WRITING SAMPLE #1 SONGS AND REVOLUTION :A STYLISITICAL ANALYSIS OF MUSIC FROM IMPORTANT MOMENTS IN FILIPINO HISTORY By AISHA KASMIR GANZON O’BRIEN PROFESSOR CHRISTINE SEITZ MUS 495 : INDEPENDENT STUDY UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA – LAS VEGAS 6 MAY 2005
TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL OVERVIEWIntroduction 1History of the Philippines 3History of Filipino Music 10 STYLISTICAL ANALYSESKundimanBayan Ko – Constancio de Guzman 20Pakiusap – Francisco Santiago 25Folk MusicAnak – Freddie Aguilar 31Ako’y Isang Pinoy – Florante de Leon 35Conclusion 37 APPENDICESAppendix A 39 Musical ExamplesAppendix B 40 Original Scores
1Introduction Music in the Philippines is a force that is a strong, influential aspect of Filipino daily life.Well before the Spanish arrived, music had everyday uses. The music would vary from provinceto province, of course, but there were three main types: the lullaby, occupational songs, andoccasional songs. Occupational songs were often heard in the rice fields, and used to pray forgood fortune, to heal the ill, and pray for a good harvest. Occasional songs are associated withthe cycle of life: birth, marriage, and death. However, because of colonization and the impact ofthe Spanish tradition, most of theses songs have disappeared. Today, Filipinos turn to music mostly for entertainment. A good party revolves around aguitarist while the others sing along to either popular Filipino music or iconic American songs.Karaoke and karaoke bars have become a part of Philippine culture. Filipino television more thanillustrates this. At any given moment, one can watch a variety show or vocal competition whereyoung Filipino talents sing current American pop hits. Also, there is an influx of Filipinoentertainers emigrating to Japan to boost their careers. Because of their ability to mimicAmerican popular music, Filipino musicans are sought out all over Asia (Lockard, 133). Thistradition of “copying” or using westernized genres stems from the arrival Spanish and thesubsequent colonization of the Philippine Islands. Although much indigenous music was virtually washed out because of three centuriesunder their colonial rule, the emotion and passion of the Filipino spirit in their music is stillevident. The place where it is most obvious is in the works that were used to inspire revolution. Filipinos would use songs to protest against Spanish colonial rule and later Americanoccupation and the Marcos dictatorship. Many of these songs became anthems for revolutionarygroups. The almost ironic aspect of these songs is that they are based on westernized forms of
2music. The belief is that it would be able to better reach the Filipino people since this type ofmusic became so prevalent in culture and society. This thinking proves true in the exampleshighlighted in this paper. Thus, this paper will illustrate how the Filipino people used westernized music forms,sometimes in combination with indigenous instrumentation and music, to circumvent censorship,to give a voice to Filipinos against colonialism and dictatorship, and to inspire revolution.Following this introduction will be a synopsis of the history of Filipinos under colonial anddictator rule and their revolutions, and the music that was most influential during these times. Afterwards, the author will be doing a stylistical analysis of four pieces of music that bestillustrate and represent the music during important revolutionary periods: The fight againstSpanish colonial rule and American occupation, and the revolution overturning the Marcosadministration. An analysis of the methods used by the composers to communicate the text andemotion of these pieces will create a better understanding of the reasons why they inspired afrustrated population to take to the streets in protest.
3History of the Philippines In 1521, the Spanish explorer Ferdinand Magellan, on a mission to circumnavigate theglobe, arrived on the islands of the Philippines. His visit ended when a tribe leader, Lapu Lapu,decapitated him. This event would mark the bitter struggle that would come between the Filipinopeople and colonialists. Forty-four years later, another expedition from Spain would make itselfto the islands. Miguel Lopez de Legazpi’s arrival in 1562 was the first step towards the colonization ofthe Philippines, which would last three centuries. During this time, the Spanish would makeManila, capital of the Philippines today, an international port for the galleon trade between Chinaand Mexico (Rodell, 11). The Catholic priests, in addition, would spread out to other cities tostart religious conversion and building schools to teach European ideology to the “savage”indigenous people. The main goal of the priests was to convert the Filipino people to Catholicism. By 1898,their goals would be met, as over 80% of the population was Catholic. However, not everyonewas subject to this europeanization. Muslim populations in the south and isolated tribes inmountainous areas were not affected, but these groups would not make any real efforts tochallenge the Spanish. From the 17th to 19th centuries, tension continually rose between natives and colonials.One voice that was the most prominent was that of Jose Rizal. His novel, Noli Me Tangere(1887), was pointedly anti-Spanish, particularly against the Catholic clergy. Rizal had the idea ofa Philippine national identity separate from the Spanish thinking that had been forced upon them(Rodell, 13). Another leader who took more violent means to express dissension was AndresBonifacio. Bonifacio founded the revolutionary society, the Katipunan, in 1892.
4 After Rizal’s execution in 1896, Bonifacio lost his control of the Katipunan society,and was executed as well. The new leader, Emilio Aguinaldo, was the first to declare thePhilippine’s independence in 1898. The latter events occurred because of the Spanish-AmericanWar. American Commodore George Dewey liberated Manila Bay from the Spanish. Then theTreaty of Versailles was signed, which not only made the Philippines the first Asian democraticgovernment, but at the same time, ceded the legal rights of Spain to the United States. Thus, theindependence of the Philippines was rather short lived. The following year, the Philippine-American war was declared. Naturally, the Filipino people were enraged with the United States. Rebel forces began toengage in guerilla warfare with the American troops. Unfortunately, their efforts became futile asAmerican forces continued to dominate. In 1902, U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt declaredthe war over, and the Philippine Assembly first convened in 1907. Although the rebel fightingwas over, the struggle for independence was not. It would not be until 1948 that another large rebel movement would manifest itself. Untilthen, the Philippines became more and more reliant on American economic and military support.This was apparent after WWII when the Americans had to, once again, liberate the Philippinesfrom outside forces, this time, and Japanese imperialist armies. Although in 1946 the United States gave the Philippines back its independence, theywould still be present since they maintained military bases around the northern island, Luzon.These bases were a controversial topic for many decades. In 1948 a rebel group, the Hukbalahap(nicknamed the Huk), was formed. During this time, as the economy began to fall and the disparity between rich and poorwidened, a congressman, Ferdinand Marcos, came onto the political scene. Marcos won the
5presidency by an overwhelming margin. He made promises of land reform and increasedfood production. In 1969, Marcos’ re-election campaign “emptied the national treasury and waswidely believed to be the most corrupt in history” (Rodell, 19). In reaction to Marcos’ spending, the Huk was revitalized. It joined with the CommunistParty of the Philippines and formed the New People’s Army. At the same time, students began toorganize themselves in protests. These protests were given the name “First Quarter Storms.” Asthese new groups start forming, massive demonstrations and later bombings began as well. Inreaction to the violence, Marcos declared martial law in 1972. At first, there was support for martial law because it ended the spontaneous violence.However, unwarranted arrests and seizures of opposition leaders and anyone linked to thembegan to occur. The most famous of these was the secret arrest and imprisonment in 1972 ofSenator Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino, who was the loudest anti-Marcos voice. When Aquino wasreleased to the U.S. for heart surgery, he stayed at Harvard University until 1983. He returned tothe Philippines that year to face Marcos. Upon his arrival, he was assassinated. In 1986, pressured by U.S. President Ronald Reagan and political opposition, Marcosheld “snap” elections (Rodell, 23). Controversy surrounding ballot counting led to Marcos’ re-election. But the election drama would not end there. Upon hearing of their arrest orders,Minister of Defense Juan Ponce Enrile, and Armed Forces Vice Chief of Staff General Fidel V.Ramos barricaded themselves in Quezon City with a few armed soldiers. Their arrest seemedinevitable, until Archbishop Sin asked the Filipino people to rally around these military leaders.The following events were referred to as “EDSA” (Epitanio de los Santos Avenue). Hundreds of people, rich and poor, nuns and businessmen, created human barricades inthe street. Their actions would then inspire other military leaders and units to defect (Rodell, 23).
