EPIKO ng BIAG NI LAM ANGSina Don Juan at Namongan ay taga-Nalbuan, ngayon ay sakopng La Union. Mayisasilanganaknalalaki. Itoysi Lam-ang.Bago pa isilangsi Lam-ang, angamanito aypumuntanasabundokupangparusahanangisangpangkatngmgaIgorotanakalabannila.Nang isilangsi Lam-ang, apatnahilotangnagtulong-tulong.UgalinangamgaIlokanonoongunanatumulongsamgahilot kungmanganganakangmaybahaynilangunitdahilngawalasi Don Juan,mgakasambahaynilaangtumulongsapagsilangniNamongan.Pagkasilang, nagsalitaagadangsanggol at siyaanghumilingna "Lam-ang"angipangalansakaniya. Siyarinangpumilingmagigingninongniyasabinyag. Itinanong parinniyasainaangama, kung saanitonaroroon, na di pa niyanakikitasimula pasakanyangpagkasilang. Sinabinainaangkinaroroonanngama.Makaraanangsiyamnabuwan, nainipnasi Lam-angsa dipagdatingngamakayatsinundanniyaitosakabundukan. May dalasiyangibat- ibangsandata atmga anting-anting namakapag-bibigay-lakassakaniya at maaaringgawinsiyanghindimakikita.Talagangpinaghandaanniyaanglakadnaito.Sakaniyangpaglalakbay, inabotsiyangpagkahapokayatnamahingasandali. Naidlipsiya atnapangarapniyangangpugotnaulongama ay pinagpipistahannangmgaIgorote. GalitnagalitsiLam-angsanabatidnasinapitngama kaya mabilisnanilakbayangtirahanngmgaIgorote.Pinagpupuksaniyaangmgaitosapamamagitanngdalangmgasandata at anting-anting. Angisaay kaniyangpinahirapanlamangsakainalpasanupangsiyangmagbalitasaiba pangIgorotengkaniyangtapang, lakas at talino. Umuwisi Lam-angnangnasisiyahandahilsanipaghigantiniya an pagkamatayngamaniya.Nang siyaymagbaliksaNalbuan, taglayangtagumpay,pinaliguansiyangilangbabaingkaibigansailogngAmburayan, dahilitoynagingugalina noon,napagdatingngisangmandirigma, naliligosiya. Mataposnapaliguansi Lam-ang,nangamatayangmgaisda at iba pang bagayna maybuhaynanakatirasatubigdahilsakapalnglibag at samangamoynanahugasansakatawannito.Sakabutihannaman may isangdalagangbalitasakagandahannanagngangalang Ines Kannoyan.Itoypinuntahanngbinatangsi Lam-angupangligawan, kasamaangkaniyangputingtandang atabuhingaso.Isangmasugidnamanliligawni Ines angnakasalubongnila, Si Sumarang,nakumutyakay Lam-ang, kayatsilay nag-away at ditoymulingnagwagisi Lam-ang.Napakaramingnanliligawangnasabakurannina Ines kayatgumawasilangparaanupangsila aymakatawagngpansin. Angtandang ay tumilaok at isangbahayangnabuwalsatabi. Si Ines aydumungaw.Angasonamanangpinataholniya at saisangiglap,tumindiguliangbahaynanatumba. Nakitarinngmagulangni Ines anglahatngiyon atsiyayipinatawagniyon. Angpag-ibigni Lam-angkay Ines ay ipinahayagngtandang.Sumagotangmgamagulangngdalaganasilaypayagnamagingmanugangsi Lam-ang kungitoymakapagbibigayngdoteng may doblenghalagangsarilingari-arianngmagulangngdalaga.waiting for his father to return, Lam-ang decided he would go look for him.
