Cultural anthropology part 1


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Cultural anthropology part 1

  1. 1. Cultural Anthropology Cultural Anthropology What Is Anthropology? Anthropology is the scientific study of what it means to be human ! It is the discipline of infinite curiosity about human beings Anthropos= man Logos= study
  2. 2. As a scholarly discipline, anthropology straddles the sciences, social studies and humanities. ANTHROPOLOGY’S 
 FOUR FIELDS The Four Fields What makes human beings unique? Human Characteristic Anthropological Subfield Humans shape their material environment Archaeology Humans differ in their physical form Physical/Biological Anthropology Humans have a unique communication system Linguistic Anthropology Humans act according to learned knowledge systems Cultural Anthropology
  3. 3. Archaeology Studies the ways humans manipulate their material environment ! Examines material environment of past societies for clues about their lives ! Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, settled by the Anasazi around AD 1000. Archaeology also studies that portion of the past before there was writing or literate witnesses, and this is known as prehistoric archaeology. Physical Anthropology Examines the ways humans are biologically similar to and different from other animals ! Primatology ! Human Evolution
  4. 4. Linguistic Anthropology ! ! ! ! How humans use language to communicate The spread and transformation of language Language acquisition Language revitalization Cultural Anthropology Describes and analyzes the beliefs people have about their social and material worlds, and the ways these affect human action The goal of Cultural Anthropology • to better understand culture and how it develops and changes over time.
  5. 5. How do anthropologists view the world? They use the HOLISTIC PERSPECTIVE. They see the world in the broadest possible way. (Everything related to humans is fair game) Interdisciplinary & Holistic Cultural Archaeology Physical Linguistic Applying cultural anthropology • Dr. Paula Holmes-Eber, Professor of Operational Culture, Marine Corps University, Quantico, VA. • Teaching culture to Marine officers about to deploy to M.E. • Importance of understanding tribalism, economics, religion. • Criticized by some in the profession for teaching this.
  6. 6. Chapter 3 Doing Cultural Anthropology Fieldwork ■ Firsthand exploration of a society and culture. ■ ■ Holistic perspective about a culture. Reveals the difference between what people say they do and what they do. Anthropological Theory ■ Attempt to answer questions such as: ■ Why do people behave as they do? ■ How do we account for human diversity?
  7. 7. Fieldwork Techniques ■ ■ ■ ■ Participant observation Photography and filming Recording life histories Using historical archives Ethical Fieldwork Anthropologists must: ■ Obtain consent of the people to be studied. ■ Protect them from risk. ■ Respect their privacy and dignity.
  8. 8. Ethnography in History ■ Anthropology began in the late 19th Century as a comparative science. ■ Ethnographers concentrated on small-scale, technologically simpler societies. Early 20th century ■ Boas insisted that grasping the whole of a culture could be achieved only through fieldwork. ■ Malinowski suggested the main goal for an ethnographer was to obtain the native’s point of view. Feminist Anthropology ■ Questions gender bias in ethnography and cultural theory. ■ Men, who had limited access to women’s lives, performed much of the fieldwork. ■ Ignoring women’s perspectives perpetuates the oppression of women.
  9. 9. Native Anthropology ■ Study of one’s own society. ■ Anthropologists must maintain the social distance of the outsider. ■ Becoming more common as native cultures disappear. The Ideal Anthropological Journey: Thrice Born 1. We are born into our original culture. 2. We move away from a familiar place to a far place to do field research. 3. We turn back to our native land and find the familiar has become exotic. Postmodernism in Brief ■ Switch from cultural generalization and lawsto description, interpretation, &search for meaning. ■ Ethnographies- written from several voices ■ Involves a return to cultural relativism.
  10. 10. Do You See People.... Really See Them? CULTURE ๏ “culture = that complex whole which includes, knowledge, belief, arts, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.” ๏ Enculturation is the process by which a child learns his or her culture. CULTURE IS LEARNED ๏ Cultural learning is unique to humans. ๏ Cultural learning is the accumulation of knowledge about experiences and information not perceived directly by the organism, but transmitted to it through symbols.
