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Strategic mgmt & bus policy by thomas l. wheelen (10th edition)

Strategic mgmt & bus policy by thomas l. wheelen (10th edition)






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    Strategic mgmt & bus policy by thomas l. wheelen (10th edition) Strategic mgmt & bus policy by thomas l. wheelen (10th edition) Presentation Transcript

    • Basic Concepts of Strategic ManagementGlobalization Internationalization of markets and corporations Global (worldwide) markets rather than national marketsElectronic Commerce Use of the Internet to conduct business transactions Basis for competition on a more strategic level rather than traditional focus on product features and costs 1-2
    • Basic Concepts of Strategic ManagementElectronic Commerce -- Trends• Forcing company transformation• Market access & branding changing – disintermediation of traditional distribution channels• Balance of power shift to consumer• Competition changing 1-3
    • Basic Concepts of Strategic ManagementElectronic Commerce -- Trends• Pace of business increasing• Internet purchasing beyond traditional boundaries• Knowledge key asset – source of competitive advantage 1-4
    • Strategic Management DefinedSet of managerial decisions and actionsthat determines the long-run performanceof a firm. 1-5
    • Basic Concepts of Strategic Management4 Phases of Strategic Management1. Basic financial planning2. Forecast-based planning3. Externally-oriented planning4. Strategic management 1-6
    • Basic Concepts of Strategic ManagementHighly Rated Benefits• Clearer sense of strategic vision• Sharper focus on strategic importance• Improved understanding of changing environment 1-7
    • Basic Concepts of Strategic ManagementNot Always a Formal Process• Where is the organization now? (not where do we hope it is)• If no changes are made, where will the organization be in 1,2,5 or 10 years?• What specific actions should management undertake?• What are the risks and payoffs? 1-8
    • Basic Concepts of Strategic ManagementBasic Elements of the Strategic Management Process 1-9
    • Environmental Scanning DefinedMonitoring, evaluation, and disseminatinginformation from external and internalenvironments –to key people in the firm 1-10
    • Basic Concepts of Strategic Management Environmental Variables 1-11
    • Environmental ScanningSWOT Analysis• Strengths – Weaknesses• Opportunities - Threats 1-12
    • Strategy FormulationDevelopment of long-range plans for effective management of opportunities and threats in light of corporate strengths and weaknesses 1-13
    • Strategy FormulationMission Statement• Purpose/reason for organization• Promotes shared expectations• Communicates public image• Who we are; what we do; what we aspire to 1-14
    • Organizational AdaptationOrganization “fit” with environment• Theory of population ecology• Institution theory• Strategic choice perspective• Organizational learning theory 1-15
    • Organizational AdaptationStrategic flexibility• Demands long-term commitment to development of critical resources• Demands firm become a learning organization 1-16
    • Learning OrganizationsAn organization skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge and at modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights 1-17
    • Learning Organizations4 Chief Activities• Systematic problem solving• New approach experimentation• Learning from experiences• Intra-organization knowledge transfer 1-18
    • Basic Concepts of Strategic Management Hierarchy of Strategy 1-19
    • Goals & ObjectivesCorporate Goals/Objectives –Profitability (net profit) –Growth –Resource utilization (ROE, ROI) –Market leadership 1-20
    • Basic Concepts of Strategic Management3 Types of Strategy –Corporate strategy –Business strategy –Functional strategy 1-21
    • Basic Concepts of Strategic ManagementCorporate Strategy –Stability –Growth –Retrenchment 1-22
    • Basic Concepts of Strategic ManagementBusiness Strategy –Competitive strategies –Cooperative strategies 1-23
    • Basic Concepts of Strategic ManagementFunctional Strategy –Technological leadership –Technological followership 1-24
    • Basic Concepts of Strategic Management Strategic Decision-Making Process 1-25
    • Strategic Decision MakingStrategic Decisions –Rare –Consequential –Directive 1-26