Nang magbaliksi Lam-angsaKalanutian, kasamasiNamongan at mgakababayan, silaniInes ay ikinasal. Dalanilaanglahatngkailanganparasamaringalnakasalanpatiang dote.Angmasayangpagdiriwang ay sinimulansaKalanutian at tinapossaNalbuan, kungsaannanirahanang mag-asawapagkataposngkasalnila.Isa parinsakaugaliansaKailukuhan, napagkataposngkasal, anglalaki aykinakailangangsumisidsailogupanghumulingrarang (isda). Sumunodni Lam-angsubalitsiya aysinamangpaladnamakagat t mapatayngberkakan (isangurinngpating). Angmgabutoni Lam-angnanasapusodngdagat ay ipinasisid at pinataponniDonya Ines saisangkalansay attinakpanngtela. Angtandang ay tumilaok, angaso ay kumahol at sabisangengkanto, unti-untingkumilosangmgabuto.Samulingpagkabuhayni Lam-ang, ang mag-asawa ay namuhaynangmaligaya, maluwalhati atmatiwasaysa piling ngalagangputingtandang at abuhingaso.waiting for his father to return, Lam-ang decided he would go look for him.
Literature Under the Republic (1946-1985)The Japanese occupation leaves the Philippine economy in ruins and it seemed that massiveforeign aid could rebuild it. With the life of the Filipinos hanging in the balance because ofhunger, insecurity and terror. Many Filipinos resorted to collaborating with the Japanese forreasons such as politics, survival and opportunity.After the Pacific War ended, collaborators were given amnesty by President Manual Roxas. Theamnesty was a result of the US colonialisms decision to hush up the issue on collaboration. Thisin turn put the Filipino ruling elite’s credibility at stake because ambiguities and irregularitiesthat was not resolved. The US colonialist also linked the issue of collaboration not as a politicalwill but as a means of survival (expediency). If a rigid trial was done to the detractors, many ofthe Filipino ruling elite would loose their credibility and this was not favorable to the UScolonizers because at that time the elites were the intermediary between the Americancolonizers and the Filipinos. The elites had a lot of influence to the masses, and the US wantedto tap their services and use them as leverage.The Philippine Republic, founded in 1946 after the end of WWII. The Tydings-McDuffie Law of1934 stipulated that the Philippines will be an independent republic by July 4, 1946. To securethe new republics alliance with the US after its independence was granted a series of treatiesand agreements were signed, and these strengthened the ties between the two countries. TheBell Trade act, imposed free trade which enforced imports from US for 28 years and parityrights allowing US citizens to have equal rights to access to the countries natural resources. ThePhilippine Rehabilitation Act together with the Bell Trade act which allowed the US to use thePhilippines for their military bases and control of the Philippine military.With the US serving as crutches to the Philippines, westernization occurred. The EducationalExchange Program otherwise known as the Fulbright Program was the key to the Philippinesassimilation of US culture – the program actually aimed a 2-way exchange of culture, but thisdid not actually happen. This was the time when Filipino artist, writers, and musicians weregiven a chance to go to the US to learn about the country, they also were given lecturingprivilege. The impact of this program can be seen in terms or the artwork and literature thatshowed in their works that they are able to keep up with the literary and artistic trends of theUS during that time. They were introduced to what was called the New Criticism. A methodwhich emphasized close analysis of text and structure rather than analysis of social orbiographical contexts. This paved the way for a new form of writing and that left the traditionalsocial role it used to have during the revolutionary period. Literary works during this period wasconcerned more on a personal level.waiting for his father to return, Lam-ang decided he would go look for him.