  11. 11. CULTURE IS SHARED ๏ Culture is located and transmitted in groups. ๏ The social transmission of culture tends to unify people by providing us with a common experience. ๏ The commonalty of experience in turn tends to generate a common understanding of future events. CULTURE IS ALL-ENCOMPASSING ๏ The anthropological concept of culture is a model that includes all aspects of human group behavior. ๏ Everyone is cultured, not just wealthy people with an elite education. Culture is the total lifeway of a society, and includes IDEAS, such as ………. • • • • • • Beliefs Values Morals Attitudes Ideals Laws (all the above are known as NONMATERIAL CULTURE)
  12. 12. Culture ALSO includes .…….. • Everything made and used by a society as part of its lifeway, such as: • Housing • Clothing • Music • Food • Tools • Transportation (all the above are known as MATERIAL CULTURE) MATERIAL CULTURE artifacts t.v . car phone ing housing cloth (you can see this part of culture) ind iv i NONMATERIAL CULTURE morality du alis m om freed ideas (you can’t see this part of culture) cy ocra c apitali dem sm punctuality CULTURE IS SYMBOLIC ๏ The human ability to use symbols is the basis of culture
  13. 13. CULTURE AND NATURE ๏ Humans interact with cultural constructions of nature, rather than directly with nature itself. ๏ Culture converts natural urges and acts into cultural customs. CULTURE IS INTEGRATED ๏ A culture is a system: changes in one aspect will likely generate changes in other aspects. ๏ Core values are sets of ideas, attitudes, and beliefs which are basic in that they provide an organizational logic for the rest of the culture. • All humans have basic needs. • How a particular society goes about meeting those needs constitutes a great deal of its culture. • (there are many ways of getting from point A to point B).
  14. 14. More than one way to get
 from Point A to Point B • What makes both nonmaterial and material culture actually culture are the different ways that each society incorporates these ideas and artifacts into their daily lives. So what DO we call a group of people who share a culture? ! a SOCIETY The Components of Culture • CULTURE IS: • • • • • • • Learned Shared (with some variations – subcultures) Adaptive Cumulative Integrated Symbolic and Dynamic
  15. 15. Are we BORN with a tabula rasa? This is the question behind the old argument about NATURE versus NURTURE.
 (GENETICS OR LEARNING?) The case of feral children
  16. 16. Culture is LEARNED Culture is SHARED Culture is ADAPTIVE
  17. 17. Culture is CUMULATIVE Culture is INTEGRATED Culture is DYNAMIC
  18. 18. 
 If a culture has survived a long time, that is an indication of its success in adapting to the environmental conditions where it developed.
 LEVELS OF CULTURE ๏ National culture refers to the experiences, beliefs, learned behavior patterns, and values shared by citizens of the same nation. ๏ International culture refers to cultural practices which are common to an identifiable group extending beyond the boundaries of one culture. ๏ Subcultures are identifiable cultural patterns existing within a larger culture. LEVELS OF CULTURE Levels of culture, with examples from sports and food. Level of Culture Sports Examples Food Examples International Basketball Pizza National Monster-Truck Apple Pie Rallies Subculture Bocci Big Joe Pork Barbecue (SC)
  19. 19. ETHNOCENTRISM & CULTURAL RELATIVISM ๏ Ethnocentrism is the use of values, ideals, and mores from one’s own culture to judge the behavior of someone from another culture. ๏ ๏ Ethnocentrism is a cultural universal. ๏ Ethnocentrism contributes to social solidarity. Cultural Relativism asserts that cultural values are arbitrary, and therefore the values of one culture should not be used as standards to evaluate the behavior of persons from outside that culture.
