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Strategic management

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Saxbee Consultants
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Strategic management

Strategic management

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Chapter Objectives 
1. Describe the strategic-management process. 
2. Explain the need for integrating analysis and 
intuition in strategic management. 
3. Define and give examples of key terms in 
strategic management. 
4. Discuss the nature of strategy formulation, 
implementation, and evaluation activities.
Chapter Objectives (cont.) 
5. Describe the benefits of good strategic 
management. 
6. Discuss the relevance of Sun Tzu’s The Art of 
War to strategic management. 
7. Discuss how a firm may achieve sustained 
competitive advantage.
Defining Strategic Management 
Strategic management 
 the art and science of formulating, 
implementing, and evaluating cross-functional 
decisions that enable an 
organization to achieve its objectives
Defining Strategic Management 
Strategic management is used 
synonymously with the term strategic 
planning. 
Sometimes the term strategic 
management is used to refer to strategy 
formulation, implementation, and 
evaluation, with strategic planning 
referring only to strategy formulation.
Defining Strategic Management 
A strategic plan is a company’s game 
plan. 
A strategic plan results from tough 
managerial choices among numerous 
good alternatives, and it signals 
commitment to specific markets, policies, 
procedures, and operations.

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Strategic management

  • 1. TThhee NNaattuurree ooff SSttrraatteeggiicc MMaannaaggeemmeenntt
  • 2. Chapter Objectives 1. Describe the strategic-management process. 2. Explain the need for integrating analysis and intuition in strategic management. 3. Define and give examples of key terms in strategic management. 4. Discuss the nature of strategy formulation, implementation, and evaluation activities.
  • 3. Chapter Objectives (cont.) 5. Describe the benefits of good strategic management. 6. Discuss the relevance of Sun Tzu’s The Art of War to strategic management. 7. Discuss how a firm may achieve sustained competitive advantage.
  • 4. Defining Strategic Management Strategic management  the art and science of formulating, implementing, and evaluating cross-functional decisions that enable an organization to achieve its objectives
  • 5. Defining Strategic Management Strategic management is used synonymously with the term strategic planning. Sometimes the term strategic management is used to refer to strategy formulation, implementation, and evaluation, with strategic planning referring only to strategy formulation.
  • 6. Defining Strategic Management A strategic plan is a company’s game plan. A strategic plan results from tough managerial choices among numerous good alternatives, and it signals commitment to specific markets, policies, procedures, and operations.
  • 7. Stages of Strategic Management
  • 8. Stages of Strategic Management Strategy formulation  includes developing a vision and mission, identifying an organization’s external opportunities and threats, determining internal strengths and weaknesses, establishing long-term objectives, generating alternative strategies, and choosing particular strategies to pursue
  • 9. Strategy Formulation Deciding what new businesses to enter, What businesses to abandon, How to allocate resources, Whether to expand operations or diversify, Whether to enter international markets, Whether to merge or form a joint venture, How to avoid a hostile takeover.
  • 10. Stages of Strategic Management Strategy implementation  requires a firm to establish annual objectives, devise policies, motivate employees, and allocate resources so that formulated strategies can be executed  often called the action stage
  • 11. Stages of Strategic Management Strategy evaluation  reviewing external and internal factors that are the bases for current strategies, measuring performance, and taking corrective actions
  • 12. Stages of Strategic Management Strategy formulation, implementation, and evaluation activities occur at three hierarchical levels in a large organization: corporate, divisional or strategic business unit, and functional Strategic management helps a firm function as a competitive team
  • 13. Integrating Intuition and Analysis Most organizations can benefit from strategic management, which is based upon integrating intuition and analysis in decision making Intuition is particularly useful for making decisions in situations of great uncertainty or little precedent
  • 14. Adapting to Change  The second-largest bookstore chain in the United States, Borders Group, declared bankruptcy in 2011 as the firm had not adapted well to changes in book retailing from traditional bookstore shopping to customers buying online, preferring digital books to hard copies  Borders was on the brink of financial collapse before being acquired in July 2011 by Direct Brands
  • 15. Key Terms in Strategic Management Competitive advantage  anything that a firm does especially well compared to rival firms Strategists  the individuals who are most responsible for the success or failure of an organization
  • 16. Key Terms in Strategic Management Vision statement  answers the question “What do we want to become?”  often considered the first step in strategic planning
  • 17. Key Terms in Strategic Management Mission statements  enduring statements of purpose that distinguish one business from other similar firms  identifies the scope of a firm’s operations in product and market terms  addresses the basic question that faces all strategists: “What is our business?”
