1960s A Period


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1960s A Period

  1. 1. The Sixties<br />Leonie Rademacher, Hannah Barry, Geremy Grant, Nick Evans, Julia Vollrath-Rödiger<br />
  2. 2. or…<br />
  3. 3. The 60’s<br />Leonie Rademacher, Hannah Barry, Geremy Grant, Nick Evans, Julia Volrath-Roediger<br />
  4. 4. Consumer Culture<br />
  5. 5. Ad Fads<br />1950’s 60’s<br />Scientific Flowery<br />Dry/ clear cut/ conformity be yourself<br />Product push above the system<br />Individuality<br /><ul><li>Hip/ unconformity
  6. 6. Detachment
  7. 7. Esp. TV
  8. 8. Ideal world</li></li></ul><li>TV<br />1950’s1960’s<br />Created popular media<br />95% (15% color)<br />Politics<br />JFK news conference 1961<br />Presidential debates<br />Daytime programs<br />1st lunar landing 1969<br />Talk shows<br />Black/white Color<br />Tensions CBS and RCA<br />Controversy<br />Censorship<br />Ministers oppose<br />
  9. 9. Credit Cards<br />1950’s<br />Not common<br />1960’s<br />Frank X. McNamara<br />Very popular<br />20,000 growing<br />Condensed <br />Controversial<br />“Devils’ playthings”<br />Delayed consequences<br />overspending<br />
  10. 10. Fashion<br />Skirts/Dresses<br />Form fitting<br />Suit stile coat w/button accents<br />Knee high<br />Small waist<br />Hair<br />Bob cut<br />Shoes<br />Rounder<br />Offset pencil skirts<br />
  11. 11. Men Fashion<br />Diverted<br />Suit and Tie Turtle necks<br />Sweaters, Blazers, Vests<br />Nylon, rayon, and blends Colored patterns<br />Nehru (Indian inspired)<br />Beatles,The Monkeys, Dr. Devil<br />Form fitting<br />Buttons<br />
  12. 12.
  13. 13. Advances In Technology<br />
  14. 14. Everyday Technology<br />Televisions<br />More widely used and bought by many through out America<br />87% of households have TV, up from 9% in 1950<br />Used for advertising different products from companies and broadcasting important events to the American public<br />Astroturf<br />Co-invented by James M. Faria and Robert T. Wright<br />Used as artificial turf<br />Originally sold under the name "Chemgrass"<br />Ansafone<br />Used as an Automatic Telephone Answering Machine<br />Invented by Kazuo Hashimoto<br />Automatic teller machine<br />First ATM invented by Don Wetzel from Texas<br />Chemical Bank Ad’s slogan: "On Sept. 2, our bank will open at 9:00 and never close again!" <br />Revolutionized the way Americans dealt money and turned global commerce into a 24/7 affair <br />
  15. 15. Electronics<br /><ul><li>Start of the Calculator Revolution
  16. 16. Complicated motor-assisted mechanical adding machines.