  20. 20. An individual with an ethnocentric view:! ● Identifies strongly with in-group ethnicity, culture, etc.! ● Feels proud, vain, superior about in-group! ● Defines their culture elements as ‘correct’ & ‘natural’! ● Thinks in-group norms are universal! ! ● Rejects out-group ethnicities, cultures, etc.! ● Feels like other ethnicities & cultures are inferior! ● Xenophobia: a fear or hatred of persons of a different race, or different ethnic or national origin ● American Exceptionalism: perception that US differs from other developed nations because of its unique origins, national credo, historical evolution, & distinctive political & religious institutions; belief that US is hope for humanity; moral superiority Ethnocentrism occurs frequently here at home! Examples:! ● Capitalism vs. Communism: for years, the US has fought to end communism because they believe capitalism trumps all! ! ● Driving: Ethnocentric Americans say that driving on the left side of the road is the ‘wrong side’ & that the right side is the ‘correct side’
  21. 21. HUMAN RIGHTS ๏ The idea of universal, unalienable, individual human rights challenges cultural relativism by invoking a moral and ethical code that is superior to any country, culture, or religion. ๏ Cultural rights are vested in groups and include a group’s ability to preserve its cultural tradition. CULTURE: UNIVERSAL AND PARTICULAR ๏ Cultural universals are features that are found in every culture. ๏ Cultural generalities include features that are common to several, but not all human groups. ๏ Cultural particularities are features that are unique to certain cultural traditions.
  22. 22. UNIVERSALITY ๏ Cultural universals are those traits that distinguish Homo sapiens from other species. ๏ Some social universals include: incest taboos, life in groups, families (of some kind), and food sharing. DIFFUSION ๏ Diffusion—defined as the spread of culture traits through borrowing from one culture to another—has been a source of culture change throughout human history. ACCULTURATION ๏ Acculturation is the exchange of features that results when groups come into continuous, firsthand contact. ๏ Acculturation may occur in any or all groups engaged in such contact. ๏ A pidgin is an example of acculturation, because it is a language form that develops by borrowing language elements from two linguistically different populations in order to facilitate communication between the two.
  23. 23. INDEPENDENT INVENTION ๏ Independent invention is defined as the creative innovation of new solutions to old and new problems. ๏ Cultural generalities are partly explained by the independent invention of similar responses to similar cultural and environmental circumstances. ๏ The independent invention of agriculture in both the Middle East and Mexico is cited as an example. CONVERGENT CULTURAL EVOLUTION ๏ Cultural convergence is the development of similar traits, institutions, and behavior patterns by separate groups as a result of adaptation to similar environments. ๏ Julian Steward pointed to instances of cultural convergence to support the hypothesis that cultural change is governed by scientific laws. GLOBALIZATION ๏ Globalization encompasses a series of processes that work to make modern nations and people increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent. ๏ Economic and political forces take advantage of modern systems of communication and transportation to promote globalization.
 /l/i/n/g/w/i/s/t/i/k/s/ ! ! ! ! ! ! The anthropological study of languages What is language? Def: A system of arbitrary vocal symbols learned and shared by members of a society for the purpose of communication. Language • Language is usually thought of as (1) words; and (2) grammar. ! • However, it can also include (3) paralanguage; and (4) non-verbal communication. ! • Non-verbal communication includes: (5) proxemics; and (6) kenesics.
  25. 25. Paralanguage The use of intonation, pacing and the emphasis of certain words to communicate. Non-Verbal Communication 1) PROXEMICS – communicating through the manipulation of space.
  26. 26. Personal Space Preferences for personal space vary by culture. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! In the U.S. we prefer to maintain an 18” invisible wall. Personal Space In urban areas, there is greater tolerance for people being in closer contact. Non-Verbal Communication 2) KENESICS – Communicating through the use of body movements – true BODY LANGUAGE.
  27. 27. Gender and Non-Verbal Signals Females –Claim less territory as their own ! Stand closer to each other in conversation –Use more eye contact than men –Use more facial expression and are generally more outwardly expressive –More likely to return a smile when smiled at. In General Women smile more – Males – More likely to have a room at home (den, workshop, office) that is off limits – Maintain greater distance from each other – Use less eye contact than women – Reveal less emotion through facial expressions than women – Less likely to return a smile. In general, men smile less than women Gender and Non-Verbal Signals Females –Take up less space - Women hold legs more together and keep arms close to body –Stand farther from people who speak loudly ! Women use fewer gestures. Women use more gestures with men than with women. Women use more gestures when seeking approval. – ! Cross legs at the knees or cross ankles with knees slightly apart. – ! More likely to play with hair or clothing, and place hands in their laps – Males – Men tend to have legs apart at 10-15 degree angle and hold arms 5-10 degrees away from body. – Men maintain the same distance whether people speak loudly or normally. – Men use more gestures than women in general social situations. Men use about the same amount of gestures with men or women. ! – Men tend to set with legs apart or stretched out in front and ankles crossed. – More likely to use sweeping arm and hand gestures. Gender and Non-Verbal Signals Females – Women do not necessarily interpret a man’s touch as a sexual invitation. – More likely to keep hands on arms of a chair. Males – Men often interpret a woman’s touch as a form of sexual communication. – Men rarely keep hands on the arms of chairs.
