MY BACKGROUND
• Legislative Councillor representing the Information
Technology Functional Constituency of the Hong Kong
SA...
INTERNET IN 2013
3
Source:
ITU World Telecommunication / ICT Indicators database
CNNIC, “The 32nd China Internet Developme...
4
Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region
ONE COUNTRY, TWO SYSTEMS
SPEAKING OF INTERNET IN CHINA
WE USUALLY THINK OF THIS…
5
INTERNET IN CHINA: A SNAPSHOT
591million
Internet users
6
464million
Mobile phone
Internet users
44.1%
Internet
penetratio...
HOW THE CHINESE GOVT
MANAGES THE INTERNET NOW
Prof. Li Yonggang:the internet as waterworks (治水)
Guide more than block
7
SEVEN SPEAK-NOT SUBJECTS 七不講
AND ONLINE PUBLIC OPINION
CENSORSHIP
8
Universal
values
Press freedom Civil society Civil rig...
GFW VS WIKIPEDIA
Blocked 7 times since 2004
Filter and block traffic to
sensitive articles
2013: HTTPS encrypted
connectio...
CHINA‟S CENSORSHIP STRATEGY:
TECHNOCRATIC MICROMANAGEMENT
• Appear „reasonable‟ – less
high-handed blanket bans
• More nua...
NEW APPROACH:
A SUBTLE, MIDDLE
COURSE
Balance between
control and
economic growth
with free flow of
information
11
Modulat...
SUPPORT FOR GOVERNMENT FRIENDLY,
LOCAL INTERNET COMPANIES
12
NEW INTERNET REGULATIONS IN
CHINA
• Real-name system (approved in Dec 2012, fully
implement by Jun 2014)
• Draft new Priva...
CENSORSHIP ON MICROBLOG (WEIBO)
14
Source: JMSC, HKU
EVADING GFW ON WEIBO
Netizens getting creative: „hitting edge balls‟ (擦邊球)
 Stay roughly within / skirt around permitted ...
HOW DO CHINESE USERS BYPASS
THE GFW? BY TAGGING ALONG
• Chinese users use tools that the Chinese
government does not want ...
POWER OF CROWD AND INFORMATION
17
Whistle-blowing on
social media
18
INTERNET USAGE IN HONG KONG: A
SNAPSHOT
19
Source:
Office of Communications Authority, Apr 2013
Census and Statistics Dept...
DENSER, MORE COMPLEX, AND
MORE PARTICIPATORY
LANDSCAPE
20
Discussion Forums
Social networking
Online media
IM app
Media sh...
NO
CENSORSHIP,
BUT IS
INTERNET
FREE IN
HONG KONG?
• Fast and reliable internet
connection
• No censorship or filtering of
...
ALL-PURPOSE COMPUTER CRIME
LEGISLATION
Section 161 of the Crimes Ordinance (Cap. 200)
(i.e. access to computer with crimin...
EVERYTHING UNDER ONE UMBRELLA?
23
Computer system
hacking
Cyber attacks
Distributing fake
government releases
online
Takin...
2008 consultation with proposal
to impose mandatory filtering at
the level of the ISPs' servers
24
PROTECTING THE
YOUTH BY...
COPYRIGHT
ORDINANCE AND
FREEDOM OF
EXPRESSION
Government consultation in
progress: Exemption for
parody, satire and
deriva...
TELECOMMUNICATIONS ORDINANCE
Sections of Telecommunications Ordinance are against:
- Willful interception of any message
-...
BUT WHO‟S THE BIGGEST ENEMY?
27
HONG KONG GOVERNMENT‟S
INVISIBLE HAND TOWARDS ISP…
My question to HK government on user data /
content removal requests ma...
MORE OPENNESS AND TRANSPARENCY,
BETTER INTERNET REGULATION
29
The public has the right to
know how government actions
affe...
HONG KONG TRANSPARENCY REPORT
30
Gathering, analysing and
publishing legally available data on
government user data and
co...
4PM TODAY - DISCUSSION ON
TRANSPARENCY REPORT
http://transparency.jmsc.hku.hk/
Presentation on Hong Kong‟s first Transpare...
ONE INTERNET, MANY SYSTEMS?
