Ob. managing change 09.10.2011

Uploaded on


  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads


Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 1. October 09, 2011Assessment ofHuman and Organizational BehaviorTopics : MANAGING CHANGESubmitted To :MD. ABU BAKAR SIDDIQUELecturerDepartment of Business AdministrationSubmitted By :Mahfuza AkterID : 10206038OlibunnaharID : 10206006H.M.Hafizur RahmanID : 10206031Miron HossainID : 10106033Devabrota MoytraID : 10106023Hamidu zzamanID : 08206040THE UNIVERSITY OF ASIA PACIFIC
  • 2. Date: October 09, 2011ToMd. Abu Bakar SiddiqueDepartment of Business Administration,Course of Human and Organizational BehaviorThe University of Asia Pacific.From: The MBA student of the fall 2011, Mahfuza Akter Mili ; Olibunnahar ; H.M.HafizurRahman ; Miron Hossain ; Devabrota Moytra ; Hamidu zzaman . (Students of MBA 31 batch )Subject : Prayer for accepting our Assigment .As you said in the class, we have formed a group consisting of six members and we haveprepared our assignment as your given topic .The group names of members are stated below:Group members:Mahfuza AkterID : 10206038OlibunnaharID : 10206006H.M.Hafizur RahmanID : 10206031Miron HossainID : 10106033Devabrota MoytraID : 10106023Hamidu zzamanID : 08206040Therefore, we will by highly obliged if you accept our this Assignment..
  • 3. Table of ContentsIntroduction 01Change 01Organizational Change 01Organizational Level Change 02Six Key Factors In Organizational Change Management 02Forces For Change 03Concept Map 04Work And Organizations 04Reaction Of Change At Work 05Resistance 06Sources Of Resistance To Change 06Why Do Employees Resist To Change? 06Resistance To Change 07Overcoming Resistance To Change 08Managing Change 08Detail Of Steps For Managing Change 09Change Management Process 10Summary Of Steps For Managing Changei 10Implementing Change Successfully 11Organizational Development 11Understanding Organizational Development 12What Do Organization Development Consultants Do? 12Components Of An Effective Organization Development 13Process Of Organizational Development 13Limitations To Managing Change 14Recommendations 14Conclusion 15
  • 4. Almost all people are nervous about change. Many will resist it - consciously or subconsciously.Sometimes those fears are well founded - the change really will have a negative impact for them.In many cases, however, the target population for the change will come to realize that the changewas for the better.―We cannot become what we want to be by remaining what we are.‖– Max Dupree ―To improve is to change; to be perfect is to change often.‖– Winston Churchill―Anytime there is change, there is opportunity.‖–Jack Welch – CEO, GE. USA―Do not fear going forward slowly; fear only to stand still.‖– Chinese Proverb―Decide today to be a master of change rather than a victim of change.‖– Brian Tracy―Things don’t change. You change your way of looking, that’s all.‖– Author Unknown!―Whether you are a success or failure in life has little to do with your circumstances; it hasmuch more to do with your choices!‖ – Nido QubeinORGANIZATIONAL CHANGEThe organized, systematic application of knowledge, tools, and resources of change that provideorganizations with a key process to achieve their business strategyGOALProvide the structure & guidance necessary to effectively prepare organizations for thesuccessful acceptance of cultural changeThe following are the basic elements of a formula based organizational change strategy.1 Determining the need to change2 Development of a vision.3 Consensus building4 Identify barriers to implementation5 Walk the talk6 Creating an overall change strategy.7 Implementation and Evaluation Page 1 of 14
  • 5. ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL CHANGEThe organizational change involves major programmes which affect both the individuals and thegroups. Decisions regarding such changes are made by the senior management. These changesoccur over long periods of time and require considerable planning for implementation. A fewdifferent types of organization level changes are: Strategic change. Strategic change is the change in the very basic objectives or mission of the organization. A simple objective may have to be changed to multiple objectives.. Structural change. Organizational structure is the pattern of relationships among various positions and among various position holders. Structural change involves changing the internal structure of the organization. This change may be in the whole set of relationships, work assignments and authority structure Process oriented change. These changes relate to the recent technological developments, information processing and automation. This will involve replacing or retraining personnel, heavy capital equipment investment and operational changes. People oriented change. People oriented changes are directed towards performance improvement, group cohesion, dedication, and loyalty to the organizations as well as developing a sense of self-actualization among members.To conclude, we can say that changes at any level affect the other levels. The