  17. 17. Used complex gear systems
  18. 18. It could perform Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division and one model could even calculated Square Root
  19. 19. The First Computer
  20. 20. Various computers and companies were invented and founded</li></ul>Hewlett-Packard, Sharp, IBM, Nokia, Sony, AMD, Intel, etc.<br />First Computer Mouse invented<br />
  21. 21. IBM and Seven Dwarfs<br /><ul><li>IBM
  22. 22. 1965 </li></ul>Held 65.3% of computer Industry<br />Burroughs, Sperry Rand (formerly Remington Rand), Control Data, Honeywell, GE, RCA, and NCR.<br /><ul><li>NOT partners</li></ul>$10 bill world wide inventory<br /><ul><li>Dwarfs produced 30%
  23. 23. GE “King of the Dwarfs”</li></ul>3.7% share in 1965<br /><ul><li>$24 bill inventory by 1969</li></li></ul><li>Medic!!<br /><ul><li>Heart Pacemaker
  24. 24. Developed by Medtronic
  25. 25. Used on patients who have irregular heartbeats
  26. 26. Developed isotope powered pacemakers
  27. 27. Soft contact lenses
  28. 28. More comfortable and tolerable
  29. 29. Made of hydrogel and allows oxygen to flow freely through eye
  30. 30. Many vaccines produced
  31. 31. Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Polio, etc. </li></li></ul><li>Science<br /><ul><li>The Laser
  32. 32. Invented by Theodore Maiman
  33. 33. uses a synthetic ruby to build first true laser
  34. 34. Mainly used in optical drives in computers and fiber-optic communication
  35. 35. TIROS-1
  36. 36. The first weather satellite to successfully be launched into space
  37. 37. First of a series of Television Infrared Observation Satellites </li></ul>Took pictures and video while it drifted in space<br /><ul><li>Was 19 inches (0.48 m) tall and 42 inches (1.1 m) in diameter.
  38. 38. Echo 1
  39. 39. Used to redirect transcontinental and intercontinental telephone, radio, and television signals between ground based receivers. </li></li></ul><li>Space Exploration<br /><ul><li>Mariner II
  40. 40. The first interplanetary probe to reach Venus
  41. 41. Became the first spacecraft to return useful scientific information successfully from another planet
  42. 42. Telstar
  43. 43. The first satellite to broadcast television signals
  44. 44. Space Race
  45. 45. Race between the soviets and the Americans to prove who’s technology was more advanced by getting a man onto the moon</li></li></ul><li>Other Technological Advances<br /><ul><li>Aluminum Cans used for the first time
  46. 46. Legos
  47. 47. Platform shoes come into fashion
  48. 48. The Pill
  49. 49. Enovid10- the first birth control pill
  50. 50. Went on sale for 50 cents a day.
  51. 51. Silicone Breast Implants </li></ul>Used for the first time in  Houston, Texas <br /><ul><li> The Slinky
  52. 52. “Instant Insanity”
  53. 53. Precursor to the Rubix Cube
  54. 54. 8-Track</li></li></ul><li>Entertainment<br />
  55. 55. Theatre and Film<br />Broadway<br />Expensive but popular<br />Musicals<br />Edward Albee: Who’s Afraid of Virginia Wolf<br />Movies<br />Musicals hit the big screen<br />My Fair Lady (1964)<br />Sound of Music (1965)<br />Disney for children<br />Science Fiction<br />2001: A Space Odyssey (1967) Stanley Kubrik<br />James Bond and The Graduate<br />MPAA rating changed<br />Sex in film: more explicit and not as taboo<br />Portrayal of women<br />Political Cinema<br />Dr. Strangelove<br />
  56. 56. Television/Radio<br />TV<br /> The Flintstones, Andy Griffith, Ed Sullivan Show, Star Trek, The Twilight Zone<br />Used for advertisement<br />News and current events<br />Radio <br />Main form of music access<br />AM to FM shift<br />
  57. 57. Sports<br />Two Olympic games held<br />Summer games (1960)<br />Muhammad Ali: boxing <br />Became a national icon<br />“The most recognizable face”<br />Wilma Rudolph: track and field<br />Racial tensions<br />NBA popular<br />Baseball<br />Jackie Robinson<br />First African American in the Major League (1962)<br />Golf became a favorite<br />Leisure “sport”<br />