  • 18. Key Terms in Strategic Management External opportunities and external threats  refer to economic, social, cultural, demographic, environmental, political, legal, governmental, technological, and competitive trends and events that could significantly benefit or harm an organization in the future
  • 19. Some Opportunities and Threats Computer hacker problems are increasing. Intense price competition is plaguing most firms. Unemployment and underemployment rates remain high. Interest rates are rising. Product life cycles are becoming shorter. State and local governments are financially weak.
  • 20. Key Terms in Strategic Management Internal strengths and internal weaknesses  an organization’s controllable activities that are performed especially well or poorly  determined relative to competitors
  • 21. Key Terms in Strategic Management Objectives  specific results that an organization seeks to achieve in pursuing its basic mission  long-term means more than one year  should be challenging, measurable, consistent, reasonable, and clear
  • 22. Key Terms in Strategic Management Strategies  the means by which long-term objectives will be achieved  may include geographic expansion, diversification, acquisition, product development, market penetration, retrenchment, divestiture, liquidation, and joint ventures
  • 23. Key Terms in Strategic Management Annual objectives  short-term milestones that organizations must achieve to reach long-term objectives  should be measurable, quantitative, challenging, realistic, consistent, and prioritized  should be established at the corporate, divisional, and functional levels in a large organization
  • 24. Sample Strategies in Action in 2011
  • 25. Key Terms in Strategic Management Policies  the means by which annual objectives will be achieved  include guidelines, rules, and procedures established to support efforts to achieve stated objectives  guides to decision making and address repetitive or recurring situations
  • 27. A Comprehensive Strategic- Management Model
  • 28. Benefits of Strategic Management Historically, the principal benefit of strategic management has been to help organizations formulate better strategies through the use of a more systematic, logical, and rational approach to strategic choice
  • 29. Benefits of Strategic Management Communication is a key to successful strategic management Through dialogue and participation, managers and employees become committed to supporting the organization
  • 30. Benefits to a Firm That Does Strategic Planning
  • 31. Financial Benefits Businesses using strategic-management concepts show significant improvement in sales, profitability, and productivity compared to firms without systematic planning activities High-performing firms seem to make more informed decisions with good anticipation of both short- and long-term consequences
  • 32. Nonfinancial Benefits It allows for identification, prioritization, and exploitation of opportunities. It provides an objective view of management problems. It represents a framework for improved coordination and control of activities. It minimizes the effects of adverse conditions and changes.
  • 33. Nonfinancial Benefits It allows major decisions to better support established objectives. It allows more effective allocation of time and resources to identified opportunities. It allows fewer resources and less time to be devoted to correcting erroneous or ad hoc decisions. It creates a framework for internal communication among personnel.
  • 34. Why Some Firms Do No Strategic Planning Lack of knowledge in strategic planning Poor reward structures Firefighting Waste of time Too expensive Laziness Content with success
  • 35. Why Some Firms Do No Strategic Planning Fear of failure Overconfidence Prior bad experience Self-interest Fear of the unknown Honest difference of opinion Suspicion
  • 36. Pitfalls in Strategic Planning  Using strategic planning to gain control over decisions and resources  Doing strategic planning only to satisfy accreditation or regulatory requirements  Too hastily moving from mission development to strategy formulation  Failing to communicate the plan to employees, who continue working in the dark  Top managers making many intuitive decisions that conflict with the formal plan
  • 37. Pitfalls in Strategic Planning  Top managers not actively supporting the strategic-planning process  Failing to use plans as a standard for measuring performance  Delegating planning to a “planner” rather than involving all managers  Failing to involve key employees in all phases of planning  Failing to create a collaborative climate supportive of change
  • 38. Guidelines for Effective Strategic Management
  • 39. Comparing Business and Military Strategy A fundamental difference between military and business strategy is that business strategy is formulated, implemented, and evaluated with an assumption of competition, whereas military strategy is based on an assumption of conflict Both business and military organizations must adapt to change and constantly improve to be successful
  • 40. Excerpts from Sun Tzu’s The Art of War Writings War is a matter of vital importance to the state: a matter of life or death, the road either to survival or ruin. Hence, it is imperative that it be studied thoroughly Know your enemy and know yourself, and in a hundred battles you will never be defeated Skillful leaders do not let a strategy inhibit creative counter-movement
  • 41. For details and bookings contact:- Parveen Kumar Chadha… THINK TANK (Founder and C.E.O of Saxbee Consultants & Other-Mother ) Email :-saxbeeconsultants@gmail.com Mobile No. +91-9818308353 Address:-First Floor G-20(A), Kirti Nagar, New Delhi India Postal Code-110015