6While all this was happening, Cory Aquino was sworn in February 1986. The Marcosdictatorship was finally over. Currently, the Philippines is known officially as the Republic of the Philippines. Thegovernment is much like the American model: one president and vice president, a bicamerallegislative branch, and a judicial branch. Even though the Philippines has reached a point ofnormalcy, the government continues to be run by corrupt and unqualified officials.Jose Rizal Jose Rizal grew up in a loving family of 11 siblings and two well-educated, prominentparents. Born in Laguna on June 19, 1861, Rizal witnessed the effects of Spanish colonialismand especially Spanish religious power. Their control of the Filipino and their neglectful attitudestowards Filipinos would shape Rizal’s opinion on Catholicism, education and political reform,and his sense of morality. One can think of Rizal as a wunderkind: he wrote his first poem (about his love ofTagalog) at the age of 8, he graduated with bachelor’s degree at 16, he spoke 22 languagesfluently, and mastered some 25 professions from musician and poet to economist and sociologist.He achieved all of this in only 35 years of his life. But it was be his writing and journalism thatwould make him a national hero. Noli Me Tangere (“Touch Me Not,” 1887) was Rizal’s published novel. Written inEurope, the story revolves around Ibarra, a young man returning home fresh from his studies inEurope. Full of ideas, he proposes to the Friars of his town to build a school where Filipinos canbe educated and learn to speak Spanish. But a malevolent friar, Fray Salvi, attempts to sabotageIbarra’s efforts. He organizes a revolt in Ibarra’s name in order to get him imprisoned.
7 Aside from the drama, which also includes a love story, Noli criticizes keenly theinterrelationship between church and state. Rizal accuses Spanish government of using theCatholic Church to miseducate and demean the Filipino people, so that they may be free tolegislate as they wish without any opposition. Of course, these ideas came under harsh attacksfrom the Spanish government and the Catholic Church. Consequently, Spain exiled Rizal andthreatened to behead him if he returned from Europe. Others critisized Noli for being full of problems and no solution. What they did not knowwas that Rizal had plans for another novel, the El Filibusterismo (The Subversive). This bookoffered the answers to the questions in the Noli. When Rizal did arrive, Spanish officials quickly arrested him and banished him to live inDapitan on June 16, 1892. The charge was that they found anticlerical propaganda in his sister’sluggage. However, Rizal’s time in Dapitan was a rather peaceful one. He was able to teach,cultivate land, and write music and poetry. However, six years later at the beginning of thePhilippine revolution, Rizal was imprisoned aboard a ship off the coast of Cavite. On September2, 1896, Rizal was executed. He was only 35. It is interesting to note that Rizal was actually against this revolution, which wasinstigated by Bonifacio and the Katipunan. Rizal believed the only way to influence change inthe Philippines, was peacefully. In this sense, Rizal was more of a reformist than a revolutionary.The Hukbahalap Philippine Communist organizations were born out of frustration with oppressive landpolicies during the American Regime which lasted from the end of the Spanish-American War(1898) until the promised date of full Philippine independence (1946). Specifically, farmers were
8growing tired of being exploited by absentee American landlords. These landlords wouldcharge farmers 50-70% of the harvest for rent and seed. Farmers would be left with little ornothing to support their families, and often starved. One of the first of these organizations was the Kapisanang Pambansa ng mgaMagbudukid sa Filipinas (KPMP), or National Peasants Union, formed in 1924. It was acollaboration between Philippine Communists and Harrison George, a member of the AmericanComintern. Several other Communist organizations appeared after the KPMP: the Worker’sParty (1927), Partido Komunista ng Filipinas (The Communist Party of the Philippines) (PKP)(1930), Philippine Socialist Party (1932) and the Worker and Peasant’s Union (WPU). Theseorganizations sought land reform in order to alleviate the exploitation by Americans on Filipinofarmers. When the Japanese armies started to take over the Philippine Islands, the originalLeaders of the KPMP (Luis Taruc, Isabelo de los Reyes, and Crisanto Evangelista) formed theHukbahalap. Hukbalahap is a shorthand for the phrase “Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon,” whichmeans “Anti-Japanese Army.” The Huk first formed when Japanese armies forced them to seekrefuge in the mountains. During that time, the leaders decided to engage in guerilla warfare tointimidate Japanese forces and run them out. Eventually they succeeded with the aid ofAmerican troops. But they would have to fight again. American intelligence suspected Huk leadership to be part of a pro-Japanese effortknown as the “Sakdalistas.” In addition to these suspicions, the president, Sergio Osmena,undermined the Huks control over certain areas on the island of Luzon. The efforts made byOsmena, Gen. A. MacArthur, and corrupt government officials led the Huk to go back toguerrilla tactics in asserting their power on the island. The Huk had two phases of insurrection in
9between 1948 to 1959, where the peak was in 1950. But ultimately, American and Philippinearmies would defeat them. An interesting aspect of the Hukbahalap is their support for local music. Lockarddescribes them as a “singing army.” Local music and updated old songs were used to recruit, intheir propaganda, and in battle hymns (Lockard, 141). One famous song is “Buhay ng Gerilya”(“Life of a Guerrilla”). Their influence during the 1940s and 1950s was apparent not leastbecause of their power but because of their ability to connect with the Filipino identity.
10History of Filipino Music The changes in influence and style in Philippine music can be directly tied to social andrevolutionary movements in Philippine history. Corazon Canave-Dioquino, in her article“Philippine Music, A Historical Overview,” separates the history of Filipino music into threetraditions: Indigenous, Spanish-European Influenced, and American Influenced. Theseseparations clearly mark times in Philippine history when a shift in power had occurred. Forexample, indigenous music had almost been completely wiped out due to the colonizing forcesfrom Spain. Three centuries later, American music began to saturate the radio waves and dancehalls. However, for the purposes of this essay, the latter two historical periods will beemphasized. Spain conquered more than just land when they colonized the Philippine islands. Theyalso imposed their own culture, religion and politics. Thus, the music of these three centuriesgreatly reflects the power that they had. Beginning in 1565 until the Spanish-American War in1898, Filipinos were unable to practice their own traditional music. Nor were they allowed tospeak of their devotion to the Philippines. Instead, whenever nationalistic views were expressed,they had to be dedicated to Spain. This censorship had a profound effect on the music during thestart of colonization, and especially at the end. Religious music was the first taught to Filipinos; more specifically, Spanish friarsintroduced Gregorian chant. Eventually, the Catholic Church would transform traditional folkmusic and insert Christian symbology. Examples of this are the pabasa and pasyon (life andpassion of the Christ), salubong (Christ is risen), panuluyan (search for an inn) (Santos, Forms).Each of these corresponded of course to the religious calendar. This music was also adapted andinterpreted differently in other provinces and cities.