32
IMAGE CREDIT
http://www.aqualegion.com/wp-content/uploads/Water-droplet-image-Water-sampling-and-
water-testing-in-London-...
34
Charles Mok
Legislative Councillor
(Information Technology)
charles@charlesmok.hk
www.charlesmok.hk
Facebook: Charles M...
Wikimania 2013 keynote: One Internet Two Systems
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Wikimania 2013 keynote: One Internet Two Systems

  1. 1. MY BACKGROUND • Legislative Councillor representing the Information Technology Functional Constituency of the Hong Kong SAR • Co-founder, Internet Society Hong Kong • Honorary President, Hong Kong Information Technology Federation • Former Chairman, Hong Kong Internet Service Providers Association
  2. 2. INTERNET IN 2013 3 Source: ITU World Telecommunication / ICT Indicators database CNNIC, “The 32nd China Internet Development Statistics Report” Jul 2013 40% of the world‟s population 2.7billion Users worldwide 591million Users in China 21.8% of the world‟s internet users
  3. 3. 4 Hong Kong Special Administrative Region ONE COUNTRY, TWO SYSTEMS
  4. 4. SPEAKING OF INTERNET IN CHINA WE USUALLY THINK OF THIS… 5
  5. 5. INTERNET IN CHINA: A SNAPSHOT 591million Internet users 6 464million Mobile phone Internet users 44.1% Internet penetration 78% Mobile Internet penetration rate 10-39 Age group of main Internet users 21.7hrs of connection per week on average Source: CNNIC, “The 32nd China Internet Development Statistics Report” Jul 2013
  6. 6. HOW THE CHINESE GOVT MANAGES THE INTERNET NOW Prof. Li Yonggang:the internet as waterworks (治水) Guide more than block 7
  7. 7. SEVEN SPEAK-NOT SUBJECTS 七不講 AND ONLINE PUBLIC OPINION CENSORSHIP 8 Universal values Press freedom Civil society Civil rights Past mistakes of the CCP Crony capitalists Judicial independence
  8. 8. GFW VS WIKIPEDIA Blocked 7 times since 2004 Filter and block traffic to sensitive articles 2013: HTTPS encrypted connections blocked 9
  9. 9. CHINA‟S CENSORSHIP STRATEGY: TECHNOCRATIC MICROMANAGEMENT • Appear „reasonable‟ – less high-handed blanket bans • More nuanced approach: • Censoring before news happens • Message Control • Downplay sensitive news 10
  10. 10. NEW APPROACH: A SUBTLE, MIDDLE COURSE Balance between control and economic growth with free flow of information 11 Modulation and fine-tuning carefully selected content
  11. 11. SUPPORT FOR GOVERNMENT FRIENDLY, LOCAL INTERNET COMPANIES 12
  12. 12. NEW INTERNET REGULATIONS IN CHINA • Real-name system (approved in Dec 2012, fully implement by Jun 2014) • Draft new Privacy Laws and Draft Internet Privacy Regulations (April 2013) 13 Content monitoring, self-censorship and mandatory reporting of „state secrets‟ and „impermissible contents‟ for „network and information security reasons‟
  13. 13. CENSORSHIP ON MICROBLOG (WEIBO) 14 Source: JMSC, HKU
  14. 14. EVADING GFW ON WEIBO Netizens getting creative: „hitting edge balls‟ (擦邊球)  Stay roughly within / skirt around permitted boundary of censors • using images such as animated GIFs • Creating new terms to represent / describe politicians or incidents 15
  15. 15. HOW DO CHINESE USERS BYPASS THE GFW? BY TAGGING ALONG • Chinese users use tools that the Chinese government does not want the GFW to blanket block due to economic and commercial interests • GoAgent, VPNs, HTTPS/SOCKS 16 Source: OpenITP, “Collateral Freedom – A Snapshot of Chinese Internet Users Circumventing Censorship”, Apr 2013
  16. 16. POWER OF CROWD AND INFORMATION 17 Whistle-blowing on social media
  17. 17. 18
  18. 18. INTERNET USAGE IN HONG KONG: A SNAPSHOT 19 Source: Office of Communications Authority, Apr 2013 Census and Statistics Dept, HKSAR, May 2013 85.2% Household broadband penetration rate 77.9% Household with PC and broadband 30hours Average time spent on PCs per week 229% Mobile penetration 65.3% Mobile internet penetration
  19. 19. DENSER, MORE COMPLEX, AND MORE PARTICIPATORY LANDSCAPE 20 Discussion Forums Social networking Online media IM app Media sharing