    • Strategic Decision MakingMintzberg’s Modes –Entrepreneurial mode –Adaptive mode –Planning mode –Logical incrementalism 1-27
    • Hambrick and Fredrickson – Good Strategy5 Elements of Good Strategy 1. Arenas 2. Vehicles 3. Differentiators 4. Staging 5. Economic logic 1-28
    • CHAPTER 2Corporate Governance 1-29
    • Corporate Governance 1-31
    • Corporate GovernanceThe relationship among the board ofdirectors, top management, andshareholders – determining the directionand performance of the corporation 1-32
    • Corporate GovernanceRole of Board –Monitor –Evaluate and influence –Initiate and determine 1-33
    • Board of Directors Continuum 1-34
    • Board of DirectorsMembers -- –Inside directors •“management directors” •Officers or execs employed by the firm –Outside directors •“non-management directors” •Execs of other firms not employed by the board’s corporation 1-35
    • Agency TheoryAgency Problem – –Objectives of owners & agents in conflict –Difficult for owners to verify agent performanceRisk Sharing Problem – –Owners & agents risk assessment in conflict 1-36
    • Stewardship TheoryExecutives more motivated to act in bestinterest of the corporation than their ownself-interests. Theory that over time, seniorexecutives tend to view corporation asextension of selves. 1-37
    • Board of DirectorsWhen Outsiders can be considered Insiders –Affiliated Directors –Retired Directors –Family Directors 1-38
    • Board of DirectorsCodetermination –The inclusion of a corporation’s employees on its board of directors 1-39
    • Board of DirectorsInterlocking Directorates –Direct Interlocking –Indirect Interlocking 1-40
    • Board of DirectorsNominations & Elections –Traditional Approach •CEO invitation to membership •Shareholders approval in annual proxy statement •All nominees usually elected 1-41
    • Board of DirectorsNominations & Elections –Staggered Board Approach •Staggered terms of service/election 1-42
    • Board of DirectorsSarbanes-Oxley –Code of Ethics –Audit, Nominating, and Compensation Committees all outside directors 1-43
    • Board of DirectorsOrganization of the Board –Size •Charter & Bylaws Determination 1-44
    • Board of DirectorsCorporate Governance –Review & shaping of strategy –Pressure for corporate performance –Demand for executive stock ownership –Outside directors increasing –Impact of Sarbanes-Oxley 1-45
    • Board of DirectorsTransformational leaders –Change agents through vision for change 1-46
    • Board of DirectorsSuccessful CEO’s –Strategic vision –Passion for the company –Strong communication –charisma 1-47
    • Board of DirectorsExecutive Leadership –Strategic vision –Role model 1-48
    • Board of DirectorsExecutive Leadership –Communication of performance standards –Demonstrates confidence in abilities of followers 1-49
    • Strategic Management ProcessStrategic Planning Staff –Supports top management & business units in the strategic planning process 1-50
    • Strategic Management ProcessStrategic Planning Staff –Identify & analyze company-wide strategic issues –Generate strategic alternatives 1-51
    • Strategic Management ProcessStrategic Planning Staff –Facilitate business units in coordinating activities related to strategic planning process 1-52
    • CHAPTER 3Ethics & SocialResponsibility 1-53
    • Ethics & Social Responsibility 1-55
    • Corporate GovernanceBroader responsibility --Private corporations have responsibility tosociety that extend beyond making a profit 1-56
    • Social ResponsibilityMilton FriedmanThere is one and only one social responsibility ofbusiness—to use its resources and engage inactivities designed to increase its profits so longas it stays within the rules of the game, which isto say, engages in open and free competitionwithout deception or fraud. 1-57
    • Corporate GovernanceCarroll’s 4 Responsibilities –Economic –Legal –Ethical –Discretionary 1-58
    • Carroll’s 4 Responsibilities 1-59
    • Corporate StakeholdersAffect or are affected by theachievement of the corporation’sobjectives 1-60
    • Corporate StakeholdersStakeholder Analysis – –Primary stakeholder •Sufficient bargaining power to affect outcomes –Secondary stakeholder •Indirect stake but are affected by corporation’s actions –Stakeholder Input •Determine whether input is necessary 1-61