11 The pasyon is one of the better known chants played during Lent. It is usually sung inthe homes, or outside in makeshift mangers or barrios. The form is very basic, and is based onseveral genres such as opera, folk songs, and plainchant. As noted before, each region had itsown version. Most notable are the Ilokano, the Pampango, the Bicolano, and the Bisayan. Thepasyon takes anywhere from sixteen to twenty hours to complete. However, Spanish influencewas not limited to liturgical music. Secular music was deeply rooted in Hispanic tradition. Instruments synonymous withSpanish music were widespread, particularly the guitar. The rondalla is good example of this.Patterned after the estudiantina and comparasa, the rondalla is a plucked string ensemble (Santos,Forms). Instruments that were used were the bandurria, laud, octaniva, guitar, and bajo de uñas.The repertoire consists of a wide variety of genres: marches, pasodoble (in two), medleys,overtures, concert music, and accompaniments to folk dances. Other forms of music includedances, based on Spanish dances: carinosa, balitao, pandanggo (fandango), polka, dansa, andrigodon. Dances that were accompanied by the rondalla are the banduria, laud, octavina, gitaraand bajo. Theater and song also took Spanish forms. One of the most popular types of songs in the Philippines is the harana. The term haranarefers generally to serenades in Tagalog. The structure of the harana is based on the plosa, theform of Tagalog poetry. Furthermore, the harana is actually a series of elaborate courtshiprituals. Firstly, the pananapatan would be sung at the window of the lady. It would not be untilthe second song that the serenader would be invited into the home. This invitation would also besung, known as the pasasalamat. After the thanks and invitation, the courter would ask the ladyto sing a song (pagtumbok), and immediately make a second request (paghilig). When all has
12been said (or sung), the pamamaalam, or goodbye song, would see the young serenader outthe door. Fortunately, not all songs carried such pomp and circumstance. The sarswela (zarzuela) is an important genre associated with Philippine dissention.Through the sarswela, and later the kundiman, Filipino people were able to circumvent Spanishcensors. Originally, the sarswela is the Filipino interpretation of the Spanish zarzuela which is aplay with music and dance. It was first introduced to the Philippines in 1879, and by the early1900s it became widespread. Each province had its own take on the sarswela, and it was playedin their respective dialects. The sarswela would often begin with an overture. Acts would begin with an intermezzoand end with a grand tableau. Solos were very light, and lyrical, but for dramatic situations, akind of recitative, known as the hablado, was used. Early on, themes revolved around family andlove. Later, when tensions began to rise between the Filipino people and Spanish and Americanforces, nationalistic sentiments arose. Often these would be played out as encounters withopposition forces, where the Filipino would prevail. The most famous composers of sarswela areBonifacio Abdon, Alejo Carluen, Franciso Buencamino, and Francisco Santiago. This trend of Hispanization of Filipino music and way of life would last until theAmericans took over. Although the Americans did not intend to cleanse the Philippines of itsculture and implant their own, the result of their occupation was just as similar. Despite theAmerican regime formally lasting from 1898 to 1946, its influence is still pervasive today.Between this time, a great upheaval of Spanish influence took place, and the Filipinos wereindoctrinated in American culture and thought. The tradition of classical music continued during the American regime. Compositions ofthe sarswela, kundiman, stylized folk songs, and instrumental music became even more prolific
13(Canave-Diquino, “Historical Overview”). Nicanor Abelardo created texturally richinstrumental pieces, and used unorthodox combinations of instruments. Neo-classicism greatlyinfluenced the great pianist/composer, Lucresia Kasilag. Kasilag also incorporated nativeinstruments in her music, for example in Her son, Jose and Oriental Suite for Piano andchamber and Philippine percussion instruments (Santos, “Contemporary Music”). However, notall Filipino music was so original. The popularity of American rock’n’roll, pop music, dance, and disco comprise what isPinoy pop today. Through low-budget films, Filipinos were exposed to American culture. Thisbecame the most effective way in which American pop culture became the culture in thePhilippines. Because of these influences, native Filipino music became almost lost. In order tocompete with the rising popularity of American music, Filipinos created translations of the mostpopular songs. This was called “tunog lata” or “tinny sound” because of the poor recordingquality. The term “bakya” was coined during this time as a way to describe the lowbrow, or low-quality type of entertainment enjoyed by many. Often these pieces would use a sort of pidginversion of Tagalog, or combination of Tagalog and English (Taglish). Songs sung in pureTagalog (or what some refer to as “deep Tagalog”) were seen less and less. Lockard observedthis trend in Philippine music as “three centuries in a Spanish convent followed by fifty years inHollywood” (121). The emergence of Pinoy music became a great hope for Filipino redemptionin popular music. Pinoy can be described as a blend of rock, folk and ballad sung in Tagalog. The folksound is attributed to the unavailability of synthesizers. But the theme of Pinoy music is muchlike that of American folk music. Most often, these musicians would sing about the Filipino
14identity, or lack of it. They would also lament the problems in Philippine society, such asunemployment, prostitution, and poverty, which they saw as a direct relation to neocolonialism.Through this music, the reality of their hardships was exposed. During the declaration of Martial Law by Ferdinand Marcos in 1972, folk music wasbanned. Therefore, it was hard to gather support since it was not played at all on the radio waves.Musicians had to learn to be subtler in their criticism of Philippine institutions. Ironically,Marcos would later force radio stations to play at least one to three Pinoy songs a day on privateradio stations in order to promote Filipino music. Some artists who became famous as folk musicians are Florante de Leon and HectorBartolome. The artist who became synonymous with Pinoy music is Freddie Aguilar. Theseartists’ work would inspire protest in campuses across the islands, and give momentum to anti-Marcos rebel organizations.Kundiman The origins of the word “kundiman” are varied. It could be an alteration of the phrase“kung hindi man” which means “if it were not so.” This phrase is said to have appearedfrequently in kundiman pieces. Another more sartorial version is that it is named after a pair ofbright red trousers called kundiman. Whatever the etymology of the name is, it now has come tosignify a movement in Philippine history, and the passion of its people. The first kundiman appeared in the 1800s and lasted until the 1930s. Although they arestill sung and semi-popular today, their popularity was highest between those times. It isinteresting to note that whenever tensions rose between the Philippines and an opposing force,the kundiman would be seen as much more than just a lover’s plea.
15 Traditionally, the kundiman is a courtship song, a type of harana. It would be sung atthe bottom of a young lady’s window, and the intent would be to get this young lady to invite herserenader inside. Or, at least, acknowledge his efforts. When Western dance music became awidely used form, the kundiman would be set to its variety of rhythmic pulses, such as in thedanza, the waltz, and the fandango (Besa, “Love Song”). More and more, the kundiman began tohave a more established form. The form is rather simple: it consists of two sections in contrasting modes. The firstsection would be sung in a minor mode, the second section in its parallel major. Often, theywould repeat at the end of each section. Early on, the kundiman text was improvised. Now, it isusually based on a moving piece of poetry. Poets whose work often appeared as kundimans werethose of Jose Corzaon de Jesus, Deogracias A. Rosario, and Jesus Balmori. During Spanish colonization, the kundiman song was used to express nationalisticsentiments of the Philippines. Because of the widespread censorship during this time, singingabout the love of one’s country, and not love for Spain, was forbidden. So, the text of thekundiman would take a double meaning: a literal one (amorous love for another person), and anationalistic one. After Spanish rule, the Filipino people were more free to literally express theirdevotion to their country. The 20th century brought on much change in the Philippine lifestyle, as well as in thecaliber of music. Since the Americans changed the entire education system in the Philippines,music was incorporated into all levels of education, and most notably in higher education. Thus,the kundiman became a much more serious work. It became an art song. One could compare it tothe German lieder. Although the sound was very rooted in Western tradition, it was sung inTagalog.