Editor's Notes

  1. Describe the strategic-management process. Explain the need for integrating analysis and intuition in strategic management. Define and give examples of key terms in strategic management. Discuss the nature of strategy formulation, implementation, and evaluation activities.
  2. Describe the benefits of good strategic management. Discuss the relevance of Sun Tzu’s The Art of War to strategic management. Discuss how a firm may achieve sustained competitive advantage.
  3. Strategic management is defined as the art and science of formulating, implementing, and evaluating cross-functional decisions that enable an organization to achieve its objectives
  4. Strategic management in this text is used synonymously with the term strategic planning Sometimes the term strategic management is used to refer to strategy formulation, implementation, and evaluation, with strategic planning referring only to strategy formulation.
  5. A strategic plan results from tough managerial choices among numerous good alternatives, and it signals commitment to specific markets, policies, procedures, and operations in lieu of other, “less desirable” courses of action.
  6. The strategic-management process consists of three stages: strategy formulation, strategy implementation, and strategy evaluation.
  7. Strategy formulation includes developing a vision and mission, identifying an organization’s external opportunities and threats, determining internal strengths and weaknesses, establishing long-term objectives, generating alternative strategies, and choosing particular strategies to pursue
  8. Deciding what new businesses to enter, What businesses to abandon, How to allocate resources, Whether to expand operations or diversify, Whether to enter international markets, Whether to merge or form a joint venture How to avoid a hostile takeover.
  9. Strategy implementation requires a firm to establish annual objectives, devise policies, motivate employees, and allocate resources so that formulated strategies can be executed and is often called the action stage
  10. Strategy evaluation is defined as reviewing external and internal factors that are the bases for current strategies, measuring performance, and taking corrective actions
  11. Strategy formulation, implementation, and evaluation activities occur at three hierarchical levels in a large organization: corporate, divisional or strategic business unit, and functional Strategic management helps a firm function as a competitive team
  12. Most organizations can benefit from strategic management, which is based upon integrating intuition and analysis in decision making Intuition is particularly useful for making decisions in situations of great uncertainty or little precedent
  13. Competitive advantage is anything that a firm does especially well compared to rival firms Strategists are the individuals who are most responsible for the success or failure of an organization.
  14. The Vision statement answers the question “What do we want to become?” and is often considered the first step in strategic planning
  15. Mission statements are enduring statements of purpose that distinguish one business from other similar firms. It identifies the scope of a firm’s operations in product and market terms and addresses the basic question that faces all strategists: “What is our business?”
  16. External opportunities and external threats refer to economic, social, cultural, demographic, environmental, political, legal, governmental, technological, and competitive trends and events that could significantly benefit or harm an organization in the future
  17. • Availability of capital can no longer be taken for granted. • Consumers expect green operations and products. • Marketing moving rapidly to the Internet. • Commodity food prices are increasing. • Political unrest in the Middle East is raising oil prices. • Computer hacker problems are increasing. • Intense price competition is plaguing most firms. • Unemployment and underemployment rates remain high. • Interest rates are rising. • Product life cycles are becoming shorter. • State and local governments are financially weak. • Turmoil and violence in Mexico is increasing. • Winters are colder and summers hotter than usual. • Home prices remain exceptionally low. • Global markets offer the highest growth in revenues.
  18. Internal strengths and internal weaknesses are an organization’s controllable activities that are performed especially well or poorly and are determined relative to competitors
  19. Objectives are specific results that an organization seeks to achieve in pursuing its basic mission. Long-term means more than one year They should be challenging, measurable, consistent, reasonable, and clear
  20. Strategies are the means by which long-term objectives will be achieved. They may include geographic expansion, diversification, acquisition, product development, market penetration, retrenchment, divestiture, liquidation, and joint ventures.
  21. Annual objectives are short-term milestones that organizations must achieve to reach long-term objectives. They should be measurable, quantitative, challenging, realistic, consistent, and prioritized They should be established at the corporate, divisional, and functional levels in a large organization.
  22. Strategies currently being pursued by some companies are described in Table 1-1.
  23. Policies are the means by which annual objectives will be achieved. They include guidelines, rules, and procedures established to support efforts to achieve stated objectives Policies are guides to decision making and address repetitive or recurring situations
