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  • 1. Mentor Conclave 2012Questioning & Co-creating EducationTheme: UnderstandingStakeholdersSub Theme: Nurturing Talents ofTeachers Presented by : Sapna Sankhla 1
  • 3. Effective professional development is considered thecenter of educational reform. It is critical for teachergrowth and student achievement. (Dilworth & Imig, 1995).When teachers are given the opportunity, via high-qualityprofessional development, to learn new strategies forteaching to rigorous standards, they report changing theirteaching in the classroom (Alexander, Heaviside, & Farris,1998).To be effective, professional development should be basedon curricular and instructional strategies that have a highprobability of affecting students’ learning—and, just asimportant, students’ ability to learn (Joyce and Showers,2002). Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 3
  • 4. The National Commission on Mathematics andScience Teaching for the 21st Century (2000)said that professional development should :- (1) deepen teachers knowledge of the contentbeing taught;(2) sharpen teaching skills in the classroom;(3) keep up with developments in the individualfields, and in education generally;(4) create and contribute new knowledge to theprofession;(5) increase their ability to provide explicitfeedback to students. 4 Presented by:Sapna Sankhla
  • 5. This paper aims at deliberating onenhancing teachers’ assessment abilities to assess learner’sprogress by providing a variety of innovative and effective assessment tools in the form of examples of assessment. Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 5
  • 6. It consists of :-Illustrations of Various Toolsfor Formative Assessmentalong withWeb Links. Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 6
  • 8. • Each learner has his own style of learning• Learning in different subject areas and variedaspects of development is to be assessed• Learners may respond better to one methodas compared to another• Each method contributes in its own way toteacher’s understanding of learner’s learning Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 8
  • 9. Here are a few examples of tools for formative assessmentsObservations DiscussionExit/Admit Slips Learning/Response LogsGraphic organizers Peer/Self AssessmentsPractice Presentations Visual RepresentationsKinesthetic Assessments Individual WhiteboardsLaundry Day Four CornersConstructive Quizzes Think Pair ShareAppointment Clock As I See ItQuestioning The Mirrorhttp://wvde.state.wv.us/teach21/ExamplesofFormativeAssessment.html Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 9
  • 10. The overall assessment should be followed by the descriptive remarks by the teacher about the positive and significant achievements, avoiding negative assessment even by implication.It implies: Sharing learning objectives and assessment expectations with students Employing clearly defined criteria Incorporating examples and exemplars Involving students in self assessment Providing feedback which leads to students identifying and responding appropriately Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 10
  • 11. 1)ObservationsThe more we know about students, the more we can help them.Observations, sometimes called kid watching, can help teachers determine what students do and do not know.There are several instruments and techniques that teachers can use to record useful data about student learning. 11 Presented by:Sapna Sankhla
  • 12. Here are a few: a)Anecdotal Notes: These are short notes written during alesson as students work in groups or individually, or after thelesson is complete. b)Anecdotal Notebook: The teacher may wish to keep a notebook of the individual observation forms or a notebook divided into sections for the individual students. c)Anecdotal Note Cards: The teacher can create a file folder with 5" x 7" note cards for each student called as Observation Folder.d) Labels or Sticky Notes:Teachers can carry a clipboard with a sheet of labels or apad of sticky notes and make observations as theycirculate throughout the classroom. Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 12
  • 13. Links on Observation:Observing Studentshttp://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3749065Methods for Documenting Student Progresshttp://newteachersupport.suite101.com/article.cfm/methods_for_documenting_student_progressAnecdotal Recordshttp://www.saskschools.ca/curr_content/saskatoonint/1/Anecdotal.html Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 13