A Merger Of Traditions.The taga-bukid and taga-bayan were the two cultures that made up the political entities. Theeducated and the wealthy and the ones who lacked the education and therefore did not qualifyto exercise power. The tagabayan were more inclined to the culture of the Free World, whilethe taga-bukid was the nationalistic and anti American.A transition from the Euro-Hispanic (socially conscious, deals with reality) period to the Anglo-American (thrived more on aesthetic qualities and was full of sentimentality and escapism)period of literature in the Philippines was brought about by Villa, the contradictions betweenthe two styles resulted in the emphasis of a crisis for the Anglo American Tradition. It was laterresolved in the 1970s. These two traditions had been implanted with indigenous traditions andthrough the efforts of the Filipino writers can be clearly called the Filipino literary tradition.The literary figures during these times were,Amado Hernández (1903-1970) - LuhangBuwaya(1962) depicted the plight of the peasantry andhow exploitation by the landlords taught them to organize and fight for their rights.MgaIbongMandaragit. (1960) – talks about American domination of the Philippines, morallybankrupt religious leaders and corrupt bureucrats.Lázaro Francisco (1898-1980) – BayangNagpatiwakal(1923), IlawsaHilaga(1948), Maganda pa angDaigdig(1956), Daluyong(1962)Constante Casabar (1929- ) – Dagiti Mariign iti Parbangon (1957)Alberto Florentino (1931- ) – The World is an Apple and Other Prized Plays (1959)Alejandro Abadilla (1904-1969) – Piniling Tula ni AGA (1965), 25 PinakamabubutingMaiklingKwentong 1443 (1944)Macario Pineda (1912-1950) –Genoveva Edroza-Matute (1915- ) – Ako’yIsangTinig(1952)Existentialism and the Search for Identity.When President Ramon Magsaysay died of a plan crash in Cebu, this provoked an intellectualcrisis. Claro M. Recto criticized President Ramon Magsaysay for being submissive to the US,with the death of Ramon Magsaysay; the country was under confusion and the peoplebeginning to ask Recto for some answers that would shed some light regarding the country’spolitical philosophy. However Recto was not able to finish what he started because he dies inwaiting for his father to return, Lam-ang decided he would go look for him.
Rome of a heart attack. With Recto’s death, the cultural scene in the Philippines became anextension of the US; many major publications in New York were brought to the Manila. Literaryworks included were poetry, fiction and drama, the latest literary fads in the west spread likewildfire. Some of the creative writers whose works were read by Filipinos were Jean-PaulSartre, Albert Camus, Norman Miller, Harold Pinter, Edward Albee, Jean Genet, and SamuelBeckett.The literary figures and their works during this time were:KerimaPolotan(1925- ) – Stories (1968)Tony Perez(1951- ) – Hoy Boyet (1968), Bombita (1981)]Paul Dumol(1951- ) – AngPaglilitisniMangSerapio(1969)Emmanuel Torres(1931- ) – Angels and Fugitives (1966), Shapes of Silence (1972)Nick Joaquin(1917- ) – The Woman Who had Two Navels (1961)NVM Gonzalez (1917- ) – Season of Grace (1956), The Bamboo Dancers (1959)Bienvenido Santos (1911-1995) – You Lovely People (1955), Brother my Brother (1960)Ricaredo Demetillo(1919-1998) – Barter in Panay (1961)WilfridoNolledo(1934 - ) – But for Lovers (1970)Growing Militancy of National Consciousness.In 1961, Jose Ma Sison organized the SCAUP or the Student Cultural Association of theUniversity of the Philippines. The anti-imperialist ideas of Recto were built as a basis of themilitant nationalism. With the upsurge if nationalism, President Carlos P. Garcia, adopted the“Filipino First” policy. When DiosdadoMacapagal took over Garcia’s post in 1961, the PhilippineIndependence day was changed from July 4 to June 12. This period marked the struggle ofyoung Filipino writers to put back Tagalog writing at par with its English counterparts who werecomposed of the elder writers who left the Filipino tradition. English literature at that time wasalso more popular because of publicity, unlike the Tagalog literature which was only confined tothe classrooms. The young Tagalog writers at the time were Rio Alma, Lamberto Antonio,Federico LicsiEspino, Rogelio Mangahas, Pedro Ricarte, Bienvenido Ramos, Epifanio San Juan Jr.for poetry and EfrenAbueg, Edgardo Reyes, Eduardo Bautista Reyes, Rogelio Ordonez andRogelio Sikat. Edgardo Reyes(1938- ), portrayed in Sa MgaKukonangLiwanag the plight ofprobinsyanos who went to the cities for a better life only to find themselves on a hardersituation.In 1970, mass rallies, demonstrations and marches in public places reached the Filinos throughtelevisions. Violence and deaths at mass actions were recorded and denounced in newspapers,radios and televsions. New songs and plays carried messages of the nationalist movements.PAKSA or the Panulat Para saKaunlaranngSambayanan (Literature for the Advancement of thePeople) was founded – literature that was political in content and intent came out.waiting for his father to return, Lam-ang decided he would go look for him.