    • Ethical Behavior“business ethics” –Argument that there is no such thing … it is an oxymoron 1-62
    • Ethical Decision MakingCorporate practices -- –Massive write-downs and restatements of profit –Misclassification of expenses as capital expenditures –Pirating corporate assets for personal gain 1-63
    • Ethical Decision MakingRecent Survey Results -- –70% distrust business executives –Enron –WorldCom 1-64
    • Reasons for Unethical BehaviorProvocative Question -- –Why are businesspeople perceived to be acting unethically? 1-65
    • Reasons for Unethical BehaviorPerceptions caused by -- –Not aware of impropriety –Cultural norms and values vary –Governance systems based on rule or relationships –Differences in values between businesspeople and key stakeholders 1-66
    • Reasons for Unethical BehaviorAllport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values -- –Aesthetic –Economic –Political –Religious –Social –Theoretical 1-67
    • Reasons for Unethical BehaviorMost common reasons for bending rules -- –Organizational performance required it –Ambiguous or out of date rules –Pressure from others – everyone else does it 1-68
    • Moral RelativismMorality is relative to some personal, social,or cultural standard and there is no methodfor deciding whether one decision is betterthan another. 1-69
    • Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Development1. Preconventional level –Characterized by a concern for self •Personal interest •Avoidance of punishment 1-70
    • Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Development2. Conventional level –Characterized consideration of society’s values •External code of conduct 1-71
    • Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Development3. Principled level –Characterized by adherence to internal moral code •Universal values or principles 1-72
    • Encouraging Ethical BehaviorCodes of Ethics –Specifies how an organization expects its employees to behave on the job. 1-73
    • Encouraging Ethical BehaviorGuidelines for Ethical Behavior –Ethics –Morality –Law 1-74
    • Encouraging Ethical BehaviorApproaches to Ethical Behavior –Utilitarian •Judged by consequences –Individual Rights •Fundamental rights in all decisions –Justice •Distribution in equitable fashion 1-75
    • Encouraging Ethical BehaviorApproaches to Ethical Behavior –Categorical imperative •“golden rule” •Means - Ends 1-76
    • Strategy Bits192 U.S. companies surveyed -- –92% monitored employees use of e-mail/Internet –26% monitored employees electronic activities all the time –Almost none had checks in place to protect employees privacy 1-77
    • CHAPTER 4EnvironmentalScanning andIndustry Analysis 1-78
    • Environmental ScanningSocietal environment -- –Economic forces –Technological forces –Political-legal forces –Sociocultural forces 1-80
    • Societal EnvironmentEconomic Forces -- –Regulate exchange of materials, money, energy and information 1-81
    • Societal EnvironmentTechnological Forces -- –Generate problem-solving inventions 1-82
    • Societal EnvironmentPolitical-legal Forces -- –Allocate power; provide laws and regulations 1-83
    • Societal EnvironmentSociocultural Forces -- –Regulate values, mores, and customs of society 1-84
    • Task EnvironmentTask environment -- –Elements or groups that directly affect a corporation and are affected by it 1-85
    • Task EnvironmentIndustry Analysis -- –In-depth examination of key factors within a corporation’s task environment 1-86
    • Variables in Societal Environment 1-87
    • Demographic Trends1-88
    • Transformational Sociocultural Trends8 Current Trends – –Increasing environmental awareness –Growing health consciousness –Expanding seniors market –Impact of the Generation Y boomlet –Declining mass market –Changing pace and location of life –Changing household composition –Increasing diversity of workforce & market 1-89
    • International Societal Environments 1-90
    • Scanning the Task Environment 1-91
    • Ethical Behavior“business ethics” –Argument that there is no such thing … it is an oxymoron 1-92
    • Ethical Decision MakingCorporate practices -- –Massive write-downs and restatements of profit –Misclassification of expenses as capital expenditures –Pirating corporate assets for personal gain 1-93