strength of theeffect will depend on the level or source of change.SIX KEY FACTORS IN ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE MANAGEMENTThere is a science and an art to achieving real, meaningful change. The art lies in knowing howto design the organizational change management process – and how to facilitate it so that realchange occurs. This tool lays out the six key factors for success and details the specificquestions and issues under each factor.1. Clarity of Roles Who should be at the table, planning the change? Are the right people at the table? Who ultimately decides? Who are other key stakeholders? What is the decision-making process?2. Clarity of Vision What does success look like? Why is the status quo not acceptable? What is the vision? How will people or society benefit if the change is achieved? How does the vision translate into specific benefits or costs?3. Strong Champions Are the leaders of the organization involved? Do those leaders champion the change even when the going gets tough? Are other people with broad influence also championing the change?4. Sufficient Resources Is there sufficient time for people to meet and resolve the issues that need to be resolved? Is there enough money to hire consultants to guide and facilitate the process? Once the plan is approved, are there resources with which to implement it? Page 2 of 14
  • 6. 5. Engagement Are staff and others who will implement the change engaged in examining options and developing recommendations? Are key outside groups and stakeholders also engaged?6. Communication Throughout the process, are people informed about what is going on? Does everyone have a clear idea of the steps in the process and people’s decision-making responsibilities? Is the communication proactive – not reactive? FORCES FOR CHANGEOrganizations encounter forces from outside and inside the organization, creating a need forChange. Awareness of these forces can help in determining when organizational change needstobe implemented. Change initiatives can be placed in the following categories• External forces. Forces outside the organization may have global effects, causing theorganizationTo question the value of the business it is in and the products and services it produces. There areFour major external forces for change:–Demographic Characteristics: The workforce may be becoming more diverse. The businessMust manage that diversity effectively if it wants to receive maximum contribution andCommitment from employees.–Technological Advancements: Organizations are increasingly using technologicaladvancementto improve their competitiveness and productivity. Many organizations have automatedoperations with robotics and computer-aided design. Offices have been automated withComputer technologies used to obtain, store, analyze, retrieve, and communicate information.Use of the Internet has dramatically changed communications and marketing.–Market Changes: The global economy has forced many companies to change the way they doBusiness–Social and Political Pressures: Social and political events may force organizations to change.Managerial style may need to be adjusted because of changing employee values. OrganizationsMay hire lobbyists and consultants to help in detecting and responding to social and politicalChanges.• Internal Forces. Internal forces come from within the organization. These forces may be lowmorale, low productivity, or conflict. The forces come from both human resources problemsand managerial decisions/behaviors.–Human Resource Problems: These problems may stem from employees’ perceptions of theway they are treated at work and whether the organization’s and the employees’ needs anddesires match. Page 3 of 14
  • 7. –Managerial Decisions/Behavior :Change may be indicated by excessive interpersonal conflictbetween managers and employees, inappropriate leader behaviors, or inequitable rewardsystems.ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGEConcept MapWORK AND ORGANIZATIONS The myth of the long hours culture in the irish it sector Age policies in modernized organization Go for a senior? Gender in management and organization texts Expectations and perceived value of public and private banks customers in Greece Equal opportunity policy of Hungarian companies The role of practical experience within organizations for professional development Higher education systems and industrial innovation : the relevant dimensions for the comparative analysis Page 4 of 14
