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Final research paper at University of Phoenix on the year 2012 and the end of time

Final research paper at University of Phoenix on the year 2012 and the end of time

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  • 1. End of Time 1 The End of Time Megan Kirk COM/220 Axia College of University of Phoenix March 15, 2009
  • 2. End of Time 2 The End of Time As the year 2012 approaches, slowly but surely, scientists begin to turn their attention towards the origin of ancient prophecies, oracle predictions, and the unusual activity going on in our atmosphere. There are a number of predictions due to happen on Dec. 21, 2012, known by many as Doomsday. One of the most popular theories that have been around for years is that 2012 marks the end of the time. There are over 1,720,000 Google.com search results for “2012, End of the world,” and numerous websites that strongly promote the idea. Many even use the title in their domain names of, endoftheworld2012.net as well as endoftime2012.com. ABC News published the article, “Will the World End in 2012?” in July 2008 and AOL.com put out a news story titled, “Thousands Expect Apocalypse in 2012.” This idea has become worldwide and heavily researched, based largely off the fact that ancient calendars from the Mayan civilization, over 1000 years ago, end Dec. 21, 2012. Predictions indicate a series of massive Earth changes based on long lasting astrological cycles. People find it hard to trust a civilization without a telescope but amazingly, as Michael D. Coe mentions in The Mysteries of 2012 (2009), the Mayan’s system to keep track of time has “not slipped one day in over 25 centuries.” The Mayans were magnificent timekeepers. As time counts down, the date gets closer. Could Dec. 21, 2012 be the end of the world? More importantly, how could it happen? Fortunately, the Mayan calendar, which is not just one calendar at all, is the keeper of many indications. The Mayans used a complex system of several calendars to measure all the aspects of life. They had calendars to measure time as well as the astronomy and rotation of the Earth, Sun, Moon, and other solar cycles. From afar, the Mayan’s were able to keep track of Venus as it rotated around the Sun. As a helpful tool for prophecy, the calendars provide insight and wisdom in hopes of teaching the ways to better one’s conscious.
  • 3. End of Time 3 According to the Mayan’s date system, time began on August 11, 3114 B.C. There are two calendars the run parallel to keep track of time. The Tzolkin, a cycle of only 260 days, important for prophesying events, and the Haab, a solar cycle of 365 days. Combined the Tzolkin and the Haab represent one Calendar Round which is approximately 52 years. Interestingly enough, every 104 years the Venus Cycle synchronizes with both counts as it returns to its starting point. Another major calendar, the Long Count tracks dates that relate to each other over a long period. The Long Count also considered a Creation Cycle lasts approximately 5,125.36 years and is broken down in five basic ways. . Long Count English measures of time translation Kins 1 day Uninals 20 day months 18 Uninals (360 Tuns days) 20 Tuns (7,200 K’atuns days) 20 K’atuns Bak’tuns (144,000 days) Figure 1 Mayan Long Count Each Long Count consists of 13, 144,000-day cycles known as Bak’tun Counts. Classic Maya time, the point at which Mayans were most active was during Bak’tun 9, 435-830 A.D. After 830 A.D., mysteriously all Mayan civilization disappeared. As of 2009, it is now Bak’tun 13, 1618-2012 A.D., the last and final. April 6, 1993 began the start of the final K’atun, the one
  • 4. End of Time 4 that ends just shy of four years from now. The Mayans named this end time the “triumph of materialism,” and predicted humanity to drift far away from our sense of oneness and nature, experiencing a kind of collective amnesia (Alim Gaynor, 2009). According to J. Kremer, in his 2000 article, The Maya Shape of Time, “the sacred Sun Stone tells us that we live in the fifth sun or the era of Nahui-Olin. During this solar age, the destruction of our world will occur through the power of the sun and of earthquakes.” Each creation cycle is said to be ruled and destroyed by one of five natural disaster-causing elements. Animals destroyed the first age. Wind the second, fire the third, water the fourth, and the Sun will destroy the fifth. Specifically, Mexika traditions indicate the causes of the first era destruction were jaguar and sun. The second era, the product of wind, experienced disaster by hurricane as the third suffered in volcanic lava. Floods ruled the fourth. The current fifth age is already experiencing increasing destruction from the Sun. John L. Petersen, a co-writer of Mysteries of 2012: Predictions, Prophecies, and Possibilities (2007) says that global warming could cause another ice age. The Earth is one degree Celsius cooler than the hottest recorded temperature in one million years and still rising. The depletion of the O-Zone layer, the part of the atmosphere used for protection against the Sun’s harmful radiation gets weaker everyday. By 2035, the Himalaya mountain range, the largest mountain range in the world, which spans through parts of India, China, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bhutan, could completely melt. Writers of the Living Prophecy website describe the age of the fifth sun as a time ruled by "4 Earth." The term, 4 Earth, also known as Caban, is said by writers at 13 Moon (2005) to reflect the meaning of movement, shift, evolution, earthquake, navigation, synchronicity, clue tracking, and turtle. There is no detailed explanation of these grouped terms so many