  58. 58. Literature<br />Commented on social issues of the decade<br />Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird (1960)<br />Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan <br />Silent Spring Rachel Carson<br />Environmental movement<br />Pesticides/<br />“Silent Spring” (no song birds) <br />Where the Wild Things Are (1963)<br />Controversial<br />Off-beat story suggested drug use<br />
  59. 59. Music<br />Elvis<br />- Post-war career<br /> - Last performance 1961<br /> End of “Rock n’ Roll”<br />A new age: Rock<br /> British Invasion: February 9, 1964<br />
  60. 60. The British Invasion<br />The Beatles<br /> - Ed Sullivan Show 2/09/64 Beatles<br /> - Beatlemania<br /> - First #1 hit in America<br /> - Were considered comforting<br />The Buzz<br />Merseybeat Bands<br /> - The Rolling Stones<br /> - The Who<br /> - The Animals<br />1967-1969<br />Led Zeppelin<br />Cream<br />Immediate Influence<br /> - Electric music<br /> - Original material<br /> - Disobedient/reckless image<br />
  61. 61. American Music<br />Surf Music<br /> - The Beach Boys<br />Motown<br /> - The Temptations<br /> - The Supremes<br />Folk<br />Pete Seeger<br />Peter, Paul, and Mary<br />Simon and Garfunkel Sound of Silence (1966)<br />Bob Dylan<br />Protest Songs<br />Questions the government<br />Calls for change<br />British Influence continues to thrive<br />
  62. 62. A Culmination of the Times<br />Drugs, sex, and rock n’ roll<br />The hippie movement<br />American youth<br />Public disobedience<br />A soundtrack for the peace and anti-war movements<br />Forever linked drugs with rock/music<br />Woodstock<br />Summed up the 60’s <br />Huge names present<br />The Who<br />Jimi Hendrix<br />Beatlemania<br />More than a band<br />The legacy of Lennon/McCartney<br />Acknowledged as the greatest songwriting duo ever<br />
  63. 63. The Hippies<br />
  64. 64. Foundations<br />Result of a German youth movement, derWandervogel (migratory bird)<br />Countercultural reaction to the social and cultural clubs <br />Inspired by the works of for example Goethe or Hermann Hesse<br />Attracted thousand of young Germans, who began to live the back-to nature spiritual live<br />This movement expanded to other countries like the United Kingdom, Europe, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Japan, Mexico and Brazil<br />
  65. 65. Began in the United States during the mid 1960s<br />Sexual revolution, cannabis, LSD, Marijuana, amphetamines<br />Woodstock festival: major hippy event<br />Fashion & values major effect on culture, music, television, film, literature, and arts<br />The Youth Movement<br />
  66. 66. Trends<br />Long, full skirts<br />Accessories: Native American jewelry, head scarves, headbands, long beaded necklaces<br />Most of their cloths were self-made or they got it from flea markets & second-hand shops<br />Jeans<br />Long hair, even men<br />Sandals<br />Barefoot<br />Men often had beards<br />Often brightly colored clothing<br />bell-bottom pants<br />Vests<br />Tie-dyed<br />Dashikis<br />Peasant blouses<br />
  67. 67. The Hippie’s values<br />Peace love and community<br />Wanted to free themselves from societal restrictions, chose their own way.<br />
  68. 68. Civil Rights<br />
  69. 69. Jim Crow laws<br />Enacted between 1876 and 1965<br />System of laws and customs that enforced racial segregation and discrimination throughout the United states<br />Examples: segregation of public schools, public transportation, restrooms, restaurants and also the U.S. military for whites & blacks<br />Blacks almost isolated from whites<br />
  70. 70. Black Panther Party<br />To promote Black Power and self-defense<br />Active in the United states from the mid-1960s into the 1970s<br />One of the most significant social, political and cultural movements in the U.S.<br />
  71. 71. Rosa Louise McCauley Parks <br />*February 4, 1913 (in Tuskegee, Alabama)- †October 24, 2005 (in Detroit, Michigan)<br />African American civil rights activist<br />Completed a course in ”Race Relations” in Tennessee<br />most famous action – Rosa refuses to make space for a white person on the bus (Montgomery Bus Boycott)<br />