  • 8.  The role of employees participation in retaining the social responsibility of privatized public services/ utilities Doubt is the key of knowledge: problems in mapping and measuring a knowledge-driven economy and work Working title: industry specific employment models Public sector and privatization Structuration and institutionalization of technology: reconstructing the duality and dualism of technology in organizations Work organization and professional identity in new media between innovation and path- dependency: evi-dence from Germany Compromises between work and family Gender role schemas, self-efficacy and conflict management in organizations Flexible forms of work and employment under the new economy in Portugal Managing gender and diversity - an approach to (re-)design non-discriminative organizations Temps et ambivalence de la relation salariale: du temps de Taylor a lautomatisme social? Regional collaboration as organisational reform and institutional adjustment. Experiences and consequences among social security offices in norway The role of training in organizational development New forms of work and the equalisation of women New trends in the greek banking sector. Mergers, acquisitions, privatizations and their influence on labor relationsREACTION OF CHANGE AT WORKAll of us are different. Some are extroverts, others introverts. Some are quick starts, others fact-finders. Some are liberals, others conservatives. All of us, says Winters, have natural ways inwhich we respond to conflict—natural ways in which we each respond to change. Understandingthe natural way of how people handle change can therefore be important for top leaders inmanaging change sensitively. Winter’s formulation of the six ―types‖ of employee reactions tothe changing workplace is a useful tool to enable this understanding.1. The Foggies: Oblivious to the changes all around them.2. The Fakers: Tell themselves and others that they are on board with change but make no personal changes to their behaviour3. The Faultless: They see the changes around them, do not like them, and constantly complain. They see themselves as hopeless victims of an unfair system.4. The Fearful: Fear is a natural response to uncertainty. Fearful people engage in self- protectionist, non-team-oriented behaviour. There is low trust and oftentimes paranoia sets in.5. The Fighters: There are two types of fighters. One who rejects change and ardently promotes a status quo position. The second type of fighter wants change and feels frustrated by the lack of progress. They are vanguards, often seen as troublemakers by those who fear change. Page 5 of 14
  • 9. 6. The Futurists: These are individuals accustomed to change, and/or highly self-differentiated, or workers new to the culture. They are adaptable, flexible, and global in their thinking. They know that they are in control of their destiny. They are career-resilientWinter’s formulation of the six responses is meant to facilitate employees to discover forthemselves, their ability to find peace in the workplace. However, I believe, there is yet anotherimportant role the formulation can play.RESISTANCE to change is the action taken by individuals and groups when they perceive thata change that is occurring as a threat to them. Key words here are perceive and threat. Thethreat need not be real or large for resistance to occur. In its usual description it refers to changewithin organizations, although it also is found elsewhere in other forms. Resistance is theequivalent of objections in sales and disagreement in general discussions.Resistance may take many forms, including active or passive, overt or covert, individual ororganized, aggressive or timid.SOURCES OF RESISTANCE TO CHANGE• Ignorance: a failure to understand the situation or the problem• Mistrust: motives for change are considered suspicious• Disbelief: a feeling that the way forward will not work• “Power-Cut”: a fear that sources of influence and control will be eroded• Loss: change has unacceptable personal costs• Inadequacy: the benefits from the change are not seen as sufficient• Anxiety: fear of being unable to cope with the new situation• Comparison: the way forward is disliked because an alternative is preferred• Demolition: change threatens the destruction of existing social networksWHY DO EMPLOYEES RESIST TO CHANGE?•Surprise–Unannounced significant changes threaten employees’ sense of balance in theworkplace.•Inertia –Employees have a desire to maintain a safe, secure, and predictable status quo.•Misunderstanding and lack of skills –Without introductory or remedial training, change maybe perceived negatively.•Poor Timing –Other events can conspire to create resentment about a particular change•Emotional Side Effects–Forced acceptance of change can create a sense of powerlessness,anger, and passive resistance to change.•Lack of Trust –Promises of improvement mean nothing if employees do not trust management.•Fear of Failure –Employees are intimidated by change and doubt their abilities to meet newchallenges.•Personality Conflicts –Managers who are disliked by their managers are poor conduits forchange Page 6 of 14