16 The most popular composers of kundiman come from the 20th century: FranciscoSantiago (1889-1947), Nicanor Abelardo (1893-1934), and Constancio de Guzman. Santiago isconsidered one of the most influential composers, and is credited with bringing the kundimaninto art song status. Abelardo is said to have been influenced by Santiago in his owncompositions (Besa, “Love Song”). Constancio de Guzman studied under Abelardo and morefamous for his film scoring. Famous works of kundiman come from all the different eras of its history. “JocelynangBaliwag,” by an anonymous composer, appeared circa 1896. It was most popular among therebels of the revolution. The literal interpretation of this song was a love song dedicated to abeautiful woman named Josefa “Pepita” Tiongson y Lara. But it was really about the struggle forfreedom. Santiago wrote a humorous piece known as “Kundiman of 1800.” The text waschanged to a more grave one which recounted the execution of Jose Rizal. In 1928, the song“Bayan Ko” by de Guzman became instantly famous and functioned as a second national anthemof the Philippines. It would be used again in the 1980s in a folk rendition by Freddie Aguilaragainst the Marcos Dictatorship. In Craig Lockard’s book “Dance of Life,” he notes how Filipinos used idiomatic Spanishmusic in counter-hegemonic ways (116). The epitome of this observation is the kundiman. It wasnot only used during Spanish colonization, but also during the American regime, and somewhatrecently during the Marcos dictatorship. Its evolution is marked by the changing influences onPhilippine culture as well as by the revolutions. This is why the kundiman is so important tounderstanding the musical history of the Philippines, but also the history of the country itself.
17Folk Music Since the 19th century, folk music has been rooted in nationalism. That does not refer tothe nationalism in Italy or Germany during World War II, but to a country’s cultural identity.Often, modern folk music seeks to create this identity. This is the case in Filipino folk musiccirca 1970. But its history is much more rooted in tradition and occupation. Ethnomusicologist Jose Maceda classified folk music into six genres: lullabies,didactic/figurative, occupational, occasional, war, and love (qtd in Theissen, 17). None of thesesongs were ever written; they were passed on orally. What’s more, each province had their owninterpretation. However, we still are able to document them for they fortunately were notforgotten. Types of lullabies include the owiwi, dagdagay, oppia, lagan bata-bata, bua, andkawayanna. Didactic songs often recounted a debate between a peasant and a wealthybourgeoisie where the peasant uses common sense to outwit the rich. Examples of occupational (work) songs are the dinaweg (boar), the kellangan (shark-fishing), and the didayu (wine-making). Specific songs include “Magtanim ay Di Biro”(“Planting rice is no joke”), or “Bayuhan” (Pounding Rice). Interestingly, begging is alsoconsidered a profession, evidenced by “Palimos” (“Beggar’s Song”). Occasional songs wereabout the cycle of life: birth, marriage, and death. The balow is sung by a widow to honor herdead husband, and the didiyaw is a chant. These songs were sung over five hundred years ago. For three centuries under Spanishrule, folk music in the Philippines was essentially Spanish folk music. The idea of a Filipinoidentity separate from the Spanish would not be brought up until 1887 by national hero JoseRizal. Even then and after his death, the bitter struggle by Filipinos to claim the Philippines as
18their own would not be realized until they were given full independence in 1946. This is whyit was not until the 1960s and 1970s that a real movement in nationalistic music began. An important aspect of folk music is language. For hundreds of years, most people sangand spoke in Spanish. When the American educational reform in the Philippines began, Englishwas enforced. Consequently, music was affected by this change. The popular music of thePhilippines was American music. Folk musicians reacted to these trends by dedicatingthemselves to singing only in Tagalog. Thus the Pinoy movement was born. Pinoy has western characteristics based on rock, folk and ballad. But they are not to beconfused with the tunog latas and bakyas (as referred to on page 13) who essentially werecopying American music and trying to exploit their popularity. These artists composed their ownmusic and words and were aiming towards a more cultivated audience. Recording studios began to open their arms and ears to more folk musicians, but themusic never seemed to reach real popularity. There were many different types of folk-like musicat this time such as “Manila Sound,” “Pinoy Rock,” or “Pinoy Folk.” Therefore, there was not areal sense of leadership among these musicians. Nevertheless, it did not stop artists like FreddieAguilar and Florante de Leon from having lasting careers. Pinoy truly flourished during theJapanese occupation and later the Marcos dictatorship. A major audience for folk musicians was students. These were often the people whowould actively protest against Filipino oppression. Older songs were reset to updated politicaltexts. The song “Awit Ng Pakikibaka” (“Song of the Struggle”) is an example of this, as well as“Babaing Walang Kibo” (“Oppressed Women, Unite and Fight”). These songs expressed anti-Japanese sentiments in reaction the Japanese occupation. During the Marcos administration,though, protest songs changed to reflect communist or socialist inclinations.
19 Many songs dealt with the Filipino identity itself, as well as the social ills of thePhilippines. Kapwa is used frequently to indicate the Filipino individuality as well ascommonality with his brother. “Digoman” (“War”) by Florante deals with this word in terms ofstruggles against others, and also in “Ako’y Isang Pinoy” where he celebrates his own language.Hector Bartolome sang about poverty in his “Buhay Pinoy” (“Filipino Life”) and forcedprostitution in “Nena.” Despite the proliferation of folk music, most of it was not even played on the radio.Martial law affected everything from daily life to the music heard on the radio. Marcos did notwant anti-establishment songs infecting the minds of the people. Therefore an undergroundmusic scene was created. After the fall of the Marcos administration, music was free to do as itwished.
20Stylistical AnalysisConstancio de Guzman – Bayan Ko Although composing was not his first career choice, Constancio de Guzman was aprolific musical composer. He wrote over a thousand compositions published and unpublished.Most of his works appear in movies, whose titles have unfortunately been forgotten. However,one composition of his stands the test of time. “Bayan Ko” was written during the Philippine-American war to express the feeling ofimprisionment by the Filipino people. It became an instant hit, and was considered an unofficialnational anthem of the Philippines. His song would be used once again against a modern politicalbackdrop: the Marcos dictatorship. Freddie Aguilar, a folk singer, re-arranged “Bayan Ko” andtook this song to the streets in protest. Perhaps because of its simplicity or because of its poetry,“Bayan Ko” has become an anthem for the Filipino people during times of struggle and warfare. “Bayan Ko” was composed by Constancio de Guzman to a poem by Jose Corazon deJesus. This poem reflects the frustrations of a people who have been under constant colonial rulefor over three centuries. The poetry describes the charms of this country, and how foreign landswere “intoxicated…by her beauty.” The Philippines is described metaphorically as a caged birdthat must be freed. This piece has the typical elements of the kundiman, but also has thesimplicity and directness of a song about revolution.
21Ang bayan kong Pilipinas My country, the Philippines:Lupain ng gintot bulaklak Land of gold, garden of flowersPagibig ang sa kanyang palad Endowed with love,Nag-alay ng ganda at dilag. Gifted with beauty and radiance,At sa kanyang yumi at ganda Intoxicated because of her beauty,Dayuhan ay nahalina Foreign lands were drawn to her.Bayan ko binihag ka My dear country, they came and conquered youNasadlak sa dusa. And you suffered in misery.Ibong mang may layang lumipad A bird that is free to flyKulungin mo at umiiyak Put it in a cage and it cries.Bayan pa kayang sakdal dilag What other country, so full of radianceAng di magnasang maka-alpas Would not want to be free?Pilipinas kong minumutya Philippines, my beloved,Pugad ng luha ko at dalita Nest of tears and suffering,Aking adhika My wish for youMakita kang sakdal laya! Is to set you totally free!Text by Jose Corazon de Jesus Translation by Philippine Study Group of Minnesota “Bayan Ko” is for voice and piano accompaniment. Its time is 3/4 and has a consistentmoderato tempo. The first section (A) begins in d minor then modulates D major in the secondsection (B). The tessitura of the A section lies between F4 and Bb5 and has a range of C#4 to G5.By contrast, the B section has a range from F4 to F5, with the tessitura being A5 to D5. This piece can be classified as having parallel periods in both sections, with anintroduction and a conclusion at the end of each. In the A section, the first period and secondperiod begin with the same melodic and rhythmic statement. These characteristics are exactly thesame in the B section. New material at the end of each period can be called conclusions, as theyreflect the general melodic and rhythmic theme of the piece, but are not entirely similar. Theperiods can then be organized into two bar motives.