  • 14. 2) Questioning•Asking better questions affords students an opportunityfor deeper thinking and provides teachers with significantinsight into the degree and depth of studentunderstanding.•Questions of this nature engage students in classroomdialogue that expands student learning.•Questions should go beyond the typical factual questionsrequiring recall of facts or numbers.• Paul Black, a noted authority on formative assessment,suggests that "more effort has to be spent in framingquestions that are worth asking: that is, questions whichexplore issues that are critical to the development ofstudents understanding." (Black et al., 2003) Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 14
  • 15. Links for Questioning: Tips for Teachers - Asking Good Questionshttp://www.edb.utexas.edu/minliu/pbl/TIPS/question.html#hots Questioning Techniques: Research-Based Strategies for Teachers http://onramp.nsdl.org/eserv/onramp:1244/oct08_pl_tas.html Edutopia: The Right Way to Ask Questions in the Classroom http://www.edutopia.org/asking-students-good-questions Inviting Student Engagement with Questioninghttp://www.redorbit.com/news/education/258931/inviting_studen t_engagement_with_questioning/ Using "Think Time" and "Wait Time" Skillfully in the Classroom http://www.ericdigests.org/1995-1/think.htm Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 15
  • 16. 3)Exit/Admit Slips•Exit Slips are written responses to questions the teacherposes at the end of a lesson or a class to assess studentunderstanding of key concepts .They should take no morethan 5 minutes to complete and are taken up as studentsleave the classroom.•Admit slips are exactly like Exit Slips, but they are done priorto or at the beginning of the class. Students may be asked toreflect on their understanding of their previous nightshomework, or they may reflect on the previous days lesson ifthe question required a longer response time. Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 16
  • 17. Links on Exit/Admit Slips: Readingrockets: Exit Slips http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/exit_slips AdLit.org: Exit Slips http://www.adlit.org/strategies/19805 Writing Across the Curriculum: Entry/Exit Slips http://writing2.richmond.edu/wac/entrexit.html Exit Slips: Effective Bell-Ringer Activities http://www.teachhub.com/news/article/cat/14/item/377 Admit Slips and Exit Slipshttp://literacy.kent.edu/eureka/strategies/admit_slips09.pdf Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 17
  • 18. 4)Visual RepresentationsThere are several forms of visual representation, ornonlinguistic representation, but one that offersassessment data for the teacher is the use of drawing.The Mind Map requires that students use drawings,photos or pictures from a magazine to represent aspecific concept.The Verbal and Visual Word Association (VVWA) asksstudents to illustrate a vocabulary term. Both of theseoffer the teacher a quick way of assessing students’depth of understanding regarding a specific concept. Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 18
  • 19. Verbal and Visual Word Association (VVWA)•The Verbal and Visual Word Association graphic organizer (Eeds &Cockrum, 1985) helps students gain new vocabulary through visualand personal associations with the word.•Research shows that this graphic organizer is especially effectivewith low-achieving and second language learners in content areaclasses. It is especially useful in mathematics classes to help studentsunderstand the key words and concepts.•This graphic organizer can be used as a classroom assessment forlearning because a teacher can quickly determine students depth ofunderstanding by just looking at their chart. Blank VVWA Chart VVWA Science Example Student Example from Social Studies Websites on Verbal and Visual Word Association:Getting Ready to Read: Extending Vocabulary - Verbal and Visual Word Associations - PDF http://oame.on.ca/main/files/thinklit/VerbalVisual.pdf Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 19
  • 20. Links for Visual Representation: Painting Poetry: Using Visual Representation as a Response to Literature The Role of Visual Representation in the Assessment of Learninghttp://www.readingonline.org/newliteracies/lit_index.asp?HREF=/newliteracies/ jaal/2-04_column/index.html Research on Graphic Organizers http://www.mentoringminds.com/pdf/pdfGraphicOrganizersResearch.pdf Classroom Instruction That Works: Nonlinguistic Representations http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/101010/chapters/Nonlinguistic- Representations.aspx Putting the Pieces Together: Using Non-Linguistic Representations http://gets.gc.k12.va.us/vste/2008/5nonlinguistic.htm Five Great Tools for Marzanos Strategies: Nonlinguistic Representation http://blog.esu10.org/dstall/2010/02/01/5-great-tools-for-marzanos-strategies- nonlinguistic-representation Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 20