  • 10. •Threat to Job Status/Security – Employees worry that any change may threaten their job orsecurity.•Breakup of Work Group –Changes can tear apart established on-the-job socialrelationships.•Competing Commitments –Change can disrupt employees in their pursuit of other goalsRESISTANCE TO CHANGE1. One of the most well-documented findings is that organizations and their members resist change  It provides a degree of stability and predictability to behavior.  There is a definite downside to resistance to change. It hinders adaptation and progress.2. Resistance to change does not necessarily surface in standardized ways.  Resistance can be overt, implicit, immediate, or deferred.  It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate.3. Implicit resistance efforts are more subtle—loss of loyalty to the organization, loss of motivation to work, increased errors or mistakes, increased absenteeism due to ―sickness‖— and hence more difficult to recognize.4. . Similarly, deferred actions cloud the link between the source of the resistance and the reaction to it.  A change may produce what appears to be only a minimal reaction at the time it is initiated, but then resistance surfaces weeks, months, or even years later. a. Reactions to change can build up and then explode seemingly totally out of proportion. b. The resistance was deferred and stockpiled, and what surfaces is a cumulative response.A. Individual ResistanceFive reasons why individuals may resist change are (See Exhibit 19-2):1. Habit: Life is complex, to cope with having to make hundreds of decisions every day, we all rely on habits or programmed responses.2. Security: People with a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feelings of safety.3. Economic factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one’s income.4. Fear of the unknown: Changes substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known.5. Selective information processing: Individuals shape their world through their perceptions. Once they have created this world, it resists change.B. Organizational ResistanceOrganizations, by their very nature, are conservative. They actively resist change. There are six major sources of organizational resistance: (See Exhibit 19-4.)1. Structural inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability; this structural inertia acts as a counterbalance to sustain stability. Page 7 of 14
  • 11. 2. Limited focus of change: Organizations are made up of a number of interdependent subsystems. Changing one affects the others.3. Group inertia: Group norms may act as a constraint.4. Threat to expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups.5. Threat to established power relationships: Redistribution of decision-making authority canthreaten long-established power relationships.6. Threat to established resource allocations: Groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. They tend to be content with the way things are.OVERCOMING RESISTANCE TO CHANGEThe efforts can be made in two ways for overcoming organizational Resistance to change: 1. Effort of Individuals 2. Effort in Groupa. Effort of Individuals 1. Increased participation & involvement of the management and the staffs. 2. Effective interpersonal and interpersonal communication. 3. Increased facilitation & the support system for the employees. 4. Building strong leadership at the employee level. 5. Negotiation & the agreement between different parties. 6. Manipulation and co-operation. 7. Coercion is a process when people are forced to follow a particular pattern either through positive or negative orientation. 8. Timing of change must be dependent on the severity of change. If the changes is more severe & duration is long, whereas a change is minor than time span should be short.b. Effort in Group 1. Increased Cohesiveness among different groups of employees with the help of co- cohesiveness the belongingness will also develop among the employees at the group level. 2. Increasing the attractiveness of the group to the members, when these attractiveness effects psychologically, it helps members to overcome resistance to change. 3. Degree of Prestige to the group. If the group is prestigious the effect of resistance is less whereas in case of less prestigious group there are chances of more resistance.MANAGING CHANGEManaging change means co-ordinating a number of activities and inter-relationships so that theorganization can survive, and benefit from, the process of change. A major challenge is toachieve the right balance between the short-term pressure for change and longer-term corporategoals. Page 8 of 14
  • 12. Change is inherent in contemporary organizational experience, and its management is not onlycritical to organizational success and survival but is also at the crux of the field of organizationdevelopment.Knowledge of the fundamental aspects of change is defined in terms of a persons understandingof individual responses to change and the general nature of change. Knowledge of the changeprocess is determined by a persons understanding of three key processes: planning change,managing change (both the "people" side and the "organization" side) and evaluating change. Itshould be noted that each dimension builds on those below it; in other words, knowledge of thefundamental aspects of change is critical to the process of planning, managing and evaluatingchange.