22Example 1.1 The melody of this piece is rather easy to follow. There aren’t any jarring leaps asdiatonic motion predominates. However, there are 3rds, 4ths, and 6ths that are used sparingly. Inthe A section, high notes are sung rarely, while in the B section the high notes are a focal point inthe melody. This shift is mostly guided by the text’s images: the exotic qualities of a strange newland, its subsequent enslavement (A section) and the cry for freedom (B section). The overall motion of the piece is sweeping in the A section and lilting in the B section.There is also rising and falling, more notably in the A section, in the vocal line. Because therising and falling occur in mostly stepwise motion, there is also a feeling of tension and release(Example 1.2). The B section’s movement has a bouncing feeling because of its repetition ofnotes (FF-EE-DD) and m2 alternations (A-G#-A-G#-A-C). This movement is also reflected inthe text. The words of the A section are mournings, thus the sweeping-then-lilting motion arelike deep sighs. Flying characterizes the B section with its lilt resembling a bird’s flight throughlight winds.
23Example 1.2 Dynamic levels act also as an element that gives more depth to the textual imagery. TheA section begins in piano until the conclusion with the statement “Bayan ko!” where itcrescendos quickly to forte, then just as suddenly it diminuendos. Although the B section beginsin mezzo forte, the gap between dynamic levels is equaled to the A section with a fortissimo atthe end of the piece. However, right before the ff in the B section, there is a measure and half ofp right before the crescendo. It can be assumed that this dramatic drop from mf to p serves togive even more momentum and drama towards the exclamatory ff. There are two rhythmic themes used throughout the piece, which are varied only by themelody (Example 1.2 and 1.3). Differing patterns occur around the cadences. Except in the firstcadence (mm 6-8) of the A section, these new patterns seem to be variants of the predominatingtheme. Again, we see how these direct elements combine to make the even more clear andmemorable.Example 1.3
24Example 1.4 There is no significant juxtaposition between the vocalline and piano accompaniment, as the piano doubles the voice throughout the entire piece. Whilethe piano does double, it is not playing just what the voice sings. The melodic line in theaccompaniment is harmonized in thirds or sixths, adding depth to the vocal line. Waltz-likebroken chords in the piano’s bass line dominate in the A section, while alternations betweenbroken chords and Alberti Bass mark the B section. Harmonic coloration is important to the message of this piece. The minor mode in the Asection serves the plaintive words of a country conquered and living in misery. The relativemajor is used in the B section to exclaim the need for freedom from the bondage of colonialism.The directness of the chord structure and sequences better cement the message of the text. Thechords follow a simple I-V-I progression, with f#m and g/G making small appearances. Thereare no half- or deceptive-cadences in this piece; there are only imperfect or perfect cadences.These qualities create the simplicity of the song, aiding the political message of the text to cutthrough. Constancio de Guzman chose simplicity over complex chordal figures in bringing thispiece to life, which has become so important to Filipino history. This song is easy to sing, andeasier to remember than even the national anthem of the Philippines. Although it takes much ofits harmonic cues from Spanish influences, the feeling of the Filipino plight is very evident in thewords.
25Francisco Santiago – Pakiusap Francisco Santiago was born on January 29, 1889. Although his family was poor, heperservered in continuing his studies in music. A gifted pianist and composer, Santiago becamewell known for turning the kundiman into an art song. His most famous compositions were for the films Manileña, Madaling Araw andPakiusap. His song “Anak Dalita” was even performed in front of the king of Spain. Eventhough he was not a prolific composer, Santiago’s work is still memorable. From 1930 to 1946he was the directory for the University of the Philippines Conservatory of Music. Francisco Santiago wrote “Pakiusap,” meaning “Plead,” for voice and piano. It is anotherexample of kundiman, but also has influences from the Spanish haranas, or serenade. Santiagohas chosen this poem by Jesus Balmori. A love struck serenader sings to his beloved about hisdevotion to her until his death. He pleads for her to open her window and take pity on him.Although this piece does not obviously talk about revolution, we can see how this suitor’s pleascan be interpreted as something deeper than just a serenade. One can liken this undying love forlove of one’s country. This suitor promises to put his love in his protective care (mm 29),disregarding all the other empty promises and dreams of other suitors (mm 25). His pleads andpromises can be seen as metaphorically relfecting the struggles with colonial powers.Natutulog ka man irog kong matimtiman While you’re sleeping my fervent loveTunghayan mo man lamang ang nagpapaalam Look at me while I say goodbyeDahan dahan mutya, buksan mo ang bintana Tread slowly, open your windowTanawin mo’t kahabagan, ang sa iyo’y nagmamahal Look and have pity for someone who loves youKung sakali ma’t salat sa yama’t pangarap Even with empty promises and dreamsMay isang sumpang wagas ang aking paglingap I promise you my protective carePakiusap ko saiyo, kaawan mo ako I plead to you, pity meKahit mamatay, pagibig ko’y minsan lamang Even while dying, my love is only onceImiibig kita magpakailan pa man I love you foreverText by Jesus Balmori Translation by Angelita O’Brien
26 Typical of kundiman (and haranas), this piece is written in 3/4 time, begins in cminor, and modulates to C major. However, unlike “Bayan Ko”, the verses are not repeated. Thispiece contains a range of D4 to G5 with a tessitura of G4 to C5 in the A section, and B5 to D5 inthe B section. It is interesting to note that the minor section is sung in a lower range than themajor section. This contrast in key and range can be tied to the text. In the A section, theserenader coaxes his love interest out onto the balcony, making sure to use a hushed voiced. Bycontrast, in the B section, he makes his pleads for pity and professes his love. As for the musical structure, this would be classified as parallel periods (the A section isin cm and the B section is in CM) with an introduction and a conclusion at the end of the piecerecapitulating the lover’s pleas. The period can be broken down into two eight-bar statementswhich contain two measure phrases. Repetition of the beginning theme marks a new phrasewithin the period. This holds true until the repeat of the B section, where the phrases of the CMmelody alternate between the piano and voice. Despite its rigidity in structure, the shape of thephrases is very fluid and lyric. There is always a continuation in movement even when a note is held. Firstly, themelodic motion tends to skip and make leaps rather than making whole passages of diatonicscales. Save for the repetition of the first motive, no other melodic motive is seen again. Themovement is sometimes similar, but not completely. High points in the melody occur in mms15-16 (“good-bye,” Ex 2.1), mm 36, 51-52 (“pity me”), and mm 59 (“forever,” Ex 2.2). Thesethree passages featuring the highest notes in the piece can truly summarize the subject of thesong: the lover’s pleas; his dying and everlasting love.
