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LEARNING TO LANGUAGE LEARNING Wallace,J.(1991)  Training Foreign Language Teachers.  Cambridge University Press  By: Dolly...
ACQUISITION & LEARNING <ul><li>Acquisition:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It refers to the spontaneous , unconscious and incident...
ACQUISITION & LEARNING <ul><li>Pick up the lg naturally </li></ul><ul><li>Implicit knowdlege </li></ul><ul><li>Formal teac...
DIFFERENCES <ul><li>Innate </li></ul><ul><li>Exposed all the time </li></ul><ul><li>No emotional barrier </li></ul><ul><li...
FIRST, SECOND AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE <ul><ul><li>Concern on children’s learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The main charater...
LEARNING THE FRIST LANGUAGE <ul><ul><li>READING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age 5 L1  incompletely  developed  </li></ul></...
LEARNING A SECOND LANGUAGE  <ul><li>Children learn faster than adults. ( Hypothesis )  </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Period H...
THE INFLUENCE OF L1 ON L2 <ul><li>Competition Model Bates & Whinney(1989) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain how L1 learning af...
AGE AND LANGUAGE FIRST  <ul><li>Who has less prolonged attention? </li></ul><ul><li>FL lesson influence lg development </l...
IS YOUNGER REALLY BETTER <ul><li>Catherine Snow & Marian Hoefnagel (1978) </li></ul><ul><li>X= beginning Y = end  </li></u...
IS YOUNGER REALLY BETTER <ul><li>Catherine Snow & Marian Hoefnagel (1978) </li></ul>TASK CHILD ADOLESCENT ADULT PRONUNC  Y...
ADVANTAGES TO STARTING YOUNG WITH FOREIGN LG <ul><li>ADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early starters develop & maintain SO...
CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS <ul><li>“… is a way of comparing languages in order to determine potential errors for the ultimate pu...
CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS HYPOTHESIS (CAH) <ul><ul><ul><li>&quot; The most efficient materials are those that are based upon a ...
CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS ASSUMPTIONS (1) <ul><ul><ul><li>1- Errors are accounted for by considering differences between L1 and...
CAH: Two positions <ul><li>A priori or strong view: comparison between languages will  predict  learning outcomes </li></u...
‘ MISTAKE ’  VERSUS  ‘ ERROR’ <ul><ul><li>Mistake : Random performance slip caused by fatigue, excitement, etc. Readily se...
TYPES OF ERRORS: INTERLINGUAL & INTRALINGUAL <ul><li>Interlingual – based on cross-linguistic comparisons </li></ul><ul><l...
A DEVELOPMENTAL SEQUENCE FOR NEGATION. <ul><ul><li>Stage Sample Utterance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. External >>  No th...
<ul><li>THANK YOU  </li></ul><ul><li>See you next Monday do not forget your </li></ul><ul><li>to study and read </li></ul>
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Learning To Language Learning

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Learning To Language Learning