―it is not the strongest species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the ones who are mostresponsiveto change‖ Charles Darwin―To cope with a changing world, an entity must develop the capacity of shifting and changing –of developing new skills and attitudes; in short, the capability of learning‖ A De Gues, The Living CompanyDetail of Steps for Managing Change1. Identify/Accept the Need for Change:  List the issues, indicators or symptoms  Ask stakeholders to confirm the issues, indicators or symptoms  Decide whether change is necessary  Set up change team(s)/support mechanisms (implementation, transition, communication etc.)  Clarify Roles (Sponsor, Implementer, Agent, Advocate)2. Assess and Define the Change Required:  Identify the preferred future state  Assess the current state  Identify the gap or difference  Clearly define what must be changed  Establish measures of success3. Analyze the Impact of Alternatives and Select the Best:  List reasonable alternatives (including making no change)  Assess the cost/benefits, pros/cons, outcomes/risks and potential side effects  Choose the best alternative  Identify restraining and supporting forces (i.e. people, events, rules and policie4. Develop the Plan and Strategies:  Explain the change and rationale  Describe the current situation vs. the desired future  Explain the options considered and decision  Describe objectives, action plans, and measures of success  Develop strategies: Operational (Physical/Plant Legal, Financial, and Service Issues) Training and Learning Human Resource (HR/LR, Staff Transfer, Selection) Page 9 of 14
  • 13. Communication Transition Team Development Budget Implications5. Implement the Plan and Strategies:  Enlist others  Determine readiness for change  Prepare and educate those implementing the change  Follow the timetable and sequence of events for communication, training, team development etc.)6. Manage the Transition:  Monitor transition issues and people’s response to the change  Implement strategies to help people with the transition  Recognize results1. Evaluate the Change:  Monitor progress and debrief  Design and conduct evaluation based on the measure of success  Document and report on the outcome  Adjust or alter based on evaluationCHANGE MANAGEMENT PROCESSThe change management process is the sequence of steps or activities that a change managementteam or project leader would follow to apply change management to a project or change. Basedon Proscis research of the most effective and commonly applied change, most changemanagement processes contain the following three phases:Phase 1 - Preparing for change (Preparation, assessment and strategy development)Phase 2 - Managing change (Detailed planning and change management implementation)Phase 3 - Reinforcing change (Data gathering, corrective action and recognition)SUMMARY OF STEPS FOR MANAGING CHANGEiiUse the steps for managing change as a check list to guide you in change initiatives. This modelfor managing change is based on the ―Steps for Managing Change Process‖ developed by LindaAckerman and the Managing Transitions model developed by William Bridge Page 10 of 14
  • 14. IMPLEMENTING CHANGE SUCCESSFULLYTo properly implement change, management must take a number of steps: involving key people,developing a plan, supporting the plan, and communicating often.1.The first step in implementing change is involving the key people; this typically means upper-level management and other executives whose processes and employees will be affected by thechange. For instance, if a new computer system is to be installed in all areas of a company, keypeople would be not only top managers, but also lower-level managers who supervise theemployees use of the new technology. A different set of key people would be involved in a cost-cutting change. If the company is reducing its operating budget in a specific division, themanagers of that division and also human resources personnel should be involved. In anycircumstance in which there is a change to personnel policies or in which demotions, transfers, orlayoffs occur, the human resources department should be involved to manage this change.2.After key personnel have been identified and properly involved, the second step inimplementing change is to develop a plan for effective transformation. The plan should help todefine the responsibilities of the key people involved while also laying out short-term and long-term objectives for the changes. Because change can be unpredictable, the plan should also beflexible enough to accommodate new occurrences.3.The third step in implementing change is to support the plan; this means that managementfollows through on the plan it created. Key to this step is enabling employees to adapt to thechange. Employees may need training, reward systems may need to be adapted, or hiring may berequired. If the organization does not provide the support necessary for the plan to take effect, itis unlikely to succeed.4.The final step in successful change implementation should occur throughout the changeprocess. Communicating with employees about what is occurring, why the changes are beingmade, and how they will develop is critical. Because change can create a lot of fear, increasedcommunication can be used to calm employees and encourage their continued support. Inaddition to downward communication, managers should pay attention to any upwardcommunication that occurs. They should be available to take suggestions or answer questionsthat employees might have. Creating opportunities for employee feedback, such as holdingmeetings or having an open-door management policy, may facilitate change more successfully ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENTOrganizational development is the process through which an organization develops the internalcapacity to be the most effective it can be in its mission work and to sustain itself over the longterm. This definition highlights the explicit connection between organizational developmentwork and the achievement of organizational mission. This connection is the rationale for doingOD work. Page 11 of 14