27Example 2.1Example 2.2 Dynamics change rather dramatically in this piece. Beginning in piano, it crescendossuddenly to forte then just as suddenly decrescendos to pianissimo. In some cases, there aren’teven any crescendo or decrescendo markings between the p and f. This type of dynamic motionoccurs throughout the piece, peaking and quieting sometimes within two measures. Interestingly,in the final measures we have an f building up to a high G, then a pp smorzando as the song diesaway. Most of the emphasis of this piece is on the second beat, taking care to give the correctstress to the accented syllables of the language. The rhythmic patterns of both the A section and
28B section seem to be variations of each other (Ex 2.3 and 2.4). While there are manydynamic markings, there are only three instances concerning the tempo (mm 25-26, 29-30 and59). The first two happen at the beginning of the B section, where the serenader makes hispromises to his loved one. In the beginning of mm 25 and 29 we have a ritardando, and then thefollowing measure an a tempo. The last tempo marking is an allargando found at the end of thepiece. This has the same effect in the tempo as in the dynamics, that is – dying away.Example 2.3Example 2.4 The chord progressions favor I-IV-V-I, with added secondary functions. Anotherinteresting aspect of the progressions is the cadences. The first period (mm 9-24) ends in a half-cadence, seemingly modulating into GM. The finale does not end on a V-I perfect cadence, buton a IV-I plagal cadence (Ex 2.2). There is no true resolution in any of the cadences, whichmakes an intriguing color in itself. This piece goes against expectations in almost any way it can. The accompaniment doesn’t use any specific type of figure. That is to say, Santiagodoesn’t seem to favor either broken chords, block chords, or arpeggiations, but ratherincorporates a mixture of all these elements. Occasionally both the top and bottom voices mimicthe melody line, when making important statements as in the first line of the verse and itsrepetition in mm 17 and mm 13 (“look at me”). However, the accompaniment is very full. Because the piano melody doubles that of the vocal line, the composer has taken time tomake other piano voices add a lot of tension. In the very first line (mm 9, “While you’re sleeping
29my fervent love”), the F# leads into the GM chord. This is repeated again in mm 17 with thewords “Tread slowly.” Both of these couplets are sung in piano and pianissimo respectively,creating a sorrowful mood. In mm 37 and 53 we find the f#ø7 of G with the words “Even whiledying…” This use of the vii ø7 of the dominant adds another dimension of dissonance, especiallyaccompanying such fatal words. Other notable secondary functions of V are in mm 14, 15, and37, and even functions of IV can be found in mm 35. We also find the usage of chromaticism(mm 35, 47, and 51) interestingly in the base of the accompaniment under the words “Pity me!”All of these elements combine to make a very dramatic picture.Example 2.5Example 2.6 “Pakiusap,” in only two pages worth of music, renders so much emotion and intensity.Santiago uses many devices to achieve this: suspensions, chords from the dominant and other
30keys, and chromaticism. The fullness of the accompaniment creates a heightened sense ofdrama, which is reminiscent of film music from the 1920s and 1930s. However, Santiago iscareful not to lay it on too thickly: he evens out each of these elements, and uses tempo devicesvery minimally. Thus we aren’t overwhelmed by the music. Nevertheless, the serenadersemotional pleads are felt and the message is carried out beautifully.
31Freddie Aguilar – Anak Freddie Aguilar and his music are synonymous with Filipino nationalism and identity.Born, as we say, on the wrong side of the tracks, Aguilar witnessed firsthand the struggles poorFilipinos had to overcome every day. His experience in the slums of Manila and inspiring songsearned him thousands of fans and a lasting career. Like Constancio de Guzman, Aguilar’s father had other plans for him. He was supposedto have finished a degree in electrical engineering, but instead he left his family to become amusician. Early on, he began with remaking American hits, influenced mainly by Cat Stevensand James Taylor. Overtime, his music showed a “local flavor” (Lockard, 145). Aguilar wrote mostly about the social issues facing the Filipino people at the time:prostitution, poverty, and identity. His song “Magdalena” chronicled the life a girl who had to gointo prostitution to save herself from poverty. “U.S.-Russia” is a more political song about thesuperpowers and their egocentric policies. His worldwide hit, “Anak,” was about his own personal tragedy with his parents.Wanting a better life for him, Aguilar’s parents sent him to school to pursue a career that theythought to be more lucrative than music. But Aguilar’s passion drove him to music and awayfrom his parents. Just before “Anak” had made Aguilar a star, his father died, never to know thesuccess his musical career would give him. Aguilar also did a remarkable rendition of Constancio de Guzman’s “Bayan Ko.” Thissong would make him more than just a musician, it would make him the voice of a generation.During the EDSA, protests would be held everyday: in the streets and at universities. “BayanKo” became the theme song for the anti-Marcos movement. Aguilar himself would even take to
32the streets with his guitar and thousands of protestors behind him singing. The mostimpactful image was of him singing beside Ninoy Aquino’s coffin after his assassination. President Marcos blacklisted Freddie Aguilar from radio stations because of his politicaland ideological beliefs. He was forced to seek overseas support for his career. But that did notstop him from dedicating himself to removing Marcos from office. His involvment in the 1986campaign, which would eventually do just that, is a testament to his passion for the Filipinopeople.Nung isilang ka sa mundong ito When you were bornLaking tuwa ng magulang mo Your parents were so happyAt ang kamay nila ang iyong ilaw Their hands were your lightAt ang nanay at tatay mo’y Your mother and father‘Di malaman ang gagawin Did not know what to doMinamasdan pati pagtulog mo They watched over you when you were asleepAt sa gabi’y napupuyat ang iyong nanay Your mother stayed awakeSa pagtimpla ng gatas mo Just to feed youAt sa umaga nama’y kalong ka ng iyong And in the morning, your father carried youAmang tuwang-tuwa sa’yo All day longNgayon nga ay malaki ka na Now you’ve grownNais mo’y maging malaya You want your freedom‘Di man sila payag walang magagawa Even if they didn’t want you to goIkaw nga ay biglang nagbago They could not do anythingNaging matigas ang iyong ulo But you were stubbornAt ang payo nila’y sinuway mo And all their advice were not heeded‘Di mo man lang inisip na ang kanilang You didn’t even think that whatever they didGinagawa’y para sa’yo They did for youPagka’t ang nais mo’y masunod Because all you think of is yourselfAng laway mo ‘di mo sila pinapansin And all you want is what you want to doNagdaan pa ang mga araw Days passedAt ang landas mo’y naligaw And you strayedIkaw ay nalulong sa masamang bisyo You were hooked on bad vicesAt ang una mong nilapitan And the first person you thought ofAng inyong inang lumuluha Is your mother in tearsAt ang tanong “Anak, ba’t ka nagkaganyan?” And her question is “What happened to you?”At ang iyong mga mata’y bigland lumuha You eyesNg ‘di mo napapansin Suddenly teared upPagsisisi at sa isip mo’t nalaman Regret was deep in your heartMong ika’y nagkamali You knew you were wrongText by Freddie Aguilar Translation by Angelita O’Brien
33 “Anak,” sung in a minor, is an autobiographical song about a prodigal son. This songspeaks about a child who has abandoned his family, and is ungrateful for all the sacrifices theymade for him. The first thing that attracts a listener to “Anak” is the text. Although the melody staysconsistent, the emotion and words speak through. In general, the melody follows the chordstructure. That is to say, when there is a chord change, it is obvious in the vocal line. There arenot any passing tones to connect am to FM. High points occur when the am is the first chord. It also illustrates some important themesin the piece as in “your mother and father” or “when you were grown.” These small phrases hintat the general subject of the piece: a son who abandoned his parents when he grew older.