  28. 28. Gender and Non-Verbal Signals Question – Situation 1: A man and a woman sit next to each other on an airplane. Which most often uses the armrest in the middle? Answer – In a study of 426 male-female pairs, 284 men claimed the armrest and only 57 women claimed it. Language • The system of arbitrary vocal symbols used to encode one’s experience of the world and of others. ! Linguistics • The scientific study of language.
  29. 29. Acquiring Language Humans would speak no language if they were taught none. ! Humans may have a predisposition for learning language patterns or rules. ! The human brain and body are biologically adapted for language. ! Studying Language: Breaking it down ! • Linguists can break down a language into two very small units: phonemes and morphemes ! • PHONEMES – smallest units of sound
 ! ! • MORPHEMES – smallest units of meaning Semantics: The Lexicon ! ! Semantics is the subsystem of a language that relates form to meaning. A lexicon is the total stock of words in a language.
  30. 30. SOCIOLINGUISTICS Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including gender, age, social class, regionalism, and cultural norms on the way language is used. ! • Vicky Pollard Queen Elizabeth II • I ain't done nothing. • I done it yesterday . • It weren't me that done it. I haven't done anything. I did it yesterday. I didn't do it. Historical Linguistics ! Focused on discovering the history of languages. Language is Dynamic Faeder ure, thu the eart on hepfonum, si this nama gehalgod. Tobecum thin rice, Gewurthe dhin willa on eordhan swa on heofonum. Irne gedaeghwamlican hlaf syle us to daeg. And forgyf us ure gyltsa, swa we forgyfadh urum gyltendum. And ne gelaed thu us on consnunge, ac alys us of yfele, sothlice. English, A.D. 1350-1400
  31. 31. The Great Vowel Shift Middle English Vowel Modern English Vowel Middle English Word Rhymed with Became i aj mis piece mice u aw mus moose mouse e i ges place geese o u gos close goose a e name comma name Is the English language still changing? • • • • • • • • • Some words added to the dictionary recently include: Muggle Gaydar Cyberslacking Frankenfood Ego-surfing Noob Texting, Sexting, Tweeting Dropped include: cassette recorder, millennium bug, pant dress, record changer, long play • lists many words no longer used. FOCAL VOCABULARY (a.k.a. Jargon) • a specialized set of terms and distinctions that is particularly important to a certain group. • Truckers language
  32. 32. Skiers’ Terms For Snow (Skiers’ Focal Vocabulary) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • BASE: Heavy, wet snow laid down before a resort opens to create a foundation to last the entire season. BOILERPLATE: A slippery, glazed covering of ice on a run that can occur after it rains or when wet snow freezes. BREAKABLE CRUST: A hard snow surface atop a softer layer. Such a crust could break under the weight of a turning ski. BROKEN POWDER: Fresh powder that has been chopped up by skiers and snowboarders into soft mounds or chunks. Intermediates may find them tricky to navigate. CHAMPAGNE POWDER: Coveted snow that's exceptionally light and fluffy, like feathers in a pillow. It occurs under ideal weather conditions in higher elevations of Rocky Mountain states such as Colorado and Utah. CORDUROY: Best of the best for intermediates. It's an early morning snowpack that has just been machine-groomed to perfection on wide, easy-to-navigate runs. CORN: A springtime delight is the pellet snow that resembles corn. It's ideal for grooming. CORNICE: An overhanging accumulation of wind-blown snow on the edge of a ridge or cliff. DUST ON CRUST: thin layer of powder on top of crusty or icy surface. FIRST TRACKS: A prearranged opportunity to ski on ungroomed or freshly groomed snow – depending on your skill – a half-hour or hour before the entire mountain opens to the public. FLURRIES: Snow