Discussions regarding culture were referenced to two thinkers of this time. Mao Zedong, theChinese Communist leader, and a Filipino Essayist by the name of Renato Constantino whowrote, The Making of a Filipino, a biography of Claro M. Recto, The Philippines: A Past Revisitedand The Philippines: The Continuing Past, both about the history of the Philippines.The Philippine Literature Under the Martial LawWith the nationalist movement gaining strength, and posing a threat to the government,President Marcos declared the country under Martial Law. With the suppression of pressfreedom, the writers could no longer write freely which is why they went underground so thatthey can continue what they were doing. While in hiding, they came up with songs and dramasthat fired up the resistance. The nationalist movement also tapped into the power of organizedwomen, the MAKIBAKA (MalayangKilusanngBagongKababaihan) whose pupose was to producefemale literary artists and with the intent of spreading feminist consciousness. Some of thefemale literary writers of MAKIBAKA were Lualhati Bautista (fictionist, TV and scriptwriter), AidaSantos (Poet Essayist), Malou Jacob (playwright), ElyniaMabanglo (poet), Marjorie Evasco(poet), Fanny Garcia (fictionist), Rosalie Matilac (playwright and fictionist), Lilia Q. Santiago(poet, fictionist, critic), and Joi Barrios (poet and playwright). Between 1965 and 1985, manyFilipino playwrights emerged and theatre activity all over the country was bolstered. What waspresumed to be lost with the withdrawal of sarswela to the outskirts, came back in the form“cultural presentations”, which later became a vibrant socially conscious which also enjoyedprofitability because of the interests of paying audiences.waiting for his father to return, Lam-ang decided he would go look for him.
Biagni Lam-ang (Summary)BIAG NI LAM-ANG (Life of Lam-ang) is pre-Hispanic epic poem of the Ilocano people of thePhilippines. The story was handed down orally for generations before it was written downaround 1640 assumedly by a blind Ilokano bard named Pedro Bucaneg.BUOD (SUMMARY) OF BIAG NI LAM-ANGDon Juan and his wife Namongan lived in Nalbuan, now part of La Union in the northern part ofthe Philippines. They had a son named Lam-ang. Before Lam-ang was born, Don Juan went tothe mountains in order to punish a group of their Igorot enemies. While he was away, his sonLam-ang was born. It took four people to help Namongan give birth. As soon as the baby boypopped out, he spoke and asked that he be given the name Lam-ang. He also chose hisgodparents and asked where his father was.After nine months of waiting for his father to return, Lam-ang decided he would go look forhim. Namongan thought Lam-ang was up to the challenge but she was sad to let him go. Duringhis exhausting journey, he decided to rest for awhile. He fell asleep and had a dream about hisfathers head being stuck on a pole by the Igorot. Lam-ang was furious when he learned what hadhappened to his father. He rushed to their village and killed them all, except for one whom he letgo so that he could tell other people about Lam-angs greatness.Upon returning to Nalbuan in triumph, he was bathed by women in the Amburayanriver. All the fishdied because of the dirt and odor from Lam-angs body.There was a young woman named Ines Kannoyan whom Lam-ang wanted to woo. She lived inCalanutian and he brought along his white rooster and gray dog to visit her. On the way, Lam-ang methis enemy Sumarang, another suitor of Ines whom he fought and readily defeated.Lam-ang found the house of Ines surrounded by many suitors all of whom were trying to catchher attention. He had his rooster crow, which caused a nearby house to fall. This made Ines lookout. He had his dog bark and in an instant the fallen house rose up again. The girls parentswitnessed this and called for him. The rooster expressed the love of Lam-ang. The parents agreedto a marriage with their daughter if Lam-ang would give them a dowry valued at double theirwealth. Lam-ang had no problem fulfilling this condition and he and Ines were married.It was a tradition to have a newly married man swim in the river for the rarang fish.Unfortunately, Lam-ang dove straight into the mouth of the water monster Berkakan. Ines hadMarcos get his bones, which she covered with a piece of cloth. His rooster crowed and his dogbarked and slowly the bones started to move. Back alive, Lam-ang and his wife lived happilyever after with his white rooster and gray dog.Plot:The story is a mix of adventure and romance with exciting and unpredictable outcomes.waiting for his father to return, Lam-ang decided he would go look for him.