34 The harmonic and melodic structure are in ABAB form. There are only three chordsin this entire song: am, fm, and gm. Looking at these elements, one can see the similaritiesbetween Aguilar and legendary American folk singer, Bob Dylan (a major influence). Eventhough the melody and chords stay the same in each verse, it serves to make the story flow. Like Dylan, Freddie Aguilar uses the music and rhythms to adapt to the vernacular. Thisis evident in the complex and changing rhythms (Ex 3.1). Because the Tagalog language relies somuch on accentuation on the right syllable to express meaning of even a single word, it isimportant to fit the music to the text. It also avoids comprising the story-telling impression offolk songs.Example 3.1 Essentially, simplicity is important to modern folk music. Not only does it fit thenarration, but the singer is free to express emotion however he pleases. If he wishes to accentuatea certain word, or change the melody to heighten the emotion in a certain part, he is free to do sobecause of the flexibility of the harmony. Thus, Aguilar is free to express his sorrow and we feelit. “Anak” is a rather sorrowful song. We follow a happy couple being blessed with a son.They sacrifice everything for him, and love him endlessly. All they wish for him is happinessand a good life. But as the son grows older, his desire to run free overcomes his betterjudgement. He is led to “bad vices” once free. Upon reflection of his life, the son remembers his
35mothers tearful eyes and pleas. He is overwhelmed with emotion and desires to make a betterlife for himself and his parents. This story is typical in all cultures, but especially in Filipino culture where family haspriority above all else. But most importantly, this song is very personal to Aguilar. We can feelhis shame when he quotes his mother saying “My child, what happened to you?” As well, onecan detect a tone of nonchalance in “But all you want is for you to do what you want.” Personal interpretation is important to all folk music. One has to listen to an artist singsuch songs before really understanding the passion and thought behind it. Freddie Aguilarperfectly displays this in all his songs, and especially in his most identifiable work, “Anak.”
36Florante de Leon – Ako’y Isang Pinoy During his career, Florante de Leon tried not to associate himself with any specificpolitical ideology. Instead, he dedicated his music to addressing, frankly, the situation of theFilipino people. His intentions were not to become a nationalistic folk singer, but a singer whoonly sang in Tagalog. His most famous songs are “Ako’y Isang Pinoy,” “Laya (“Free”), “Awiting SarilingAtin” (“Our Own Songs”), and the most famous “Handog” (“Offering”). These works have anautobiographical quality, often commenting directly on current moments in his life (Curtis,“Florante is Back”). In the 1988 rock opera “Florante,” he was celebrated for his role in popularculture. Because of his political ambiguity, Florante was often accused of being a hypocrite. Hewould often play for the Marcos’ campaigns and functions. This was seen as an act of betrayal.Nevertheless, his music continued to sell. In 1977, Florante was officially rocketed intosuperstardom with his ernest hit “Handog.” Even though his career is clouded in somecontroversy, he is still considered one of the greatest nationalistic folk song writers of his time. “Ako’y Isang Pinoy” (“I Am A Filipino”) is a light-hearted tune with a deep message.Reading the words alone, one would think they were going to hear something serious anddramatic. When Florante quotes Jose Rizal as saying “ One who does not love their nativelanguage has the stench worse than a rotten fish,” it is easy to imagine an angry climax at thesewords. Instead, Florante’s song has a very sing-song quality.
37Ako’y isang Pinoy sa puso’t diwa I am a Filipino in heart and mindPinoy na isinilang sa ating bansa Filipino born in my countryAko’y hindi sanay sa wikang mga banyaga I am not used to foreign languagesAko’y Pinoy na mayroong sariling wika I am a Filipino with my own languageWikang pambansa ang gamit kong salita National language is what I useBayan kong sinilangan The country of my birthHangad kong lagi ang kalayaan I always desire for it to be freeSi gat Jose Rizal nuo’y nagwika Jose Rizal once saidSiya ay nagpangaral sa ating bansa One who does not love their native tongueAng hindi raw magmahal sa sariling wika Has the stenchAy higit pa ang amoy sa mabahong isda Worse than a rotten fishText by Florante de Leon Translation by Angelita O’Brien This song is in D major with a 3/4 time signature. Its moderately fast waltz tempo give ita tripping and light-footed feel. The melody contains the same weightless lyricism. It movesfrom chord to chord not in leaps and bounds but in short skips. Technically, “Pinoy” boasts fivedifferent chord changes. This is much more than the average folk or popular song, which usuallyonly has two or three. Its form is much like that of popular music: Verse-Chorus-Verse-Chorus(ABAB). Thus it is easy to follow and memorize. The rhythm manages to stay within the triple meter construct while accomodating thetext. As in most folk songs, the rhythmic patterns change as the syllabic accentuation shifts. Aconstant is the guitar accompaniment which continues to strum softly in the background. Though not as long, or wordy, as other folk songs, “Ako’y Isang Pinoy” still captures asense of nationalism. The pride that Florante has for his native tongue is very apparent.Mentioning Jose Rizal and heeding his words shows that he loves his country and knows enoughabout it to be so. The text is rather simple. There does not appear to be any deep metaphor orallegory. In its directness and simplicity, it plays with the Tagalog language. Usually viewed asan impassioned and slightly gutteral language, Florante treats it buoyantly.
38 Perhaps not a revolution inspiring song, “Ako’y Isang Pinoy” still has its importancein dealing with the Filipino identity. For Florante, language is what Filipinos must cling to inorder to separate themselves from the long effects of cultural colonialism. By treating thelanguage in such a different manner, Florante demonstrates that Tagalog can be used foranything.Conclusion Philippine music is unique despite its overwhelming influence from Spanish andAmerican idioms. Rather than being cultural separatists in fighting colonialism, Filipinossynthesized western music with their ideals and values to create a completely individual style.Essentially, it is the sentiment that is unmistakably Filipino. Since practically none of the indigenous music was either written down or studied by theSpanish upon their arrival, it is difficult to have a truly Filipino idiom. We can guess andspeculate on how the music was played, and how it sounded, but we no way of having aconclusive representation. Even after the Philippines gained independence when Spanish forces ceded politicalcontrol to the Americans, they were placed under another regime. Although the American regimewas much more supportive of Philippine efforts in music and culture, their presence was felt inevery aspect. Not least of all, the forms of entertainment Filipinos enjoyed were strictlyAmerican. But the revolutionary words of folk music were gaining support. Bob Dylan, Cat Stevens, and James Taylor were compelling influences on Filipinomusicians who wanted to create an identity for themselves. Americans sang about the ironies ofAmerican culture, war, and peace. Filipinos sang about the poverty they saw everyday, thetragedies of their lives, and the effects of colonialism on their culture. Filipino artists also
39dedicated themselves to singing in their own language. Though the music was western, thesubject was uniquely Filipino. The reasons that Filipinos chose to utilize Western music are many. Firstly, they had noway of carrying the indigenous traditions since the Spanish strictly forbade any sort of localmusic. Instead, Filipinos sang chants and Spanish folk tunes in their own dialects. It is interestingto note that the friars and government officials did not find this at all subversive. Secondly,during the Spanish colonization, Filipinos had to sing Spanish music. But Filipinos inserted theirown metaphors into songs to reflect their true feelings about their colonizers. Third, since thesetypes of music were so popular, Filipino musicians used them to their advantage in order to reacha wider audience. This is a particular experience to the Filipinos and Philippine history. In effect, Filipinos were ingenious in using their colonizers’ music in subverting power,circumventing censors, and gaining wide appeal. Western forms were only secondary in theircompositions. The message they were sending of frustration, pain, nationalism, and brotherhoodis of greatest importance. Consequently, what emerged was music rich in emotion, spirit, andculture.
