Contents Introduction Conclusion Development Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3
Rationale Can you please find out? Chị cất giùm tôi số ti ề n này nhé?
How to use Yes-No questions effectively in different communicative contexts? Rationale
To help learners of English use Yes-No questions effectively in different communicative contexts.
To give some practical value in language teaching.
Aims of the study
An account of different Yes-No question types in English.
Similarities and differences between Y/N and C/K in English and Vietnamese in terms of syntactic and pragmatic features.
How Yes-No questions in English and Vietnamese are used in various contexts.
Possible solutions to different types of mistakes and errors commonly committed by Vietnamese learners of English.
Scope of the study
Syntactic structural patterns of Yes-No questions in English and Vietnamese.
Pragmatic features (some illocutionary forces) in English and Vietnamese.
Possible implications for the teaching English to Vietnamese learners, which originate from any researches into Yes-No questions.
Three famous Vietnamese films
Mùa ổi (The Guava house)
Mùa hè chiều thẳng đứng
(The Vertical Ray of the Sun).
Chuyện Của Pao ( Pao’s story)
Three famous American & English films
Romeo & Juliet
Criteria for the choice of films (English & Vietnamese) Quality Length Participants Criteria
Method of the study
One of type of Arts close to people’s life and social activities.
Help exploit prominent features of language-in-use normally realized via various types of Y/N.
Many conversations containing different sub-types of Y/N
Translate into variety of broadcast standards for world-wide distribution with specialized support structure.
(David Wharton and Jeremy Grant, 2001)
Method of the study
Cannot reveal the linguistic features actually in many contexts in a given language.
Cannot observe directly all types of interpsersonal insituations in which Yes-No questions seem to be required.
Chapter I : Theoretical Background Exclamatory yes-no questions Yes-No questions Y/N with auxiliaries as operators Positive Tag questions Declarative questions Modal auxiliaries Primary auxiliaries Negative Positive Negative
Theoretical Background (Geoffrey Finch, 2000:189)
Chapter II: Syntactic and semantico- pragmatic features of yes -no questions in English and có - không questions in Vietnamese 2.2.1. Y/N used to request and command Major findings à
2.2.2. Y/N used to offer to do something
2.2.3. Y/N used to make a suggestion
2.2.4. Y/N used to ask for permission (AFP)
2.2.5. Y/N used to make invitation
2.2.6. Y/N used for greetings
2.2.7. Y/N used to express attitudes and feelings
Both Y/N and C/K are found to be nearly similar in the usage of positive Y/N.
The usage of Neg in English Y/N is different from C/K in Vietnamese.
The most obvious types of illocutionary forces of Y/N and C/K are perhaps requests and commands.
The Vietnamese seem to be more direct in making Y/N for a command with particles : nhé, nhá, hả, à, …
The English seem to be more polite when using Y/N for requests ( Can/ Could).
Both Y/N and C/K use Tqs, Dqs and Neg to express attitudes and feelings.
Learners should learn more about the cultural differences in the two languages.
Miscellaneous problems “có” and “không” Mistakes and errors Misformation in using “đã… chưa” questions Misunderstanding illocutionary forces of có- không questions Mistakes and errors Miscellaneous problems “yes”) and “no” Misunderstanding illocutionary forces of Y/N Chapter 3: Implications
Don't you like your teacher?
Yes ( means I don’t like her/him)
Don't you like your teacher?
Or: You don't like your teacher, do you?
* No or No , I like . (means I like her/him.)
Cậu có muốn đi ăn bây giờ không?
Không. (No- means that she doesn’t want to go eating now).
Cậu không muốn đi ăn bây giờ sao?
Vâng (Translated literally into English will be “ Yes! ” the meaning “she doesn’t want to go eating now”.)
1. Syntactic features
The Ss of English are more direct than Vietnamese Ss in the usage of position of auxiliaries ( modal and primary ) at the beginning of the questions (operators)
The Vietnamese Ss seem to be sensitive to the imposition of using particles at the end of the questions.
2 . Semantico-pragmatic features
Similarities: Performing the illocutionary forces mentioned.
The English speakers:
Y/N to make requests, suggestions, invitations, offering to do something, expressing approval, surprise, and disappointment.
English Y/N with auxiliaries.
Y/N for greetings, commands, AFP and expressing disapproval.
Y/N with particles.
Ss’ intentions, attitudes and contexts are of great importance.
Limitation of the study
Does not claim to assess the social factors in different contexts (employees & employers; brothers & sisters; wives & husbands; the old & the young; …).
Foreign English speakers’ questionnaires and learners of Vietnamese’ questionnaires were not backed up with a quick interview with some of the surveyed students.
Suggestions for further research
The responses to Y/N in English and Vietnamese.
Prosodic modality markers of Y/N in English and Vietnamese.