscious Young Fashions Prestige Oriented Untidy youthful Jeans type Jeans type Not to be tempted Older, demanding, fashion grouch Career Woman Career Man Careful, Unsophisticated No particular orientation Modern woman Modern man Smart, Conservative Conventional, Unsophisticated Youthful Youthful Young trendy Cultured Businessman Smart Formal Middle of road Middle of road Bargain hunter Bargain hunter
  8. 8. Quality Level • Quality Level is the other factor that determines the market sector towards which a collection will be aimed. • The quality level defines the rank of the product in the total range of offers in the market, so far as its design content and workmanship are concerned.
  9. 9. Factors that Influence the Quality Level 1. Fabric Quality 2. Fashion Content 3. Workmanship in the interior parts 4. Precision of assembly 5. Style and fit 6. Range of sizes and number of pieces
  10. 10. Designer High Quality Upper Middle Middle Bottom, discount Store High Low EXCLUSIVITY Quantity
  11. 11. The Following quality levels can be distinguished • Designer – Quality Characteristics include unique designer labels, small number per style, the most exclusive fabrics – often with in-house designs – extreme fashion leaders. • High quality or Model Fashions are characterized by very high levels of workmanship, exclusive designs and detailing, small series production, limited size range, fashionable.
  12. 12. • The Upper Middle Level uses good quality fabrics, provides optimum fit, and follows the latest fashions in style and colour. • The Middle Level has strict price constraints, a comprehensive size range, but a limited range of styles. • The Bottom or Discount level has large quantities of limited styles. Fabric quality and workmanship are geared to low price levels. The style and fit are of comparatively lower importance.
  13. 13. Designing • In practice, the designer starts by preparing some sketches of the core ideas for the collection and selecting the fabrics and trim to be used for each design. • These core designs are garments which contain the main design and fabric features of the collection and they will be used as the themes for developing the full range of samples. • For example, four or five core designs might represent the basic ideas of the collection and each one of these lead to several variations
  14. 14. Elements of Clothing Design • Fashion is not the only consideration in developing a garment for a market. • The overall appearance (style) as well as the utility value (fitness for purpose, after care) also have to be appropriate. • The style, color, decoration, material, trimmings and technique are fundamental elements of clothing design.
  15. 15. Styling • A fashionable cut, a good fit and comfort in wearing arise mostly from the structure of the design. • This includes for example 1. The position and direction of the vertical and horizontal components 2. Length – width proportion 3. Shaping 4. Details, e.g. sleeves, collars, fastenings, pockets
  16. 16. Styling • Distinctive silhouettes are attained from particular designs. • A distinct sectioning of the garment is obtained from the disposition of the seam line and edges.
  17. 17. Decoration • Decoration can emphasis the style of a particular item of clothing and can, for example, give an elegant, casual, business-like, or romantic feel to the clothing. • Decoration can take form of; 1. Decorative stitching and embroidery 2. Pleats and tucks 3. Frills and flounces 4. Piping and binding 5. Trimming and braid edging 6. Applique and incrustation
  18. 18. Material • The material greatly influences the character of an item of clothing and also determines its possible end- use. • On the other hand, the visual qualities such as how to use material hangs, the color, the pattern and surface texture are important when choosing a material. • On the other hand the comfort, wearing, and care characteristics, which depend on the fibres, type of yarn, fabric and finishing, must also be taken into account.
  19. 19. Trimming and Technique • The trimmings and technique considerably influence the utility or the functional performance of the clothing. • Apart from the material, they are crucial to the overall quality level. • Trimming include the application of linings and interlinings, padding and fastenings. • Technique includes technical aspects of sewing, such as the quality and structure of the seams, reinforcement of edges, and securing of pockets and files.
  20. 20. Collection Planning • The collection plan concerns all those sections of the company that are involved in the development, making and selling of a collection. • It is organized framework for timely processing – from the acquisition of sample materials through to exhibition at the clothing fair and follow-up sales. • A basic concept for the new season’s collection is developed by the company Direction together with product managers and designers.
  21. 21. The collection plan contains all of the necessary information for those departments that will be directly or indirectly involved with realizing the collection, for example • Product Concepts: Number of models, model groups, deadlines, production planning, themes • Design Concepts: General character and particular style, guidelines for the themes • Market: Target Groups, price levels, sales plan, delivery schedules • Fabric Concepts: Trend themes, fabric qualities, basic and fashion colors
  22. 22. Collection Planning • The collection has to be coordinated to the seasonal and product requirements of the retail trade. • Both summer and winter seasons are subdivided into individual segments. • These segments are given theme names and each will be composed of a number of items according to the style, fabrics and colors which form a fashion trend. • Members of a theme will be grouped together in the retail store.
  23. 23. Collection Planning • Example: Weekend Theme: • Sporty, diverse leisurewear theme for the young, modern woman. • Styles: Sporty skirts with added details, long or knee length slim trousers with side slits, short-sleeve blazer with patch pockets • Fabrics: Cotton, lyocell, wool mixtures • Colours: Lime green and apricot combined with marine.
  24. 24. Developing a Collection • A collection is a range of garment styles (models) designed with respect to current fashions trends and economic realities. • It is put together by collaboration between creative, sales and technical resources. • Individual development steps may be undertaken sequentially or in parallel. • The time required depends on the quality level and the size of the collection. • Computer software is available for the design and the product data management aspects.