  • 15. UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONS DEVELOPMENTWeisbord presents a six-box model for understanding organization:1. Purposes: The organization members are clear about the organization’s mission and purpose and goal agreements, whether people support the organization’ purpose.2. Structure: How is the organization’s work divided up? The question is whether there is an adequate fit between the purpose and the internal structure3. Relationship: Between individuals, between units or departments that perform different tasks, and between the people and requirements of their jobs.4. Rewards: The consultant should diagnose the similarities between what the organization formally rewarded or punished members for.5. Leadership: Is to watch for blips among the other boxes and maintain balance among them.6. Helpful mechanism: Is a helpful organization that must attend to in order to survive which as planning, control, budgeting, and other information systems that help organization member accomplish. WHAT DO ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT CONSULTANTS DO? OD consultants custom tailor established social science theory and methods to organizations seeking to improve profitability, productivity, morale and/or quality of work life. Examples of activities which are facilitated by OD consultants are: Teambuilding Goal Setting Group Facilitation Creative Problem solving Strategic Planning Leadership Development Management Development Career Management Conflict Resolution Developmental Education Interpersonal Communication Human Resources Management Managing Workforce Diversity Organization Restructuring High Involvement Work Teams Sociotechnical Systems Design Technical Training Total Quality ManagementOften described as "change agents," OD consultants come from varied backgrounds withexperience and training in organization development, organization behavior, psychology,education, management and/or human resources. Many have advanced degrees and most haveexperience in a variety of organizational settings. Page 12 of 14
  • 16. COMPONENTS OF AN EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENTThe core components of effective organizations include the following:Vision, Values and MissionGovernanceStrategic Thinking and PlanningProgram Development and ImplementationEvaluation, Learning and AccountabilityHuman Resource ManagementOrganizational CultureManagement Systems and StructuresLegal Compliance, Fiscal Management and Public AccountabilityResource DevelopmentConstituent RelationshipsCollaborationPROCESS OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENTThe process of Organizational Development comprises of follows steps and they are:-1. Initial Diagnosis: The initial diagnosis refers to finding the inadequacies within theorganization that can be corrected by OD activities then it is necessary to find out theprofessionally competent persons within organization to plan and execute OD activities. Theoutside consultants can be also employed to help in diagnosing the problems and diagnosing ODactivities. The consultants adopt various methods and that primarily includes interviews,questionnaires, direct observation, analysis of documents and reports for diagnosing the problem2. Data Collection: The survey method is employed to collect the data for determiningorganizational climate. It also helps in identifying the behavioral problems that are rising in theorganization.3. Data Feedback: The collected data are analyzed and reviewed by various work groups thatare formed for this purpose. It is done in order to intervene in the areas of disagreement orconfrontation of ideas or opinions.4. Selection of Interventions: The interventions can be described as the planned activities thatare introduced into the system to achieve desired changes and improvements. The suitableinterventions are to be selected and designed at this stage.5. Implementation of Interventions: The selected intervention should be implementedprogressively as the process is not a one shot, quick cure for organizational problems.Consequently, it achieves real and lasting change in the attitudes and behavior of employees.6. Action Planning and Problem Solving: To solve the specific and identified problems byusing the collected data, groups prepare recommendations and specific action planning.7. Team Building: The consultants explain the advantages of the teams in OD process andencourage the employees throughout the process to form into groups and teams. Page 13 of 15
