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2
It is a
compound of
two Greek
Word
“Anthropos”
and “Logos”
Which can be
translated as ‘Human’
and ‘reason’
3
Anthropology – means “reason
about humans” or knowledge about
humans”
Social Anthropology would then
means knowledge abo...
4
Culture
- Derives from the
Latin “Colere” –
Cultivate, to settle, e.g.
agriculture,
horticulture
5
Cultural Anthropology
- Means ‘knowledge about cultivated
humans’. Knowledge about those
aspects of humanity which are n...
6
Acquired
cognitive
symbolic
aspect of
existence
CULTURE SOCIETY
Social
organizati
on of
human
life
LIFE
7
Culture comes in many
shapes and sizes. It
includes areas such as
politics, history, faith,
mentality, behavior
and life...
8
The are many definitions of the word
“Culture”
Culture is developed within the individual as
well as the outside envir...
9
Culture is a complex whole which include knowledge,
belief, art, law, morals, custom and other capabilities
and habits a...
10
Culture is what all human beings learn to do, to use,
to produce, to know, and to believe as they grow
to maturity and ...
11
CULTURE
(according to Geert Hofstede)
The collective programming of the mind
that distinguishes the members of
one cate...
12
Culture is not only the way we do things.
It is also our attitudes, thoughts,
expectations, goals and values. It is th...
13
Material Culture – formed by the physical
objects that people create
 Cars, clothing, books, buildings, computers
 Ar...
14
Better service to international guests
Improved relations in the workplace
Increased return in business
Improved th...
15
CULTURE
HUMAN NATURE
Specific to
Individual
Inherited &
Learned
Specific
to
Group
or
Categor
Lear
ned
Unive
rsal
Inheri...
16
Visible
Components
Dress
Habits Tradition
Appearance Behaviors
Language
Hidden
Components
Assumptions Time Orientation
...
17
Functional: each culture has a function to
perform; its purpose is to provide
guidelines for behavior of a group of pe...
18
Arbitrary: cultural practices and
behaviors are subject to judgment. Certain
behaviors are acceptable in one culture a...
19
Long Term: culture is developed
thousands of years ago and it was
accumulated by human beings in the
course of time an...
20
Dominant culture consists of several subcultures
Subcultures can be based on race, ethnicity,
geographic region or ec...
21
Each subculture community exhibits
characteristic patterns of behavior that
distinguish it from others within a
parent...
22
SUB CULTURE
SUB CULTURE
DOMINANT CULTURE
Dominant culture directs
the form of public social
Sub cultures
indicate the f...
23
Cultural Differences in
Communication
Cultural Differences in
Social Categories
Cultural Differences
in Rules of Social...
24
Different patterns of verbal communication
Language
Phonology (differences in sound)
Semantic (differences in meani...
25
Different patterns of non-verbal
communication
Body movement (kinetics)
Space and Touch: Use of personal space
(inti...
26
Role, Status, Class, Hierarchy,
Attitudes towards human nature,
Activity, Relationships between
individuals.
27
Describing reasons and opinions
Expressing dissatisfaction and criticism
Joking, asking personal questions,
complime...
28
Cultural differences on the interaction
process between a service provider and a
visitor
Example: Chinese Hosts & Amer...
29
There are many dimensions of which
cultures differ
Some of the dimensions (scope) are:
According to Hall, cultures ca...
30
Hofstede (1980, 1984, 1991)
Power distance (PD): interpersonal
relationship develop in hierarchical society
Uncertai...
31
32
Differing shapes of the individual
represent the influence of different
cultures on an individual
When an individual ...
33
1. In your own words, briefly define the term
CULTURE
2. Write 3 hidden and 3 visible components of
culture
3. List 3 i...
34
THE END
“CONCEPT OF
ANTHROPOLOGY
AND CULTURE”
for the
Subject Course
UNDERSTANDING
CULTURE
SOCIETY &
POLITICS
Concept of Anthropology and culture
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Concept of Anthropology and culture

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Concept of Anthropology and culture

