UMBEL: Subject Concepts Layer for the Web


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This is an intro to UMBEL (Upper Mapping and Binding Exchange Layer), a lightweight ontology for relating Web content and data to a standard set of 20,000 subject concepts. Connecting to the UMBEL structure gives context and coherence to Web data. Via UMBEL, Web content, data and metadata can be linked, made interoperable, and more easily navigated and discovered. These subject concepts have defined relationships between them, and can act as semantic binding nodes for any Web content or data. The UMBEL subject concepts are derived from the OpenCyc version of the proven Cyc knowledge base.

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UMBEL: Subject Concepts Layer for the Web

  1. July 2008 Upper Mapping and Binding Exchange Layer UMBEL: A Subject Concepts Reference Layer for the Web
  2. UMBEL is . . . <ul><li>. . . a lightweight reference structure for placing Web content and data in context with other data. </li></ul><ul><li>. . . is comprised of about 20,000 subject concepts and their relationships — with one another and with external vocabularies and named entities . </li></ul><ul><li>. . . free , non-commercial and open source under a Creative Commons Share Alike ver. 3.0 license. </li></ul>
  3. Subject Concepts <ul><li>20,000 defined reference points in information space </li></ul><ul><li>Means to assert what a given chunk of content is about </li></ul><ul><li>Enable similar content to be aggregated </li></ul><ul><li>Place content in context with other content </li></ul><ul><li>Aggregation points for tying in named entities </li></ul><ul><li>Totally derived and a subset of OpenCyc, the open source version of the Cyc knowledge base </li></ul> http ://
  4. Derived from OpenCyc . . . 90% reduction
  5. Named Entities <ul><li>The places , events , people , objects , and specific things of the real world </li></ul><ul><li>Literally millions of notable instances </li></ul><ul><li>Each belongs to one or more subject concept(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, the predominate basis for Linked Data </li></ul><ul><li>Important sources include Wikipedia (Yago) and other public sources </li></ul><ul><li>Can be readily mixed-and-matched with private entities </li></ul>
  6. UMBEL is a Meta Layer for Metadata <ul><li>Provides a standard set of subjects for tieing in content and datasets </li></ul>
  7. UMBEL is Middleware <ul><li>UMBEL ontology is based on RDF </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RDF Schema vocabulary of SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OWL Full to aid class, domain and range relationships with external ontologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides excellent interoperability </li></ul></ul>Any external content (ontologies + named entities) Any external content (ontologies + named entities)   UMBEL  OpenCyc (inferencing, structure and other tools)
  8. UMBEL is a Roadmap <ul><li>A set of roadsigns to help find related content </li></ul><ul><li>A contextual way to get from one concept space to another </li></ul><ul><li>More detailed maps used for specific domains </li></ul>
  9. UMBEL is a Backbone <ul><li>The backbone to UMBEL is the relationships amongst its subject concepts </li></ul><ul><li>The backbone provides the contextual graph for inter-relating content </li></ul><ul><li>The backbone is a reference structure for more specific domains or ontologies </li></ul><ul><li>The backbone is contextual , and relatively stable and constant </li></ul>
  10. UMBEL is an Ontology <ul><li>The UMBEL ontology is based on RDFS, SKOS and OWL-Full 1 </li></ul><ul><li>The UMBEL ontology is a binding vocabulary and relationships for tieing Web datasets together </li></ul><ul><li>The UMBEL ontology introduces: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 new classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 new properties (predicates) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The UMBEL ontology is available at: </li></ul><ul><li>1 RDFS – Resource Description Framework Schema; SKOS – Simple Knowledge Organization System; OWL – Web Ontology Language </li></ul>
  11. ‘ Exploding the Domain’ <ul><li>Each subject concept is an individual of the skos:Concept class, which are themselves OWL classes </li></ul><ul><li>Since subject concepts are classes, can relate to external ontology classes using rdfs:subClassOf and owl:equivalentClass </li></ul><ul><li>Under right circumstances, can also inherit properties </li></ul><ul><li>Through inferencing, silo data now can inherit open world understanding, therefore: </li></ul><ul><li> exploding the domain </li></ul>
  12. A Deep Dive into the Backbone . . . . . . all 20,000 nodes
  13. A Deep Dive into the Backbone . . . . . . top 750 nodes
  14. A Deep Dive into the Backbone . . . . . . top 350 nodes
  15. A Deep Dive into the Backbone . . . . . . zeroing in on ‘automobiles’
  16. A Deep Dive into the Backbone . . . . . . zeroing in on ‘Saabs’
  17. The UMBEL Ontology