  • 5. End of Time 5 independent researchers as well as certified scientists have taken it upon themselves to understand the meaning. One known influence of the events of 2012 lies deep within the Mayan calendar. As well as the Tzolkin and the Haab, the Mayans have smaller cycles that represent 13 to 20 days as well as larger cycles, such as the Precession of the Equinoxes, a cycle of almost 26,000 years. The Precession of the Equinoxes, which has been corrected over time and re-estimated to last about 25,800 years is recognized and followed by not only the Maya but by the Aborigines, Apache, Cherokee, Dogon, Egyptians, Essenes, Hopi, Iroquois, Kabbalists, Navajo, and Qero elders of Peru (Alim Gaynor, 2009). Precession is a term for movement. In this case, precession refers to the rotation of the Earth as it revolves around the sun and spins on its own axis. An equinox is an event that happens twice a year, around September 20 and 23 when the center of the Sun lines up directly over the Earth’s equator. Much like equinoxes, solstices are similar events in which the Earth’s axis points either directly towards or away from the Sun depending on the season. Both events cause the Sun to align perfectly with the Earth. The Precession of the Equinoxes, also known as a Great Cycle, consists of five 5,125 year Long Counts. The current Long Count, which started in August 3113 B.C., ends in 2012 A.D. and is the last one recorded. The completion of this Great Cycle will be accompanied by a winter solstice and a rare astronomical alignment in which the Sun will cross the galactic equator of the Milky Way, aligning also with the center of the galaxy. There are many predicted Figure 2 the Sun as it crosses the Galactic Equator of the Milky Way outcomes of this situation. One famous
  • 6. End of Time 6 predicted event, the reversal of Earth’s magnet poles could cause world destruction. This reversal, also known as a wobble, is a change in the Earth’s tilt or in the location of the magnetic poles. Patrick Geryl, a Belgian researcher, believes the next astronomical alignment “will trigger a reversal in the magnetic fields of the Sun, causing it to get 10 or 20 times hotter, which will reverse the Earth's rotation on its axis and flood its inhabitants.” (Rossi, Holly Lebowitz, 2006). J. Kremer, in his year 2000 article says, “Prophecies tell us that there will be a time when there will be a big jerk in the movement of the Earth... Earth will come to a halt for that time. There will also be major changes in the polarization of the Earth.” Robert Bast, writer of Survive 2012, explains there are two ways the poles could switch. The entire planet could flip over or even stranger, the Earth’s outer crust can move independently from the rest of the planet, continuously changing location. James Bowles of the Apollo moon program argues in his book The Gods, Gemini, and the Great Pyramid, the Earth’s outer crust is only 99.9% secure on the planet (Robert Bast, 2006). Each layer of the Earth can move on its own. As the solar system moves together, both the Sun and Moon are asserting strong gravitational pulls on the Earth and its inhabitants. In July of 1966, Scientists at Columbia University in New York confirmed the Earth’s inner core is moving slightly quicker than the rest of the planet, averaging a higher speed of .33 seconds a day. .33 seconds might not sound like a big deal, but this indicates the Earth’s outer crust could completely lap the rest of the planet in about four hundred years, causing serious climate changes. David Pratts (2000) suggests three possible causes of magnetic pole switches. The Earth’s pole could undergo a reversal if experiencing polar wander, crustal slippage, or an axial shift. An axial shift may occur if an asteroid or comet hits Earth hard enough that it causes the planet to tip over. A polar wander would occur if the location of the magnetic poles and Earth’s equator somehow change. Crustal