  • 21. 5)Graphic OrganizersGraphic organizers are visual models that can assist students in organizinginformation and communicating clearly and effectively. Students can usegraphic organizers to structure their writing, brainstorm ideas, assist indecision making, clarify story structure, help with problem solving, andplan research. These are a few of the more common graphic organizers .a)Venn Diagram b)KWL Chart c)KWLS Chart d)KWHL Chart e)KNWS Chartf)Brainstorming Web g)Alpha Boxes h)Mind Map i)T Chartj)Double Entry Journal Sense-O-Gram k)Chain of Events Problem-Solution Chartl)Somebody-Wanted-But-So m)Summary Star n)Frayer Modelo)Knowledge Rating Scale p)Concept Map q)Word Detectiver)Decision Making Chart s)Show My Thinking Chartt)Event Analysis Chart of Social Studies u)Map the Character Presented by : Sapna Sankhla 21
  • 22. Graphic Organizers on the Web: Venn Diagram http://www.sdcoe.k12.ca.us/score/actbank/tvenn.htm Venn Diagram on a computer : http://www.readwritethink.org/materials/venn/ Graphic Organizers http://www.educationplace.biz/graphicorganizer/ Printable Graphic Organizershttp://www.teachervision.fen.com/graphic-organizers/printable/6293.html Graphic.Org http://www.graphic.org/goindex.html Graphic Organizers http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1grorg.htm Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 22
  • 23. 6)Peer/Self Assessments•Peer and self assessment helps to create a learningcommunity within the classroom. When students areinvolved in criteria and goal setting, self evaluation becomesa logical step in the learning process.• Students become metacognitive and are more aware oftheir personal strengths and weaknesses. With peerassessment students begin to see each other as resourcesfor understanding and checking for quality work againstpreviously determined criteria.•"When students are required to think about their ownlearning, articulate what they understand, and what they stillneed to learn, achievement improves." (Black andWilliam 1998) Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 23
  • 24. Two Stars and a Wish Strategy A Strategy for Peer AssessmentThis peer assessment is particularly useful for the writingprocess. Students are paired and asked to read eachother’s written work. The reader must identify two thingsthe author did well (stars) and one specific suggestion forimprovement (the wish). Before implementing this strategy, students mustbe trained on the process of providing appropriatefeedback to their peers. The teacher can use this strategyas a formative assessment by circulating around theclassroom and listening to the conversations betweenpartners. Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 24
  • 25. 7)Kinesthetic Assessments These formative assessments require students toincorporate movement to demonstrate theirunderstanding of a topic or concept.Kinesthetic assessments are a good way to addvariety to classroom assessments for learning. Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 25
  • 26. i)Inside-Outside CircleInside-Outside Circle (Kagan, 1994) is a summarization technique that getsstudents up and moving. It provides a way to get students who normally wouldnot talk to interact with others.After students read a section of text, the teacher divides the group. Half of thestudents stand up and form a circle with their backs to the inside of thecircle. They are partner A. The other half of the students form a circle facing apartner from the first circle. These students are partner B. Partner A will speakfirst, quickly summarizing what they read. This takes about a minute. Thenpartner B speaks for the same length of time, adding to the summary. If theteacher stands in the center of the circle, he/she can easily monitor studentresponses.Inside-Outside Circle holds all students accountable for having something tosay. The teacher can use this activity as a formative assessment by standing inthe center of the circle and listening to the conversations that take place. Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 26