    • External Strategic FactorsStrategic myopia -- –Willingness to reject unfamiliar as well as negative information 1-94
    • Issues Priority Matrix1-95
    • Analyzing the Task Environment 1-96
    • Porter’s Approach to Industry AnalysisThreat of New Entrants – –Economies of scale –Product differentiation –Capital requirements –Switching costs –Access to distribution channels –Cost disadvantages –Government policy 1-97
    • Porter’s Approach to Industry AnalysisRivalry Among Existing Firms – –Number of competitors –Rate of industry growth –Product or service characteristics –Amount of fixed costs –Capacity –Height of exit barriers –Diversity of rivals 1-98
    • Porter’s Approach to Industry Analysis•Threat of Substitute Products or Services•Bargaining Power of Buyers•Bargaining Power of Suppliers•Relative Power of Other Stakeholders 1-99
    • Industry EvolutionFragmented Industry – –No dominant industry 1-100
    • Industry EvolutionConsolidated Industry – –Dominated by a few large firms 1-101
    • International Risk AssessmentContinuum of International Industries 1-102
    • Strategic Groups1-103
    • Strategic Types General Types –•Defenders•Prospectors•Analyzers•Reactors 1-104
    • Competitive IntelligenceCalled business intelligenceGathering information on a company’scompetitors 1-105
    • ForecastingForecasting Techniques -- –Extrapolation –Brainstorming –Expert opinion –Delphi technique –Statistical modeling –Scenario writing 1-106
    • Synthesis of External Factors -- EFAS 1-107
    • CHAPTER 5InternalScanning:OrganizationalAnalysis 1-108
    • Resource-Based Approach to Organizational AnalysisInternal strategic factors -- –Critical strengths and weaknesses that are likely to determine if the firm will be able to take advantage of opportunities while avoiding threats 1-110
    • Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis•Resources•Capabilities•Competency•Core competency•Distinctive competency 1-111
    • Core and Distinctive CompetenciesVRIO Framework -- –Value –Rareness –Imitability –Organization 1-112
    • Resource-Based Approach to Organizational Analysis5-Step Approach Strategy Analysis -- 1. Identify and classify resources 2. Combine strengths into capabilities 3. Appraise profit potential of capabilities 4. Select strategy that best exploits 5. Identify resource gaps invest in weaknesses 1-113
    • Continuum of Sustainability 1-114
    • Sustainability of AdvantageDurability -- –Rate at which a firm’s underlying resources and capabilities depreciate or become obsolete 1-115
    • Sustainability of AdvantageImitability -- –Rate at which a firm’s underlying resources and capabilities can be duplicated by others 1-116
    • Sustainability of AdvantageCore Competency can be imitated -- –Transparency –Transferability –Replicability 1-117
    • Business ModelsCompany’s method for making money inthe current business environment. 1-118
    • Business ModelsTypes of Models -- –Customer Solutions Model –Profit Pyramid Model –Multi-Component System/Installed Base Model –Advertising Model –Switchboard Model 1-119
    • Business ModelsTypes of Models -- –Time Model –Efficiency Model –Blockbuster Model –Profit Multiplier Model –Entrepreneurial Model –De Facto Standard Model 1-120
    • Value-Chain AnalysisLinked set of value-creating activitiesbeginning with basic raw material andending with distributors getting finalgoods into hands of customers 1-121
    • Value-Chain AnalysisTypical Value Chain fora Manufactured Product 1-122
    • Corporate Value-Chain Analysis•Primary activities•Support activities 1-123
    • Corporation’s Value Chain 1-124
    • Scanning Functional Resources & CapabilitiesBasic Organizational Structures -- –Simple structure –Functional structure –Divisional structure –Strategic business units (SBU’s) –Conglomerate structure 1-125
    • Basic Organizational Structures 1-126
    • Corporate CultureCollection of beliefs, expectations, andvalues learned and shared by acorporation’s members andtransmitted from one generation ofemployees to another 1-127
    • Strategic Marketing Issues–Market Position & Segmentation–Marketing Mix–Product Life Cycle–Brand & Corporate Reputation 1-128
    • Product Life Cycle1-129
    • Strategic Financial Issues–Financial leverage–Capital budgeting 1-130
    • Strategic Research & Development Issues–R&D Intensity–Technological Competence–Technology Transfer 1-131