  18. Re-use of Existing Ontologies <ul><li>Properties of the Dublin Core ontology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dcterms:language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Properties of the SKOS ontology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>skos:prefLabel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skos:altLabel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skos:definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skos:broader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skos:narrower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skos:related </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skos:broaderTransitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skos:narrowerTransitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seven other minor ones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Properties of the RDFS ontology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rdfs:subClassOf </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Properties of the OWL ontology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>owl:equivalentClass </li></ul></ul>
  19. New UMBEL Classes <ul><li>umbel:SubjectConcept – concrete, subject-related, and non-abstract “things” with members or instances that are part of the real world </li></ul><ul><li>umbel:AbstractConcept – astract or ephemeral notions often used solely for organization or categorization; used only internally for graph interconnectivity </li></ul><ul><li>umbel:Semset – sematically close terms or phrases synonymous or nearly so with subject concepts or named entities; may embrace jargon and contemporary tags </li></ul>
  20. New UMBEL Predicates <ul><li>umbel:isAligned – associative class to subject concept link </li></ul><ul><li>umbel:isAbout – associative named entity to subject concept link </li></ul><ul><li>umbel:isLike – associative link between individuals where similar, but exact sameness uncertain </li></ul><ul><li>umbel:hasSemset – links a subject concept to its semset </li></ul><ul><li>umbel:linksConcept – inverse property of isAligned </li></ul><ul><li>umbel:linksEntity – inverse property of isAbout </li></ul><ul><li>umbel:superClassOf – inverse to rdfs:subClassOf </li></ul><ul><li>umbel:withAlignment – degree of alignment estimate for isAligned </li></ul><ul><li>umbel:withLikelihood – degree of alignment estimate for isAbout </li></ul>
  21. Sample Specification
  22. Linkage to External Ontologies <ul><li>FOAF (Friend-of-a-Friend Ontology) </li></ul><ul><li>FOAF Yandex (Friend-of-a-Friend Yandex extension Ontology) </li></ul><ul><li>RSS 1.0 (Really Simple Syndicate Ontology) </li></ul><ul><li>SIOC (Socially Interlinked Online Communities Ontology) </li></ul><ul><li>DOAP (Description of a Project Ontology) </li></ul><ul><li>GEO WGS84 (Geo wgs84 Ontology) </li></ul><ul><li>GEONAMES (Geonames Ontology) </li></ul><ul><li>CC (Creative Commons Ontology) </li></ul><ul><li>EVENT (Event Ontology) </li></ul><ul><li>PO (Programme Ontology) </li></ul><ul><li>MO (Music Ontology) </li></ul><ul><li>FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records) </li></ul>
  23. UMBEL Ontology <ul><li>The UMBEL ontology is available at: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  24. The First Dozen Web Services
  25. UMBEL’s Dozen <ul><li>Find Subject Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Subject Concept Report </li></ul><ul><li>Subject Concept Detailed Report </li></ul><ul><li>List Sub-Concepts & Sub-Classes </li></ul><ul><li>List Super-Concepts & Super-Classes </li></ul><ul><li>List Equivalent External Classes </li></ul><ul><li>Discover Subject Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Verify Sub-Class Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Verify Super-Class Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Verify Equivalent Class Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Subject Concepts Explorer </li></ul><ul><li>Yago Ontology </li></ul>
  26. Demos, Docs & APIs
  27. Find Subject Concept
  28. Subject Concept Detailed Report
  29. Subject Concept Explorer
  30. YAGO Ontology
  31. Play for Yourself <ul><li>Access the UMBEL Web services at: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  32. Conclusion and Further Information
  33. Why Important to the Semantic Web? <ul><li>Context, Context, CONTEXT </li></ul><ul><li>For Linked Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Context ! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For Web Search: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infinite facets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disambiguation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaner navigation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For Legacy Data Stovepipes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making the connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed World schemas become Open World information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context ! </li></ul></ul>
  34. For Further Information <ul><li>Main Web site: </li></ul><ul><li>http :// </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation: </li></ul><ul><li>http :// </li></ul><ul><li>Wiki: </li></ul><ul><li>http :// </li></ul><ul><li>Google group: </li></ul><ul><li>http :// </li></ul><ul><li>Slide presentations: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  35. Contributions and Thanks <ul><li>The Cyc Foundation – design assistance and Web services </li></ul><ul><li>YAGO – named entities from Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>Cycorp – OpenCyc and revisions and tailoring </li></ul><ul><li>OpenLink Software – infrastructure, financing and software </li></ul><ul><li>Zitgist LLC – staff time and hosting services </li></ul>
  36. Contact Information <ul><li>Mike Bergman, editor </li></ul><ul><li>Zitgist LLC </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Fred Giasson, editor </li></ul><ul><li>Zitgist LLC </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
  37. Thanks to for hosting us !