  • 27. ii)Debate Circles This formative assessment can be used to activate studentthinking and uncover their understanding and misconceptions.Students form a circle in the classroom or another large area. Theteacher makes a statement, like, “Which is more important:Individual Rights or the Common Good?”Students who think Individual Rights are more important, move tothe center of the circle.Students left on the outside, those who think the Common Good ismore important, form another circle and both groups formulatetheir position on the topic. The teacher listens to the discussion and assesses students’understanding.After the students have had time to formulate their arguments, theyform two lines facing one another and students take turnsexpressing their ideas on the statement. Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 27
  • 28. Websites on Inside-Outside Circle:Inside-Outside Circle Directions - PDFhttp://oame.on.ca/lmstips/files/TIPSForTeachers/13InsideOutsideCircle.pdfNorm Green Shared Pair Circles - PDFhttp://www.learn-line.nrw.de/angebote/greenline/lernen/downloads/shared_pair_circles.pdfStrategies to Probe Deeply into the Texthttp://www.ohiorc.org/adlit/ip_content.aspx?recID=181&parentID=179Inside-Outside Circle by Spencer Kaganhttp://www.oregontrailschools.com/uploads/Inside-Outside-Circle.docInside-Outside Circlehttp://www.geocities.com/bruinspecialt/Coop_Learn/Inside_Outside_Circle.htmlWebsites on Kinesthetic Assessments:Ideas for Learning through Movement in the Classroomhttp://www.ehow.com/list_7793126_ideas-learning-through-movement-classroom.html Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 28
  • 29. 8)Laundry DayLaundry Day is a formative assessment strategy mentioned byCassandra Erkens in her article entitled "Scenarios on the Use ofFormative Classroom Assessment" (2007).This is a strategy where students evaluate their own learning inpreparation for a chapter or unit test. They group themselves in theclassroom around four different kinds of laundry detergent: Tide, Gain,Bold and Cheer. In their chosen corner they will work on activities toenrich or improve their understanding of the required content.For information on Laundry Day: .Scenarios on the Use of Formative Classroom Assessmenthttp://fai.tie.wikispaces.net/file/view/1a_WY+State+Conf+HOs.pdf Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 29
  • 30. 9)Four Corners• Four Corners is a quick strategy that can be used effectively forassessing students’ understanding.•It can engage students in conversations about controversial topics.• The four corners of the classroom can be labeled as Strongly Agree,Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree.•Present students with a statement, like "All students should wearuniforms to school," and have them move to the corner that expressestheir opinion.•Students could then discuss why they feel the way they do. Theteacher can listen to student discussions and determine who hasinformation to support their opinion and who does not.•Another way to use Four Corners is associated with multiple choicequizzes. Label the corners of the classroom as A, B, C and D. Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 30
  • 31. Links to Four Corners: Four Corners Teaching Strategy : http://www.ehow.com/way_5809507_four-corners-teaching- strategy.html Four Corners Activities http://www.suite101.com/content/four-corners-activities-a170020 Four Corners http://www.angelfire.com/ok/freshenglish/fourcorners.html Four Corners Strategyhttp://vels.vcaa.vic.edu.au/support/tla/collab_strategies.html#corners Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 31
  • 32. 10) Think-Pair-ShareThink-Pair-Share (Lyman, 1981) is a summarization strategy that can beused in any content area before, during, and after a lesson. The activityinvolves three basic steps.1)During the "think" stage, the teacher tells students to ponder a questionor problem. This allows for wait time and helps students control the urgeto impulsively shout out the first answer that comes to mind. 2)Next, individuals are paired up and discuss their answer or solution tothe problem. During this steps students may wish to revise or alter theiroriginal ideas.3)Finally, students are called upon to share with the rest of theclass. There is also a Think-Pair-Square-Share. In this strategy, partnersdiscuss answers with another pair before sharing with the class. Thisactivity ensures that all students are interacting with the information. Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 32
  • 33. Websites on Think-Pair-Share:Instructional Strategies Online: What is Think-Pair-Share?http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/think/Reading Quest.org: Think-Pair-Sharehttp://www.readingquest.org/strat/tps.htmlThe Egyptian Cinderella Lesson Plan: Think-Pair-Sharehttp://www.ncela.gwu.edu/practice/itc/lessons/dnthinkpairshare.htmlIntel® Teach Program: Think-Pair-Share - PDFhttp://download.intel.com/education/Common/en/Resources/DEP/strategies/DEP_Strategies_TPS.pdf Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 33