falling for short durations with changes in intensity. They usually result in little accumulation. GROOMED: Slope terrain that is machine-groomed by snowcats to a smooth surface, with no moguls or hardpack. HARDPACK or BULLETPROOF: Snow that seems as firm, solid and unforgiving as a city sidewalk because of weather conditions or because there hasn't been recent snowfall. Turning and edging is more difficult, skis have a tendency to slide and taking a spill on hardpack can be painful. Many beginner and intermediate skiers and boarders mistakenly call hardpack ice. MAN-MADE: Snow artificially produced by high-tech snowmaking systems. MOGULS: Bumps of varied sizes on snow created by many skiers and snowboarders turning in the same places. PACKED POWDER: Soft snow turned over and compacted by grooming machines to make slopes easier to ski. POWDER: A thin, dry surface of snow consisting of loose, fresh ice crystals. RAILROAD TRACKS: Hard, corrugated snow with ridges. Skis make a clickety-clack sound as they drop down a slope. Lesser-skilled riders should avoid such slopes. The ridges are rock-hard and can throw riders off balance. Falling on this snow type can be especially painful. SIERRA CEMENT: Heavy wet snow, hard to ski through (opposite of champagne powder) SLAB: Compacted or frozen snow lying beneath freshly fallen snow. It has the potential of sliding and starting an avalanche. SLUSH: The sluggish, sticky morass caused by a hot, cloudless spring day that melts snow at the base of a ski mountain. SNOWFALL: The depth of newly fallen snow. SNOWPACK: Total snow on the ground, including new and old snow. TABLETOP: A mound of snow with the top sheared off to provide a flat, level surface for snowboarders to jump over. Jazz Age Glossary All wet Applesauce Bee’s Knees Belly Laugh Berries Big Cheese Bull Session Bump Off Carry A Torch Cat’s Meow Cheaters Copasetic Crush Wrong; arguing a mistaken notion or belief A term of derogation; non-sense; baloney A superb person or thing A loud, uninhibited laugh Anything wonderful; similar to bee’s knees An important person An informal group discussion To murder To suffer from unrequited love Anything wonderful; similar to bee’s knees Eyeglasses Excellent An infatuation with a person of the opposite sex Jazz Age Glossary Dogs Fall guy Flapper ! Giggle Water Gin Mill Goofy Hard-Boiled Heebie-Jeebie Human feet A scapegoat A typical young girl of the 20’s An alcoholic drink A speak-easy Silly Tough; without sentiment The jitters
  33. 33. 90’s Language 404 411 Bag On Check It Out Clueless Cool Da Bomb Dig It Dipstick Dis Dog Drop Drop Knowledge Dude Clueless or naïve Information To tease, nag or complain Pay attention Unaware; naïve; lacking knowledge Calm, fine, acceptable, neat exciting Great; awesome; extremely cool Do you understand? A stupid person To disrespect To criticize sharply or act like a jerk To give or tell To share information or experience Person, especially male – greeting 90’s Language Get outta here Hang out Jam Rag Rap Rents School Totally For Real Trip Turkey Way What’s Up You must be kidding To relax or to gather To leave; to go To tease, put down, criticize To talk or a kind of music Parents To teach a lesson to Very, very much True? Is it true? Unusual or strange, overreact Someone who is stupid or silly Yes, positive affirmation to “no way” Hi. What’s new or happening?
  34. 34. Text Language BFF LOL BRB LMAO A3 CMIIW FOMCL IYKWIM JJA MTFBWU OTTOMH PRW SBTSBC SMHID UGTBK Best friends forever Laugh out loud Be right back Laughing my @$$ off Anytime, anywhere anyplace Correct me if I'm wrong Falling off my chair laughing If you know what I mean Just joking around May the force be with you Off the top of my head Parents/people watching Same bat time, same bat channel Scratching my head in disbelief You’ve gotta be kidding
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