  1. 1. LEARNING TO LANGUAGE LEARNING Wallace,J.(1991) Training Foreign Language Teachers. Cambridge University Press By: Dolly Ramos G
  2. 2. ACQUISITION & LEARNING <ul><li>Acquisition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It refers to the spontaneous , unconscious and incidental process of internalization that result from natural language use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to acquire the knowledge of something through the conscious and formal study </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. ACQUISITION & LEARNING <ul><li>Pick up the lg naturally </li></ul><ul><li>Implicit knowdlege </li></ul><ul><li>Formal teaching is not necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Using lg for real communication </li></ul><ul><li>Formal teaching is necessay </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing about the lg </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of the rules </li></ul><ul><li>ACQUISTION </li></ul><ul><li>LEARNING </li></ul>
  4. 4. DIFFERENCES <ul><li>Innate </li></ul><ul><li>Exposed all the time </li></ul><ul><li>No emotional barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Natural motivation </li></ul><ul><li>No interlanguage </li></ul><ul><li>Learned </li></ul><ul><li>Not used all the time </li></ul><ul><li>Might be emotional barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Less motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on L1 </li></ul><ul><li>First Language </li></ul><ul><li>Second Language </li></ul>
  5. 5. FIRST, SECOND AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE <ul><ul><li>Concern on children’s learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The main charateristics of Foreign lg Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type F or S </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility of the teacher </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. LEARNING THE FRIST LANGUAGE <ul><ul><li>READING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age 5 L1 incompletely developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age 5-6 Literacy skill is on process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPEAKING & WRITING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age 7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Narrative & Extended discourse </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reference to characters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age 11& 15 (not fully developed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relative Clauses & pronouns Logical understanding </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Co-ordinators & language </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>LINGUISTIC DOMAINS (P,M,S,L, conversation & discourse) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>largely independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child’s early experience(family) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Narative & discourse </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Teacher Consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Childrens’ individual differences and lg strengths </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. LEARNING A SECOND LANGUAGE <ul><li>Children learn faster than adults. ( Hypothesis ) </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Period Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children learning is more effectively before puberty (mechanisim assited the L1) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lightbown & Spada (1999) Against the Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factor needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation native- profiency SL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Context communicative-goal FL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. THE INFLUENCE OF L1 ON L2 <ul><li>Competition Model Bates & Whinney(1989) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain how L1 learning affects L2 &FL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>L1 Reliable or Unreliable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Babies (particular cues) transfer to SL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning the whole & the parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7-8 age. Sound and rythm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12-14 age. Word order </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. AGE AND LANGUAGE FIRST <ul><li>Who has less prolonged attention? </li></ul><ul><li>FL lesson influence lg development </li></ul><ul><li>Does conversation develop independently fron extended discourse? </li></ul><ul><li>Modelling for scaffolding </li></ul><ul><li>How can a teacher deal with this? </li></ul>
  10. 10. IS YOUNGER REALLY BETTER <ul><li>Catherine Snow & Marian Hoefnagel (1978) </li></ul><ul><li>X= beginning Y = end </li></ul>TASK CHILD ADOLESCENT ADULT PRONUNCIATION AUDITORY DISC MORPHOLOGY SENTENCE REPET SENTENCE TRANSL SSENTENCE JUST/ VOCAB TEST STORY COMPREH STORY TELLING
  11. 11. IS YOUNGER REALLY BETTER <ul><li>Catherine Snow & Marian Hoefnagel (1978) </li></ul>TASK CHILD ADOLESCENT ADULT PRONUNC Y Y X AUDITORY DISC XY MORPHOLOGY XY SENTENCE REPET XY SENTENCE TRANSL XY SSENTENCE JUST/ XY VOCAB TEST XY STORY COMPREH Y X STORY TELLING Y X
  12. 12. ADVANTAGES TO STARTING YOUNG WITH FOREIGN LG <ul><li>ADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early starters develop & maintain SOME areas fo the lg skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pronunciation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DISAVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>grammar slower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive development </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS <ul><li>“… is a way of comparing languages in order to determine potential errors for the ultimate purpose of isolating what needs to be learned and what does not need to be learned in a second language learning situation..” Gass & Selinker, p72 </li></ul>
  14. 14. CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS HYPOTHESIS (CAH) <ul><ul><ul><li>&quot; The most efficient materials are those that are based upon a scientific description of the language to be learned, carefully compared with a parallel description of the native language of the learner. &quot; Fries (1945) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;...those elements that are similar to his native language will be simple for him, and those elements that are different will be difficult.&quot; Lado (1957) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS ASSUMPTIONS (1) <ul><ul><ul><li>1- Errors are accounted for by considering differences between L1 and L2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2- The greater the differences, the more errors will occur </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3- Focus on dissimilarities in learning; similarities require little new learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4- Difficulty and ease in predicted by differences and similarities between L1 and L2 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. CAH: Two positions <ul><li>A priori or strong view: comparison between languages will predict learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>A posterior or weak view: comparison between languages will help explain learning outcomes, especially errors. </li></ul>
  17. 17. ‘ MISTAKE ’ VERSUS ‘ ERROR’ <ul><ul><li>Mistake : Random performance slip caused by fatigue, excitement, etc. Readily self-corrected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Error : Systematic deviation by learners who have not yet mastered the rules. More difficult to correct. Indication of learner’s attempt to figure out the L2 system </li></ul></ul>Second Language Acquisition
  18. 18. TYPES OF ERRORS: INTERLINGUAL & INTRALINGUAL <ul><li>Interlingual – based on cross-linguistic comparisons </li></ul><ul><li>Intralingual – based on language being learned </li></ul>Second Language Acquisition
  19. 19. A DEVELOPMENTAL SEQUENCE FOR NEGATION. <ul><ul><li>Stage Sample Utterance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. External >> No this one / No you playing here </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Internal, pre-verbal >> Juana no / don’t have job. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Aux. + neg. >> I didn’t went to Costa Rica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Analysed don’t >> She doesn’t drink alcohol . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Larsen-Freeman & Long, 1991, p94) </li></ul></ul>Second Language Acquisition
  20. 20. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul><ul><li>See you next Monday do not forget your </li></ul><ul><li>to study and read </li></ul>

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