  25. 25. Stages in the Development of a Collection Target Groups Quality Level Collection Range Product groups Market Research Consumer Surveys Fabric & Garment Fairs Internet styling trends Regulations Capacities Sales quantities Finance Price expectations Development Brief
  26. 26. Stages in Developing a collection
  27. 27. Pattern Making • This function connects design to production by producing paper templates for all the components, such as cloth, lining and fusible, which have to be cut for a garment. • Pattern making is highly skilled technique which calls for technical ability, a sensitivity for design interpretation and a practical understanding of the process technology used by the factory. • Industrial pattern making has two basic stages, the block pattern and the garment pattern.
  28. 28. The Block pattern • This is a basic pattern without any style features and incorporates the measurements, proportions and posture of the body for which garments developed from this pattern are intended. • The block pattern can be created by either of the following methods: • (1)Flat Method: • (2) Modeling:
  29. 29. Flat Method • The components of the pattern, usually the body and sleeve, are constructed by a draft (technical drawing) which incorporates the measurements and proportions of the particular system used by the pattern maker. • This type of pattern draft can also be produced by a computer which has been programmed to construct basic patterns according to given measurements and proportions.
  30. 30. Modeling • This was the original method of constructing garment patterns before the advent of flat systems and it is still widely used in the clothing business. • Modeling entails the fitting of the block garment, usually in toile, on a workroom stand of the appropriate size. • When the fit and balance are satisfactory, the toile is removed from the stand and each component is copied onto pattern paper and the necessary making up allowances added.
  31. 31. Modeling • This was the original method of constructing garment patterns before the advent of flat systems and it is still widely used in the clothing business. • Modeling entails the fitting of the block garment, usually in toile, on a workroom stand of the appropriate size. • When the fit and balance are satisfactory, the toile is removed from the stand and each component is copied onto pattern paper and the necessary making up allowances added.
  32. 32. The garment pattern • The styled patterns used for cutting the original sample garments can be developed by a variety of means, including the flat method, modeling or a combination of both. • When using the flat method, the pattern maker superimposes the style lines of the garment onto copy of the block pattern, performs the necessary manipulations and then adds the requisite sewing and other allowances to each component. • Related components are aligned to check their accuracy and nips and/or notches are made in the seam lines as guides for alignment and matching during sewing and making up.
  33. 33. The garment pattern • The conventional methods of pattern construction are gradually being replaced by computerized systems which interact with the pattern maker. • The essential features of this technology are the • (1) Pattern Design and • (2) Pattern Generation Systems.
  34. 34. Pattern Design Systems (PDS) • The pattern maker inputs to the system all the block patterns in current use and with the aid of the computer can construct garment patterns for them. • Alternatively, a previously constructed pattern stored in the system can be used as the base pattern for a new style. • It is also possible to store specific features such as collars, lapels and pockets; then, providing the pattern maker has inputted matching alignment points, an existing lapel can, for example, be literally ‘stuck on’ to a different forepart with a minimum of time and effort.
  35. 35. Pattern Generation Systems (PGS) • When the pattern components for the top cloth have been developed on the computer via PDS, the pattern generation programme automatically generates the patterns for auxiliary components such as linings and fusible. • It operates according to rules specified in advance by the pattern maker on relationship between top cloth and lining cloth or top cloth and fusible.
  36. 36. Technology • Irrespective of the techniques and methods used to construct and perfect the patterns, an important factor which must be taken into account at this stage is the technological capability of the factory and what it can or cannot produce.
  37. 37. Technology • It is possible that a new style feature requires the use of a special type of machine which the factory does not possess, and this is the time when decisions have to be made as whether this particular item of equipment should be purchased, or whether an acceptable substitute can be found from what is available in the factory, or whether minor modifications to the design / pattern will allow existing machinery to be utilized.
  38. 38. Production of Sample garments • Sample garments are usually produced by a small unit supervised by the pattern master /maker and/or designer, and this unit has an important role in determining the results of the forthcoming season. • Separation of the design function from the manufacturing function brings pressure to bear on this phase: can a design department based in one country interact with the sample function based in the other country to fully understand the implications of producing a new range of garments?
  39. 39. Sampling is a continual process in the clothing industry. During the development of new products the following elements arise. 1. New materials and process have to experimented with to establish their suitability for mass production 2. The production garment patterns have to be altered and perfected to rectify faults discovered during the making-up of the samples. 3. At the sampling stage, the quantities of fabric and trimmings are established and quick costing made. Sometimes the designer and pattern maker will decide to alter a pattern to reduce the amount of the material and/or labour required, if the projected cost of the original design exceeds the forecast price. 4. The finished sample garments undergo a thorough scrutiny to evaluate whether they fit in with the overall picture the company wants to present in this particular collection. In this
  40. 40. Pattern Grading • Pattern Grading is a process whereby patterns of different sizes are produced from the original master pattern. This process can be performed either manually or automatically by a computer system. • Computerized pattern grading is the link between pattern design and generation and the preparatory stages of cutting. The grades produced by the computer can be used in two ways. 1. The patterns can be cut out and used to plan cutting markers manually if necessary 2. The graded sizes can be stored in the model files of the computer and recalled when cutting markers for that style are to be planned on the system.