    • Technological Discontinuity 1-132
    • Strategic Human Resource Management IssuesHRM – –Increasing use of teams –Union relations –Temporary workers –Quality of work life –Human diversity 1-133
    • Internal Factor Analysis Summary Table 1-134
    • CHAPTER 6Strategy Formulation:Situation Analysis &Business Strategy 1-135
    • CHAPTER 6 Strategy Formulation: Situation Analysis & Business StrategySTRATEGIC MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS POLICY 10TH EDITION THOMAS L. WHEELEN J. DAVID HUNGER 1-136
    • Situational AnalysisStrategy formulation -- –Strategic planning or long-range planning •Develops mission, objectives, strategies, policies 1-137
    • Situational Analysis--process of finding a strategic fitbetween external opportunities andinternal strengths while working aroundexternal threats and internal weaknesses 1-138
    • IFAS – Maytag as Example 1-139
    • EFAS – Maytag as Example 1-140
    • SFAS Matrix1-141
    • Situational AnalysisNiche -- –Need in the marketplace that is currently unsatisfied 1-142
    • Situational AnalysisCorporate Goal -- –Find propitious niche –Strategic window 1-143
    • Situational AnalysisSWOT -- –Internal •Strengths/Weaknesses –External •Opportunities/Threats 1-144
    • TOWS Matrix1-145
    • Business StrategyFocuses on improving competitiveposition of company’s products orservices within the specific industry ormarket segment 1-146
    • Porter’s Competitive StrategiesCompetitive Strategy -- –Low cost –Differentiation –Direct competition –Focus on niche 1-147
    • Porter’s Competitive StrategiesGeneric Competitive Strategies -- –Lower Cost strategy •Greater efficiencies than competitors –Differentiation strategy •Unique/superior value, quality, features, service 1-148
    • Porter’s Competitive StrategiesCompetitive Advantage -- –Determined by Competitive Scope •Breadth of the target market 1-149
    • Porter’s Competitive Strategies 1-150
    • Porter’s Competitive StrategiesCost Leadership -- –Low-cost competitive strategy –Broad mass market –Efficient-scale facilities –Cost reductions –Cost minimization 1-151
    • Porter’s Competitive StrategiesDifferentiation – –Broad mass market –Unique product/service –Premiums charged –Less price sensitivity 1-152
    • Porter’s Competitive StrategiesCost-Focus – –Low-cost competitive strategy –Focus on market segment –Niche focused –Cost advantage in market segment 1-153
    • Porter’s Competitive StrategiesDifferentiation Focus – –Specific group or geographic market focus –Differentiation in target market –Special needs of narrow target market 1-154
    • Porter’s Competitive StrategiesStuck in the middle – –No competitive advantage –Below-average performance 1-155
    • Risks of Generic StrategiesRisks of Cost Leadership Risks of Differentiation Risks of Focus Risks of Cost LeadershipCost leadership is not Risks of Differentiation Differentiation is not Risks of Focus The focus strategy is Cost leadership is notsustained: Differentiation is not sustained: The focus strategy is imitated:• sustained: imitate. Competitors • sustained: imitate. Competitors imitated: The target segment becomes • Competitors imitate.• Technology changes. • Competitors imitate. • Bases for differentiation The target segment becomes structurally unattractive:• • Technology changes. Other bases for cost • Bases less important to become for differentiation • structurally unattractive: Structure erodes. • Other bases for cost leadership erode. buyers. less important to become • Structure erodes. • Demand disappears. leadership erode.Proximity in differentiation is buyers. Cost proximity is lost. • Demand disappears. Broadly targeted competitors Proximity in differentiation islost. Cost proximity is lost. Differentiation focusers Broadly targeted competitors overwhelm the segment: lost.Cost focusers achieve even Differentiation focusers achieve even greater • overwhelm the segment: The segment’slower cost in segments. even Cost focusers achieve differentiation ingreater achieve even segments. • The segment’sother differences from lower cost in segments. differentiation in segments. segments narrow. other differences from segments narrow. • The advantages of a •broad advantages of a The line increase. Newbroad linesubsegment focusers increase. New focusers subsegment the industry. the industry. 1-156