  • 17. 8. Inter-group Development: After the formation of groups/teams, the consultants encouragethe inter-group meetings, interaction etc9. Evaluation and follow up: The organization should evaluate the OD programmers and shouldfind out their utility, and develop the programmers further for correcting the deviations. Theconsultants make great significance to the organization in this respect. The entire steps in the ODprocesses should be followed by the organization in order to derive full range of OD benefits.LIMITATIONS TO MANAGING CHANGE It only shows formal relationships and tells nothing of the pattern of human (social) relationships which develop. It shows nothing about the managerial style adopted (eg autocratic or democratic) It very quickly becomes out-of-date, especially in large organizations who change their staff regularly. Key executive or other departments did not support the change, Resources were diverted to other priorities of company, Different change efforts not coordinated well, Leader had no follow through, No one seems to be in charge, The goal seems vague, Executives were more concerned with other issues, Problems were not communicated to the leader, Executives disagreed over the control of the change effort, The culture does not support the change.RECOMMENDATIONS Organizational Change Management is ―all of the actions required for an organization to understand, prepare for, implement and take full advantage of significant change‖. The goals of Change Management are:  The successful design, implementation, measurement and maintenance of an organization’s change initiative  Enhancement of their on-going capacity for managing change  Enterprise Transformation is driven by an underlying strategy that organizes and energizes People to understand, embrace and make full use of new Process and Technology  Degree of success of this endeavor is measured by the level and nature of the Business Impact achieved Page 14 of 15
  • 18.  become more business-like and to focus on changes in the business environment reposition ourselves rapidly in a dynamic global environment inform our SWOT analysis systematise planning, project management and improvement at all levels, using the ADRI model ensure we do not ―leave things to chance‖.CONCLUSIONThe test of change management is whether the new business solution can be launchedsuccessfully in as efficient and pain-free a manner as possible. The lead up to the transition isoften the most intense period. In many cases it is the first time the affected populations reallybecome aware of the changes (although, as you saw above, it is not wise to tackle change issueslate in the project). Now they are confronted with changed jobs, new procedures, new skillrequirements, training courses, and maybe even physical re-location. Change is fundamental tothe growth and development of an organization. Achieving the desired levels of organizationalperformance depends largely on how well change is managed when it does occur.Change management presents the challenge of minimizing the inevitable dips in performancethat arise due to issues of resistance and an inability to let go of the "old". The overall success ofany initiative that induces change depends on addressing these people-related issues. Anorganization that successfully meets this change management challenge is one that is willing toaccept ownership and responsibility for sustaining long-term change.Verge Management Services works with clients to effectively manage change within anorganization. Verge will assist you in identifying and avoiding the common difficulties thatnaturally occur during periods of transition. Verge works with you to ensure that effectivechange management takes place. 1. Benefits management and realization to define measurable stakeholder aims, create a business case for their achievement (which should be continuously updated), and monitor assumptions, risks, dependencies, costs, return on investment, dis-benefits and cultural issues affecting the progress of the associated work. 2. Effective Communications that informs various stakeholders of the reasons for the change (why?), the benefits of successful implementation (what is in it for us, and you) as well as the details of the change (when? where? who is involved? how much will it cost? etc.). 3. Devise an effective education, training and/or skills upgrading scheme for the organization. 4. Counter resistance from the employees of companies and align them to overall strategic direction of the organization. 5. Provide personal counseling (if required) to alleviate any change related fears. 6. Monitoring of the implementation and fine-tuning as required. Page 15 of 1
  • 19. Page 3 of 12
  • 20. Page 4 of 12
  • 21. Page 5 of 12
  • 22. Page 6 of 12
  • 23. Page 7 of 12
  • 24. Page 8 of 12
  • 25. Page 9 of 12
  • 26. Page 10 of 12
  • 27. Page 11 of 12
  • 28. END Page 12 of 12i
  • 29. ii