  • 7. End of Time 7 slippage in this case refers to the movement of tectonic plates that lie in the Earth’s asthenosphere. The movement of tectonic plates under a continent can trigger massive earthquakes, volcanoes, and disruption in the geographical lay out of the Earth. Theosophy is supported by the idea that the Earth’s axis changes four degrees through out every precession cycle. As small as it sounds, a four-degree change of the Earth’s axis would assert a noticeable change as one’s hometown changes latitudes. The sun would shine on places that are not yet to be shined on. Dry areas could shift completely into water. Whatever the cause of pole switches may be heavy predictions indicate the upcoming event. Robert Bast, author of Survive 2012 (2008) reports evidence that magnet pole switches have taken place before lies in Siberia, in what they call, woolly mammoth “graveyards.” Somehow, along the coast an amazing number of mammoth carcasses stand tall, still intact from thousands of years ago. Their bodies, in well enough condition, allow researchers to see the food still in their stomachs and mouths. Scientists describe the mammoths as if they had frozen in place. The ironic thing is the food discovered inside their bodies consisted of grass, beans, buttercups, and other food found typically in the summer. Gregg Braden restates this evidence is The Mysteries of 2012. David Pratt on his Pole Shifts homepage (2000) mentions, “The Eskimos of Greenland recalled a time when the earth tilted over and all people were drowned.” Scientists suggest that magnetic pole switches are the cause of much extinction, including the disappearance of dinosaurs and other larger species. Pole reversals could be the cause and the end of Ice ages and the reason for glaciers and massive flooding. The next expected pole reversal is due to occur on December 21, 2012, the same day the Sun crosses the galactic equator and is in perfect alignment with the Earth and the center of the Milky Way. As unbelievable as it may sound on December 21, 2012, the Sun is supposed to undergo a solar cycle, much like a wobble
  • 8. End of Time 8 or pole reversal, and perform a 180-degree rotation as it does about every 11 years. Coincidently, on that same day, Saturn and Jupiter are supposed to be on opposite sides of the Sun, raising solar activity to its maximum (Eden, 2006). Figure 3 represents the predicted locations of Jupiter and Saturn on Dec. 21, 2012 As all this alignment is going on, the Sun is creating the Maya tree of life, the pathway to the Underworld. On December 21, 2012, the Sun will cross the galactic equator right next to what the Mayans call Xibalba, the black whole or “dark rift.” Xibalba is considered the place for renewal. Kremer (2000) insists the Lords of Death, Sickness, and Suffering all reside there and act as teachers and purifiers. Karl Maret (2007) argues in The Mystery of 2012 that black hole is 2.5 million times as heavy as the Sun and its center is the gravitational still point for billions of stars. The hole consists of gravitational waves and cosmic, gamma, and X-rays radiating in every direction. The Mayans claim that it is at this passing time the Earth will go through a cycle of purification. There are many ideas of what purification could mean. For some, they see this time as an opportunity for the world to go from cataclysm to enlightenment, world war to world
  • 9. End of Time 9 peace, a time for massive Earth changes, physical destruction, spiritual awakening, and the old world dying to the new world is being born. Pacal Votan, a seventh century Mayan prophet spoke out, “if humanity wishes to save itself from biospheric destruction it must return to living in natural time” (SkyTime, 2005). Prepare to expect changes not only in weather patterns but also in how people perceive life. James J. Hurtak, president of the Academy for Future Science predicts a new era of true enlightenment where the exclusive material mind-set will have to pass away in order for human nature to implement new tools at quantum change (Philippine Daily Inquirer, 2009). Bast, Robert (2006). Galactic Alignment. Survive 2012. Retrieved March 1, 2009 from http://survive2012.com/why_2012_alignment.php Eden, Dan (2006). The Real Doomsday? December 21, 2012. Viewzone. Retrieved March 8, 2009 from http://www.viewzone.com/endtime.html Gaynor, Alim (2009, January 8). Preparing for 2012 A.D. Mississippi Link, p. 13. Retrieved March 11, 2009, from Ethnic News Watch (ENW) database. Jenkins, J. M., Argüelles, J., Calleman, C., Sitler, R., Ardagh, A., Edwards, G., Joseph, L., Lee, L. V., Janosh, Rose, S., Page, C., Petersen, J., Maret, K., McLaughlin, C., Braden, G., Weidner, J., Laszlo, E., O'Dea, J., Stray, G., Ardagh, A., Russell, P., Marx-Hubbard, B.
  • 10. End of Time 10 Dr. Blackburn-Losey, M., Macy, J., Houston, J., & Pinchbeck, D. (2009). The Mysteries of 2012, Predictions, Prophecies, and Possibilities. Colorado: Sounds True, Inc. Kremer, J. W. (2000). The Maya Shape of Time. ReVision 23.2, p.24. Retrieved March 11, 2009, from General OneFile via Gale Rossi, H. L. (September 25, 2006). Beliefwatch 12/21/12. Newsweek, p.10. Retrieved March 27, 2009, from General OneFile via Gale What the End of the Earth in 2012 Means (Jan 13, 2009). Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved March 11, 2009, from General OneFile via Gale