  72. 72. Montgomery Bus Boycott<br />Whites in the front rows & blacks in the back<br />Another black person would enter the bus, he was required to stand<br />Another white person would enter the bus, a person in the black row would have to get up and stand<br />
  73. 73. Martin Luther King<br />*January 15, 1929 (in Atlanta, Georgia)- † April 4, 1968(in Memphis, Tennessee)<br />Important person in the African-American civil rights movement<br />1964 King became youngest person to receive a Nobel Peace Price<br />After visiting Germany his father changed the name to Martin Luther King<br />Involved in the March on Washington<br />“I have a dream”<br />August 28, 1963<br />Washington D.C., in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the march of Washington<br />250.000 people present<br />Talks about the problems of segregation<br />April 4, 1968 King gets shot in front of his room (room 306, Lorraine Motel) in Memphis, Tennessee<br />Assassination led to a nationwide wave of riots<br />James Earl Ray confessed to the assassination<br />99-year prison term<br />
  74. 74. Women roles in the 1960s<br />
  75. 75. General Situation in the 1960s<br /><ul><li>In 1960s most of the minority groups fight for equal rights
  76. 76. Equal rights in
  77. 77. Housing
  78. 78. Employment
  79. 79. Money
  80. 80. Right to vote
  81. 81. Women
  82. 82. Majority
  83. 83. Gender discrimination
  84. 84. World change, but no change for women – want to act</li></li></ul><li>Life forwomen in the 1960s<br /><ul><li>Role
  85. 85. More important in public
  86. 86. Opinion, influence
  87. 87. Second-class citizens
  88. 88. Fashion
  89. 89. expression of strength and character
  90. 90. Sex discrimination
  91. 91. Career Women  rebellion and disruptive
  92. 92. No equality in payment, insurance, laws and treatment
  93. 93. President's Commission on the Status of Women
  94. 94. Try to equalize and avoid discrimination
  95. 95. Equal Pay Act of 1963
  96. 96. Civil Rights Act of 1964</li></li></ul><li>Education and Job opportunities<br /><ul><li>The women in the 1950s
  97. 97. Mothers, housewives
  98. 98. Volunteers (churches, schools, charities…etc.)
  99. 99. Rarely doctors, lawyers, politicians…etc.
  100. 100. New educational opportunities
  101. 101. Famous Universities
  102. 102. Women friendly
  103. 103. New Career opportunities
  104. 104. Economic growth – service sector
  105. 105. Politics – White house; Senate
  106. 106. Military – nurse; no combat
  107. 107. Science and Research – Nobel Prize; tests for NASA
  108. 108. Literature – poetry, short stories…etc.
  109. 109. Entertainment – Musical, Music</li></li></ul><li>Marriage and Family<br /><ul><li>Married women
  110. 110. Rich – choice
  111. 111. Managing home
  112. 112. Normal standard -
  113. 113. work and home balance
  114. 114. Significance in public life - change
  115. 115. 1950s more defined
  116. 116. Father helps out
  117. 117. Single motherhood
  118. 118. Rare but prevalent
  119. 119. Hard organization</li></li></ul><li>New advantages for women<br /><ul><li>Birth control
  120. 120. Approved 1960 by U.S. Food and Drug administration
  121. 121. Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
  122. 122. Old habits; Supreme Court Case
  123. 123. American Law Institute published a Model Penal Code 1962
  124. 124. Recommends legalization of abortion
  125. 125. Two Cases
  126. 126. First National Conference on Abortion Laws in Chicago</li></li></ul><li>Women's Liberation Movement<br /><ul><li>Organizations
  127. 127. National Organization for Women (NOW)
  128. 128. The Chicago Women's Liberation Group
  129. 129. Use of Liberation
  130. 130. Many members
  131. 131. Active in politics
  132. 132. Women Rights Movement
  133. 133. Protests – Media Attention
  134. 134. Newsletter – “Voice of…” – Chicago
  135. 135. Start of a way to be equal – </li></ul> or the Beginning of the Women Rights Movement<br />
  136. 136. The Twist<br />The Twist<br />Let's Twist Again<br />