  24. These are three important questions to answer in developing a strategic plan: Where are we now? Where do we want to go? How are we going to get there?
  25. The framework illustrated in Figure 1-1 is a widely accepted, comprehensive model of the strategic-management process.12 This model does not guarantee success, but it does represent a clear and practical approach for formulating, implementing, and evaluating strategies. Relationships among major components of the strategic-management process are shown in the model, which appears in all subsequent chapters with appropriate areas shaped to show the particular focus of each chapter.
  26. Historically, the principal benefit of strategic management has been to help organizations formulate better strategies through the use of a more systematic, logical, and rational approach to strategic choice
  27. Figure 1-2 illustrates this intrinsic benefit of a firm engaging in strategic planning. Note that all firms need all employees on a mission to help the firm succeed.
  28. Businesses using strategic-management concepts show significant improvement in sales, profitability, and productivity compared to firms without systematic planning activities High-performing firms seem to make more informed decisions with good anticipation of both short- and long-term consequences
  29. It allows for identification, prioritization, and exploitation of opportunities. It provides an objective view of management problems. It represents a framework for improved coordination and control of activities. It minimizes the effects of adverse conditions and changes.
  30. It allows major decisions to better support established objectives. It allows more effective allocation of time and resources to identified opportunities. It allows fewer resources and less time to be devoted to correcting erroneous or ad hoc decisions. It creates a framework for internal communication among personnel.
  31. • Lack of knowledge or experience in strategic planning—No training in strategic planning. • Poor reward structures—When an organization assumes success, it often fails to reward success. When failure occurs, then the firm may punish. • Firefighting—An organization can be so deeply embroiled in resolving crises and firefighting that it reserves no time for planning. • Waste of time—Some firms see planning as a waste of time because no marketable product is produced. Time spent on planning is an investment. • Too expensive—Some organizations see planning as too expensive in time and money. • Laziness—People may not want to put forth the effort needed to formulate a plan. • Content with success—Particularly if a firm is successful, individuals may feel there is no need to plan because things are fine as they stand. But success today does not guarantee success tomorrow.
  32. • Fear of failure—By not taking action, there is little risk of failure unless a problem is urgent and pressing. Whenever something worthwhile is attempted, there is some risk of failure. • Overconfidence—As managers amass experience, they may rely less on formalized planning. Rarely, however, is this appropriate. Being overconfident or overestimating experience can bring demise. Forethought is rarely wasted and is often the mark of professionalism. • Prior bad experience—People may have had a previous bad experience with planning, that is, cases in which plans have been long, cumbersome, impractical, or inflexible. Planning, like anything else, can be done badly. • Self-interest—When someone has achieved status, privilege, or self-esteem through effectively using an old system, he or she often sees a new plan as a threat. • Fear of the unknown—People may be uncertain of their abilities to learn new skills, of their aptitude with new systems, or of their ability to take on new roles. • Honest difference of opinion—People may sincerely believe the plan is wrong. They may view the situation from a different viewpoint, or they may have aspirations for themselves or the organization that are different from the plan. Different people in different jobs have different perceptions of a situation. • Suspicion—Employees may not trust management
  33. Using strategic planning to gain control over decisions and resources Doing strategic planning only to satisfy accreditation or regulatory requirements Too hastily moving from mission development to strategy formulation Failing to communicate the plan to employees, who continue working in the dark Top managers making many intuitive decisions that conflict with the formal plan
  34. Top managers not actively supporting the strategic-planning process Failing to use plans as a standard for measuring performance Delegating planning to a “planner” rather than involving all managers Failing to involve key employees in all phases of planning Failing to create a collaborative climate supportive of change
  35. Table 1-3 summarizes important guidelines for the strategic-planning process to be effective.
  36. A fundamental difference between military and business strategy is that business strategy is formulated, implemented, and evaluated with an assumption of competition, whereas military strategy is based on an assumption of conflict Both business and military organizations must adapt to change and constantly improve to be successful
  37. War is a matter of vital importance to the state: a matter of life or death, the road either to survival or ruin. Hence, it is imperative that it be studied thoroughly Know your enemy and know yourself, and in a hundred battles you will never be defeated. Skillful leaders do not let a strategy inhibit creative counter-movement