  • 34. 11) Appointment ClockThe Appointment Clock is a simple formative assessment strategy thatcan be embedded within a lesson. The teacher directs students to findthe people with whom to schedule appointments at the quarter hour, thehalf hour, and the 45-minute mark.The teacher begins the lesson and provides information to move studentsto higher-order thinking. The teacher determines the stopping point andasks students to meet with their quarter hour appointment to discusstheir thinking about a couple of questions the teacher has posed. Theteacher walks around and listens to the conversations taking placebetween partners, noting any misconceptions or misunderstandings. Theteacher uses this information to redirect the next segment of the lesson. Students meet with their half hour appointment and the teacher conductsthe same informal observation and adjusts the third section of thelesson. Students continue this process until the lesson is complete. Bystructuring a lesson in the manner, the teacher is able to determine thecurrent level of understanding for the class and for individual students,and make immediate adjustments to instruction to assist students in theirlearning. Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 34
  • 35. Websites on Appointment Clocks:Appointment Clock Buddieshttp://www.teamstraus.com/SchoolDaysBorder_files/Teacher%20Farm/clockbuddies_Lower_El.pdfAppointment Clock Partnershttp://www.ronnashandassociates.com/pdfs/Appointment%20Clock%20Partners.pdf Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 35
  • 36. 12)Learning/Response Logs•Learning Logs are used for students reflections on the material theyare learning. This type of journal is in common use among scientistsand engineers. In the log, students record the process they gothrough in learning something new, and any questions they may needto have clarified.•By reading student logs and delivering descriptive feedback on whatthe student is doing well and suggestions for improvement. theteacher can make the Learning Log a powerful tool for evaluation.•Response Logs are a good way to examine student thinking .They aremost often connected with response to literature, but they may be used inany content area. They offer students a place to respond personally, toask questions, to predict, to reflect, to collect vocabulary and to composetheir thoughts about text. Teachers may use Response Logs as formativeassessment for evaluation during the learning process.•Instructional Strategies Online: What Are Learning Logs?http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/logs/ Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 36
  • 37. 13)Practice PresentationsJust as in sports, practice before a classroom presentation isvital. Through practice and peer review, students can improve theirpresentation skills and the content of the presentation itself.The practice presentation should take place a few days before the finalpresentation due date. Students run through their presentations with theaudience, their peers, evaluating the performance based on the previouslyestablished rubric criteria.An easy way for students to furnish feedback is through a T Chart. Students use the left column of the chart to comment on the positiveaspects of the presentation, and they use the right columns to suggestchanges that the presenter might make to improve the quality of thepresentation.By listening to both the practice and final presentations the teacher caneasily gauge the level of student understanding of critical concepts. Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 37
  • 38. Links on Presentations:Classroom Presentation Tipshttp://www.ehow.com/list_6137068_classroom-presentation-tips.htmlMaking Class Presentationshttp://socserv2.mcmaster.ca/Inquiry/presentationsmaking.htm9 Presentation Tips for Studentshttp://presentationsoft.about.com/od/classrooms/tp/student_tips.htmFearless Public Speaking: Oral Presentation Activitieshttp://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-6309433/Fearless-public-speaking-oral-presentation.htmlTeaching Good Communication Skills in the Classroomhttp://www.essortment.com/all/communicationte_rqmd.htm Presented by:Sapna Sankhla
  • 39. To conclude….. there is a paradigm shift in the way the learnersneed to be assessed. Therefore, teachers should be conscious of changing assessment criteria and adopt and employ different tools so as toassess the learners comprehensively in line with the changes in the educational approach andtechnology. Only then the assessment would be effective Presented by:Sapna Sankhla 39