40 APPENDIX A MUSICAL EXAMPLESExample Measure Song1.1 5-8 Bayan Ko1.2 22-23 “1.3 Rhythmic example “1.4 Rhythmic example “2.1 15-16 Pakiusap2.2 59-60 “2.3 Rhythmic example “2.4 Rhythmic example “2.5 37-38 “2.6 51-52 “3.1 Rhythmic example Anak
42 #3Freddie AguilarAnakAmNung isilang ka sa mundong itoFLaking tuwa ng magulang moG AmAt ang kamay nila ang iyong ilawAmAt ang nanay at tatay mo’yF‘Di malaman ang gagawin G AmMinamasdan pati pagtulog mo F GAt sa gabi’y napupuyat ang iyong nanay AmSa pagtimpla ng gatas mo F GAt sa umaga nama’y kalong ka ng iyong AmAmang tuwang-tuwa sa’yo(Am) FNgayon nga ay malaki ka na(F)Nais mo’y maging malayaG Am‘Di man sila payag walang magagawaAmIkaw nga ay biglang nagbagoFNaging matigas ang iyong ulo G AmAt ang payo nila’y sinuway mo F‘Di mo man lang inisip na ang kanilang G AmGinagawa’y para sa’yo FPagka’t ang nais mo’y masunod G AmAng laway mo ‘di mo sila pinapansin
43AmNagdaan pa ang mga arawFAt ang landas mo’y naligawG AmIkaw ay nalulong sa masamang bisyo(Am)At ang una mong nilapitan FAng iyong inang lumuluha G AmAt ang tanong “Anak, ba’t ka nagkaganyan?” F GAt ang iyong mga mata’y bigland lumuha AmNg ‘di mo napapansin FPagsisisi at sa isip mo’t nalamanG AmMong ika’y nagkamali
44 #4FloranteAkoy Isang Pinoy D A G DAkoy isang Pinoy sa pusot diwa G F#m7 Em A7Pinoy na isinilang sa ating bansa D A G DAkoy hindi sanay sa wikang mga banyaga G F#m7 Em D-A-G-A-Akoy Pinoy na mayroong sariling wika.G F#m7 Em A7 DWikang pambansa ang gamit kong salitaG F#m7Bayan kong sinilangan Em E AHangad kong lagi ang kalayaan. D A G DSi Gat Jose Rizal nuoy nagwika G F#m7 Em A7Siya ay nagpangaral sa ating bansaD A G DAng hindi raw magmahal sa sariling wika G F#m7 Em A D-A-G-A-Ay higit pa ang amoy sa mabahong isda.
BibliographyAndres, Ian-James R. “Bayan Ko.” Filipino Classical Music. Personal. <http://www. geocities.com/philippinemusic/bayanko.html>.---. “Constancio de Guzman.” Filipino Classical Music. Personal. <http://www. geocities.com/philippinemusic/constancio.html>.---. “Francisco Santiago.” Filipino Classical Music. Personal. <http://www.geocities. com/philippinemusi /santiago.html>.Asian Publishing Company Limited. Kasaysayan: The Story of the Filipino People. Hong Kong: Asia Pub, 1998.Baes, Jonas. “Popular Music in the Philippines.” Articles on Culture and Arts. 2002. National Commission for Culture and the Arts. 18 Jan. 2005. <http://www.ncca. gov.ph/about_cultarts/comarticle_lists.php?committee_ Id=6>.---. “Westernized Musical Traditions in the Philippines.” Articles on Culture and Arts. 2002. National Commission for Culture and the Arts. 18 Jan. 2005. <http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about_cultarts/comarticle_lists.php?>Besa, Della G. “Our Signature Love Song.” Kasaysayan, The Story of the Filipino People. Vol. 10 (2001). 28 April 2005. <http://www.filipinoheritage.com/history/ signature_lovesong.htm>.Curtis, Irene O. “Florante Is Back.” The Manila Times. 18 May 2004. Manila Times Internet Edition. 21 Apr. 2005. <http://www.manilatimes.net/national /2004 /may/ 18/yehey/life/20040518lif1.html>.
Dioquino, Corazon. “Folk Traditions.” Articles on Culture and Arts. 2002. National Commission for Culture and the Arts. 18 Jan. 2005. <http://www.ncca.gov.ph/ about_cultarts/comarticle_lists.php?committee_Id=6>.---. “Music in the Philippines Since 1898.” Articles on Culture and Arts. 2002. National Commission for Culture and the Arts. 18 Jan. 2005. <http://www.ncca. gov.ph/about_cultarts/comarticle_lists.php?>.---. “Music in the Post-Colonial Philippine Republic.” Articles on Culture and Arts. 2002. National Commission for Culture and the Arts. 18 Jan. 2005. <http://www. ncca.gov.ph/ about_cultarts/comarticle_lists.php?committee_ Id=6>.---. “Philippine Music, A Historical Overview.” Articles on Culture and Arts. 2002. National Commission for Culture and the Arts. 18 Jan. 2005. <http://www.ncca. gov.ph/about_cultarts/comarticle_lists.php?> committee_Id=6>.Greenber, Lawrence M. The Hukbalahap Insurrection. Historical Analysis Series. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1987. Jose Rizal Website. 2004. Jose Rizal University. Scholarly Project. 18 Jan. 2005. <http:// www.joserizal.ph /su01.html>.Kimball, Carol. Song: A Guide to Style and Literature. Redmond, WA: Pst..Inc, 1996.LaRue, Jan. Guidelines for Style Analysis. 2nd Ed. Warren, MI : Harmonie Park Press, 1992.Lockard, Craig A. Dance of Life: Popular Music and Politics in South East Asia. Honolulu, HI : University of Hawai’i Press, 1998.Lorelei. “Floranate – Ako’y Isang Pinoy.” Online Posting. 13 Jun. 2004. Pinoy Chords Online. 18 Jan. 2005. <http://www.pinoychords.net/modules/mydownloads/ cache/files/akoy_ isang_pinoy.txt3>.
Mirano, Elena R. Musika: An Essay on the Spanish Influences on Philippine Music. Tuklas Sinig. 4. Manila, Philippines: Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas.Parnes, Samuel W. A History of Filipino Rondalla Music and Musicians in Southern California. Diss. University of California-Los Angeles, 1999.Pfeiffer, William R. Filipino music: Indigenious [sic], folk, modern music. Dumageute City, R.P: Silliman Music Foundation Inc., 1976.Philippine Fiesta Press Releases. “Florante de Leon” Organizational. 2000. Philippine Fiesta, Inc. 21 Apr. 2005. <http://members.aol.com/sepmgzn/philfiesta2001/PFshowinformation/ florante.html>.Philippine Music Registry. “Francisco Santiago.” Organization. 2004. Organisasyon ng Pilipinong Mangaawit. 28 April 2005. <http://www.philmusicregistry.com /artist_profile. php?artist_id=632>.Rodell, Paul. Culture and Customs of the Philippines. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.Santos, Ramon Pagayon. An Essay on the American Colonial and Contemporary Traditions in Philippine Music. Tuklas Sining. Philippines: Cultural Center of the Philippines, 1994.---. “Contemporary Music.” Articles on Culture and Arts. 2002. National Commission for Culture and the Arts. 18 Jan. 2005. <http://www. ncca.gov.ph/about_cultarts/ comarticle_lists.php?committee_Id=6>.---. “Philippine Music Forms/Composition.” Articles on Culture and Arts. 2002. 18 Jan. 2005. National Commission for Culture and the Arts. <http://www.ncca. gov.ph/about_cultarts/ comarticle_lists.php?committee_Id=6>.---. “Music and the Revolution.” Kasaysayan: The Story of the Filipino People. Vol.5. Hong Kong: Asia Pub, 1998.
Sevilla, Patrick. “Anak Chords by Freddie Aguilar.” Online Posting. 2004. Ultimate- Guitar.com. 21 Apr. 2005. <http://www.ultimate-guitar.com/tabs/f/ freddie_ aguil ar/anak_crd.htm>.Theissen, Lillan M. A Study of Tagalog Folk Music of the Philippines. Diss. Witchita State University, 1972.Yu, Yeung Yeung. A sociocultural analysis of contemporary Filipino popular songs. Diss. Rutgers, U of New Jersey. 1997. New Brunswick: UMI, 1997. 9730872n