    • 8 Dimensions of Quality 1-157
    • Competitive StrategyIndustry Structure -- –Fragmented Industry –Consolidated Industry 1-158
    • Competitive TacticsTiming Tactics -- –First mover –Late movers 1-159
    • Competitive TacticsMarket Location Tactics -- –Frontal Assault –Flanking Maneuver –Bypass Attack –Encirclement –Guerrilla Warfare 1-160
    • Competitive TacticsDefensive Tactics -- –Raise structural barriers –Increase expected retaliation –Lower the inducement for attack 1-161
    • Cooperative Strategies•Collusion•Strategic Alliances•Mutual service consortia•Joint ventures•Licensing arrangements•Value-chain partnerships 1-162
    • CHAPTER 7 StrategyFormulation: CorporateStrategy 1-163
    • Corporate Strategy3 Key Issues – –Firm’s directional strategy –Firm’s portfolio strategy –Firm’s parenting strategy 1-165
    • Corporate Directional Strategies 1-166
    • Corporate StrategyDirectional Strategy – –Orientation toward growth •Expansion, contraction, status quo •Concentration or diversification •Internal development or acquisitions, mergers, or alliances 1-167
    • Corporate StrategyDirectional Strategy – –3 Grand Strategies •Growth strategies •Stability strategies •Retrenchment strategies 1-168
    • Corporate StrategyGrowth Strategies -- –External mechanisms •Mergers •Acquisitions •Strategic alliances 1-169
    • Corporate StrategyGrowth Strategies -- –2 Basic forms •Concentration •Diversification 1-170
    • Corporate StrategyBasic Concentration Strategies -- –Vertical growth –Horizontal growth 1-171
    • Corporate StrategyVertical Growth -- –Vertical integration •Full integration •Taper integration •Quasi-integration •Long-term contract 1-172
    • Corporate StrategyVertical Growth -- –Backward integration –Forward integration 1-173
    • Corporate StrategyConcentration -- –Horizontal Growth •Horizontal integration 1-174
    • Corporate StrategyBasic Diversification Strategies -- –Concentric Diversification –Conglomerate Diversification 1-175
    • Corporate StrategyConcentric Diversification -- –Growth into related industry –Search for synergies 1-176
    • Corporate StrategyConglomerate diversification -- –Growth into unrelated industry –Concern with financial considerations 1-177
    • Corporate StrategyInternational Entry Options -- –Exporting –Licensing –Franchising –Joint Ventures –Acquisitions –Green-Field Development 1-178
    • Corporate StrategyInternational Entry Options -- –Production Sharing –Turnkey Operation –BOT Concept (Build, Operate, Transfer) –Management Contracts 1-179
    • Corporate StrategyStability Strategies -- –Pause/proceed with caution –No change –Profit strategies 1-180
    • Corporate StrategyRetrenchment Strategies -- –Turnaround –Captive Company Strategy –Selling out –Bankruptcy –Liquidation 1-181
    • Corporate StrategyPortfolio Analysis -- –Resource commitment on best products to ensure continued success –Resource commitment on new costly products high risk 1-182
    • BCG Matrix (Portfolio Analysis) 1-183
    • GE Business Screen (Portfolio Analysis) C Winners Winners A Question High B Marks DIndustry Attractiveness Winners E Average Businesses Medium F Losers H Losers G Low Profit Producers Losers Strong Average Weak Business Strength/Competitive Position 1-184
    • Corporate StrategyCorporate Parenting Strategy -- –Strategic factors –performance improvement –Analyze fit 1-185
    • CHAPTER 8 StrategyFormulation: FunctionalStrategy & StrategicChoice 1-186
    • CHAPTER 8 Strategy Formulation: Functional Strategy & Strategic ChoiceSTRATEGIC MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS POLICY 10TH EDITION THOMAS L. WHEELEN J. DAVID HUNGER 1-187
    • Functional StrategyThe approach a functional area takes toachieve corporate and business unitobjectives and strategies by maximizingresource productivity 1-188
    • Functional StrategyMarketing Strategy – –Pricing –Selling –Distribution 1-189
    • Functional StrategyMarketing Strategy – –Product development •Line extension 1-190
    • Functional StrategyMarketing Strategy – –Advertising and promotion •Push strategy •Pull strategy 1-191
    • Functional StrategyMarketing Strategy – –Pricing •Skim pricing •Penetration pricing •Dynamic pricing 1-192