  1. 1. 2 It is a compound of two Greek Word “Anthropos” and “Logos” Which can be translated as ‘Human’ and ‘reason’
  2. 2. 3 Anthropology – means “reason about humans” or knowledge about humans” Social Anthropology would then means knowledge about humans in societies. - Of course, cover the other social sciences as well as anthropology.
  3. 3. 4 Culture - Derives from the Latin “Colere” – Cultivate, to settle, e.g. agriculture, horticulture
  4. 4. 5 Cultural Anthropology - Means ‘knowledge about cultivated humans’. Knowledge about those aspects of humanity which are not natural, but which are related to that which is required
  5. 5. 6 Acquired cognitive symbolic aspect of existence CULTURE SOCIETY Social organizati on of human life LIFE
  6. 6. 7 Culture comes in many shapes and sizes. It includes areas such as politics, history, faith, mentality, behavior and lifestyle. The examples above demonstrate how a lack of cultural sensitivity led to failure.
  7. 7. 8 The are many definitions of the word “Culture” Culture is developed within the individual as well as the outside environment It is continually changing and dynamic Culture is reflected in communication patterns Culture is way of acting, a way of behaving Culture is a collective phenomenon People who grow up in similar environment tend to share common attitudes and behave in similar ways Culture is not inherited, it is learned
  8. 8. 9 Culture is a complex whole which include knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom and other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society (Edward Taylor, 1958) Culture is a complex whole that consists of all the ways we think and do and everything we have as members of society (Robert Bierstadt, 1974)
  9. 9. 10 Culture is what all human beings learn to do, to use, to produce, to know, and to believe as they grow to maturity and live out their lives in the social groups to which they belong Culture is the knowledge, language, values, customs material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society
  10. 10. 11 CULTURE (according to Geert Hofstede) The collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one category of people from another
  11. 11. 12 Culture is not only the way we do things. It is also our attitudes, thoughts, expectations, goals and values. It is the rules of our society – the norms that tell us what is and what is not acceptable in the society Culture can also be viewed from an anthropological perspective, that is, in its most traditional interpretation, such as Aboriginal Culture
  12. 12. 13 Material Culture – formed by the physical objects that people create  Cars, clothing, books, buildings, computers  Archeologists refer to these items as artifacts Non-material Culture – abstract human creations (can’t touch it) Language, family patterns, work practices, political and economic systems
  13. 13. 14 Better service to international guests Improved relations in the workplace Increased return in business Improved the industry and the organization reputations Better service to local community
  14. 14. 15 CULTURE HUMAN NATURE Specific to Individual Inherited & Learned Specific to Group or Categor Lear ned Unive rsal Inheri ted PERSONALITY
  15. 15. 16 Visible Components Dress Habits Tradition Appearance Behaviors Language Hidden Components Assumptions Time Orientation Personality Styles Values Expectations Rules/Roles Thought processes Space Orientation
  16. 16. 17 Functional: each culture has a function to perform; its purpose is to provide guidelines for behavior of a group of people Social Phenomenon: human beings create culture; culture results from human interaction and is unique to human society Prescriptive: culture prescribes (sets down or imposes) rules of social behavior Learned: culture is not inherited; it is learned from other members of the society
  17. 17. 18 Arbitrary: cultural practices and behaviors are subject to judgment. Certain behaviors are acceptable in one culture and not acceptable in other culture Value Laden: culture provides values and tells people what is right and wrong Facilitates Communication: culture facilitates verbal and nonverbal communication Adaptive/ Dynamic: culture is constantly changing to adjust to new situation and environment; it changes as society changes and develops
  18. 18. 19 Long Term: culture is developed thousands of years ago and it was accumulated by human beings in the course of time and is the sum of acquired experience and knowledge Satisfy Needs: culture helps to satisfy the needs of the members of a society by offering direction and guidance (Source: Reisinger, 2003, p.14)
  19. 19. 20 Dominant culture consists of several subcultures Subcultures can be based on race, ethnicity, geographic region or economic or social class Race: a genetic or biological similarity among people (Asians, Caucasians, etc.) Ethnicity: a wide variety of groups of people who share a language, history and religion and identify themselves with a common nation or cultural system Geographical region: geographic differences within countries or similarities between countries Economic and social class: differences in the socio-economic standing of people
  20. 20. 21 Each subculture community exhibits characteristic patterns of behavior that distinguish it from others within a parent culture Each subculture provides its members with a different set of values and expectations as a result of regional differences
  21. 21. 22 SUB CULTURE SUB CULTURE DOMINANT CULTURE Dominant culture directs the form of public social Sub cultures indicate the form of private social interaction
  22. 22. 23 Cultural Differences in Communication Cultural Differences in Social Categories Cultural Differences in Rules of Social Behavior Cultural Differences in Service Cultural Differences
  23. 23. 24 Different patterns of verbal communication Language Phonology (differences in sound) Semantic (differences in meaning of words) Syntactics (differences in the sequence of the words and their relationships to one another) Pragmatics (differences in effects of language on perceptions) Paralanguage Intonation, laughing, crying, questioning
  24. 24. 25 Different patterns of non-verbal communication Body movement (kinetics) Space and Touch: Use of personal space (intimate, personal, social, public) Sense of Time Other non-verbal codes: clothing, building, furnishing, jewelry, cosmetics, skin and hair color, body shape
  25. 25. 26 Role, Status, Class, Hierarchy, Attitudes towards human nature, Activity, Relationships between individuals.
  26. 26. 27 Describing reasons and opinions Expressing dissatisfaction and criticism Joking, asking personal questions, complimenting and complaining, expressing dislike, showing warmth, addressing people, apologizing, expressing negative opinions and gift giving
  27. 27. 28 Cultural differences on the interaction process between a service provider and a visitor Example: Chinese Hosts & American Tourists Chinese escorting their guests everywhere, providing them with a tight itinerary and not leaving an opportunity to experience the Chinese life style privately. The Chinese hosts believe they have provided their guests with courtesy. American tourists may view such hospitality as an intrusion and lack of trust.
  28. 28. 29 There are many dimensions of which cultures differ Some of the dimensions (scope) are: According to Hall, cultures can be differentiated on the basis of orientation towards: Human nature: agreements Activity orientation Human relationships: amount of space, possessions, friendship, communication Relation to time: past/ future Space orientation: public/ private
  29. 29. 30 Hofstede (1980, 1984, 1991) Power distance (PD): interpersonal relationship develop in hierarchical society Uncertainty Avoidance (UA): the degree to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations Individualism-Collectivism (IC): the degree to which individual goals and needs take primary over group goals and needs Masculinity-Femininity (MF): the degree to which people value work and achievement VS quality of life and harmonious human relations
  30. 30. 31
  31. 31. 32 Differing shapes of the individual represent the influence of different cultures on an individual When an individual from Culture A leaves its culture and reaches Culture B, his or her behavior changes because of the influence of a culturally different society.
  32. 32. 33 1. In your own words, briefly define the term CULTURE 2. Write 3 hidden and 3 visible components of culture 3. List 3 important benefits of a multicultural work force? 4. What is subculture? 5. Explain cultural differences in communication and service and give examples
  33. 33. 34 THE END “CONCEPT OF ANTHROPOLOGY AND CULTURE” for the Subject Course UNDERSTANDING CULTURE SOCIETY & POLITICS

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