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Fever

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  • 1. FEVER
  • 2. BODY TEMPERATURE
    Controlled by the hypothalamus
    normal range of 36.5–37.5 °C (98–100 °F) 
    Varieties of normal body temperature:
    Temperature in the anus (rectum/rectal) is at or over 37.5–38.3 °C (100–101 °F)
    Temperature in the mouth (oral) is at or over 37.7 °C (99.9 °F)
    Temperature under the arm (axillary) or in the ear (otic) is at or over 37.2 °C (99.0 °F)
  • 3. Normal body temperatures vary depending on many factors:
    Age
    Sex
    Ambient temperature
    Activity level
    Time of day
    Low levels occur at 6 am: 37.2˚C (98.9˚F)
    Higher levels at 4-6 pm: 37.7˚C (99.9˚F)
  • 4. Definition:
    An elevation of body temperature above normal range due to an increase in the body temperature regulatory set-point.The increase in set-point is triggers increased muscle tone and shivering.
    A fever is one of the body's immune responses that attempts to neutralize a bacterial or viral infection.
    Can be caused by many different conditions ranging from benign to potentially serious.
  • 5. Types:
    Continuous fever: Temperature remains above normal throughout the day and does not fluctuate more than 1 °C in 24 hours.
     Lobar pneumonia, typhoid, urinary tract infection, brucellosis, or typhus. Typhoid fever may show a specific fever pattern, with a slow stepwise increase and a high plateau. (Drops due to fever-reducing drugs are excluded.)
    Intermittent fever: Elevated temperature is present only for some hours of the day and becomes normal for remaining hours.
    Malaria, pyaemia, or septicemia. In malaria, there may be a fever with a periodicity of 24 hours (quotidian), 48 hours (tertian fever), or 72 hours (quartan fever, indicating Plasmodium malariae). These patterns may be less clear in travelers.
  • 6. Remittant fever: Temperature remains above normal throughout the day and fluctuates more than 1 °C in 24 hours.
    Infective endocarditis.
    Pel-Ebstein fever: A specific kind of fever associated with Hodgkin's lymphoma, being high for one week and low for the next week and so on. However, there is some debate as to whether this pattern truly exists.
  • 7. Hyperpyrexia
    Fever with an extreme elevation of body temperature greater than or equal to 41.5 °C (106.7 °F).
    Such a high temperature is considered a medical emergency as it may indicate a serious underlying condition or lead to significant side effects.
    Intracranial hemorrhage (most common cause)
    Sepsis, Kawasaki syndrome, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, drug effects, serotonin syndrome, and thyroid storm.
  • 8. Hyperthermia
    High temperature that is not a fever.
    Occurs from a number of causes:
    Heatstroke
     neuroleptic malignant syndrome
     malignant hyperthermia
    stimulants:
     amphetamines 
     cocaine
     idiosyncratic drug reactions
    serotonin syndrome.
  • 9. Signs and symptoms
     Fever is usually accompanied by sickness behavior.
    Lethargy
    Depression
    Anorexia
    Sleepiness
    Hyperalgesia
    Inability to concentrate.
  • 10. Exogenous pyrogens
    (infectious agents, toxins,
    tumors)
    FEVER
    +
    Monocytes, macrophages, endothelial
    cells, other immune cells
    +
    Heat conservation
    (vasoconstriction,
    behavior changes)
    Heat production
    (involuntary muscle
    contractions)
    Antipyretics
    (-)
    PGE 2
    NSAIDs
    (+)
    Anterior Hypothalamus
    Elevated Thermoregulatory set-point
  • 11. Management:
    Use of a fan or air conditioning may somewhat reduce the temperature and increase comfort.
    Sponging or bathing feverish children with tepid water.
    Adequately hydration
     ice pops
    juice
    non-alcoholic drinks.
  • 12. Medications:
    Antipyretic ibuprofen is effective in reducing fevers in children.
    Acetaminophen (paracetamol)

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