  20. 20. NO CENSORSHIP, BUT IS INTERNET FREE IN HONG KONG? • Fast and reliable internet connection • No censorship or filtering of data traffic • Article 30 of the Basic Law specifies freedom and privacy of communication of HK residents are protected by law • Yet certain laws govern the use of Internet 21
  21. 21. ALL-PURPOSE COMPUTER CRIME LEGISLATION Section 161 of the Crimes Ordinance (Cap. 200) (i.e. access to computer with criminal or dishonest intent) that any person who obtains access to a computer: (a) with intent to commit an offence; (b) with a dishonest intent to deceive; (c) with a view to dishonest gain for himself or another; or (d) with a dishonest intent to cause loss to another, whether on the same occasion as he obtains such access or on any future occasion, commits an offence. 22
  22. 22. EVERYTHING UNDER ONE UMBRELLA? 23 Computer system hacking Cyber attacks Distributing fake government releases online Taking and storing "under-skirt" photographs s.161 Access to computer with criminal or dishonest intent
  23. 23. 2008 consultation with proposal to impose mandatory filtering at the level of the ISPs' servers 24 PROTECTING THE YOUTH BY FILTERING? CONTROL OF OBSCENE AND INDECENT ARTICLES ORDINANCE
  24. 24. COPYRIGHT ORDINANCE AND FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION Government consultation in progress: Exemption for parody, satire and derivative works? 25
  25. 25. TELECOMMUNICATIONS ORDINANCE Sections of Telecommunications Ordinance are against: - Willful interception of any message - Damage, remove or interfere with a telecommunications installation to intercept / discover contents of a message In relation: Personal Data (Privacy Ordinance) 26
  26. 26. BUT WHO‟S THE BIGGEST ENEMY? 27
  27. 27. HONG KONG GOVERNMENT‟S INVISIBLE HAND TOWARDS ISP… My question to HK government on user data / content removal requests made by departments and law enforcement agencies to ISPs in the past 3 years revealed… 28 >14,000 User data requests 7,000 Content removal requests Many were made with no court order
  28. 28. MORE OPENNESS AND TRANSPARENCY, BETTER INTERNET REGULATION 29 The public has the right to know how government actions affect their privacy and free flow of information
  29. 29. HONG KONG TRANSPARENCY REPORT 30 Gathering, analysing and publishing legally available data on government user data and content removal requests State of transparency between the Hong Kong Govt and technology and telecommunications companies Protecting the fundamental freedomsof netizens
  30. 30. 4PM TODAY - DISCUSSION ON TRANSPARENCY REPORT http://transparency.jmsc.hku.hk/ Presentation on Hong Kong‟s first Transparency Report Panel discussion: • Ying Chan, Director, JMSC, Hong Kong University • Lokman Tsui, Head of Free Expression, Asia Pacific, Google • Andrew Lih, USC Professor and author of The Wikipedia Revolution • Ot van Daalen, Bits of Freedom 31 Where: PQ304, PolyU
  31. 31. ONE INTERNET, MANY SYSTEMS? 32
  32. 32. IMAGE CREDIT http://www.aqualegion.com/wp-content/uploads/Water-droplet-image-Water-sampling-and- water-testing-in-London-copy.jpg http://www.elitee2.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/Surveillance.jpg http://blogs-images.forbes.com/greatspeculations/files/2012/02/magnifying-glass2.jpg http://codeandreload.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/photography_shadow- hand_eclipse_9774.jpg https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/96/China-outline.svg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c2/Hong_Kong_Outline_Map.png https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/53/Wikipedia-logo-en-big.png http://img.sharpdaily.com.hk/rtn/20130729/large/1375098101_38e5.jpg http://mappingourworlds.files.wordpress.com/2010/12/internet.jpg 33
  33. 33. 34 Charles Mok Legislative Councillor (Information Technology) charles@charlesmok.hk www.charlesmok.hk Facebook: Charles Mok B Twitter: @charlesmok
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