    • Functional StrategyFinancial Strategy – –Leveraged buyout –Reversed stock split –Tracking stock 1-193
    • Functional StrategyR&D Strategy – –Technological leader –Technological follower –Open innovation 1-194
    • Functional StrategyOperations Strategy – –Job shop –Connected line batch flow –Flexible manufacturing systems –Dedicated transfer lines –Mass production –Continuous improvement system –Modular manufacturing 1-195
    • Functional StrategyPurchasing Strategy – –Multiple sourcing –Sole sourcing –Just-in-time (JIT) –Parallel sourcing 1-196
    • Functional StrategyLogistics Strategy – –Centralization –Outsourcing –Internet 1-197
    • Functional StrategyHRM Strategy – –360 degree appraisal 1-198
    • Functional StrategyOutsourcing errors – –Activities that should not be outsourced –Wrong vendor selection –Writing poor contract –Overlooking personnel issues –Hidden costs of outsourcing –Failing to plan exit strategy 1-199
    • Proposed Outsourcing Matrix 1-200
    • Functional StrategyStrategies to Avoid – –3 Follow the leader –Hit another home run –Arms race –Do everything –Losing hand 1-201
    • Corporate StrategyGrowth Strategies -- –External mechanisms •Mergers •Acquisitions •Strategic alliances 1-202
    • Constructing Corporate Scenarios 1-203
    • Functional StrategySubjective Factors Affecting Decisions -- –Management’s attitude toward risk –Pressures from stakeholders –Pressures from corporate culture –Needs and desires of key managers 1-204
    • Stakeholder Priority Matrix 1-205
    • Strategic ChoiceAvoiding the Consensus Trap -- –Devil’s Advocate –Dialectical Inquiry 1-206
    • Strategic ChoiceEvaluation of Strategic Alternatives -- –Mutual exclusivity –Success –Completeness –Internal consistency 1-207
    • CHAPTER 9 StrategyImplementation:Organizing for Action 1-208
    • Strategy Implementation--Sum total of activities & choicesrequired for strategic plan execution--Strategy implementation throughprograms, budgets, and procedures 1-210
    • Strategy ImplementationKey Implementation Questions – –Who carries out strategic plan? –What needs doing for alignment w/ strategy? –How is work coordinated? 1-211
    • Strategy ImplementationPrograms – –Action oriented –Matrix of change •Feasibility •Sequence of execution •Location •Pace & nature of change •Stakeholder evaluations 1-212
    • The Matrix of Change1-213
    • Strategy ImplementationAchieving Synergy – –Shared know-how –Coordinated strategies –Shared tangible resources 1-214
    • Strategy ImplementationAchieving Synergy – –Economies of scale or scope –Pooled negotiating power –New business creation 1-215
    • Strategy ImplementationStructure follows strategy – –New strategy is created –New administrative problems emerge –Economic performance declines –New appropriate structure is invented –Profit returns to previous level 1-216
    • Strategy ImplementationStages of Corporate Development – –Stage I: Simple structure –Stage II: Functional structure –Stage III: Divisional structure –Stage IV: Beyond SBU’s 1-217
    • Strategy ImplementationBlocks to Changing Stages – –Loyalty to comrades –Task oriented –Single-mindedness –Working in isolation 1-218
    • Organizational Life Cycle 1-219
    • Changing Structural Characteristics of Modern Organizations 1-220
    • Strategy ImplementationAdvanced Types of OrganizationalStructures – –Matrix •Temporary cross-functional task forces •Product/brand management •Mature matrix 1-221
    • Strategy ImplementationAdvanced Types of OrganizationalStructures – –Network structure (virtual organization) –Cellular organization 1-222
    • Network Structure1-223
    • Strategy ImplementationSix Sigma – –Define –Measure –Analyze –Improve –Establish 1-224
    • Strategy ImplementationJob design to implement strategy – –Job enlargement –Job rotation –Job enrichment –Job characteristics model 1-225
    • Strategy ImplementationInternational Issues – –MNC’s –International Strategic Alliances 1-226
    • Strategy ImplementationInternational Development Stages– –Domestic company –Domestic company w/export division –Domestic company w/int’l division –MNC w/multidomestic emphasis –MNC w/global emphasis 1-227
    • Strategy ImplementationCentralization vs. Decentralization– –Product-group structure –Geographic-area structure 1-228
    • Geographic Area Structure 1-229
    • 1-230