Principles of Management   Introduction to Management-1 st  Part Lecture 1
Management <ul><li>Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals working toge...
Basic Purpose of Management EFFICIENTLY Using resources wisely and in a cost-effective way EFFECTIVELY Making the right de...
Efficiency and Effectiveness in Management Management Strives For: Low resource waste (high efficiency) High goal attainme...
<ul><li>Effectiveness? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means doing the right things; goal attainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ...
Who Are Managers? <ul><li>Manager </li></ul><ul><ul><li>someone who works with and through other people by coordinating th...
The New Manager/Leader Profile <ul><li>Managers who: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are no longer “the boss,” rather they act as sp...
Managing in the 21st Century <ul><li>What’s different? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The rate of change continues to increase </li...
What Is An Organization? <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some ...
Common Characteristics of Organizations
Management Activities Model of Management Planning Defining goals and  establishing action plans Controlling Monitoring ac...
Models of Management Resources <ul><li>Human </li></ul><ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><li>Raw Materials </li></ul><ul><li...
What Do Managers Do? <ul><li>Management Functions:  most useful conceptualization of the manager’s job </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Management Levels (typical) SOURCE: Adapted from Thomas V. Bonoma and Joseph C. Lawler, “Chutes and Ladders: Growing the G...
Management Levels And Features <ul><li>Management level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top-level managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>Management level (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle-level managers ( tactical  managers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Management level (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontline managers ( operational  managers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Distribution of Time per Activity by Organizational Level Source:  Adapted from T. A. Mahoney, T. H. Jerdee, and S. J. Car...
Why Study Management? <ul><li>Universal applicability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The basic functions that managers perform, the...
UNIVERSAL NEED FOR MANAGEMENT
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    1. 1. Principles of Management Introduction to Management-1 st Part Lecture 1
    2. 2. Management <ul><li>Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims. </li></ul><ul><li>The process of getting things done, effectively and efficiently , through and with other people </li></ul>
    3. 3. Basic Purpose of Management EFFICIENTLY Using resources wisely and in a cost-effective way EFFECTIVELY Making the right decisions and successfully implementing them And
    4. 4. Efficiency and Effectiveness in Management Management Strives For: Low resource waste (high efficiency) High goal attainment (high effectiveness) Low Waste High Attainment Resource Usage Efficiency (Means) Goal Attainment Effectiveness (Ends)
    5. 5. <ul><li>Effectiveness? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means doing the right things; goal attainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The degree to which goals are achieved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making the right decisions and successfully implementing them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doing the right things in the right way at the right times </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Efficiency? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means doing the thing correctly; refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs; seeks to minimize resource costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using minimal resources to produce the desired volume of output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using resources wisely and in a cost-effective way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating in such a way that resources are not wasted </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Who Are Managers? <ul><li>Manager </li></ul><ul><ul><li>someone who works with and through other people by coordinating their work activities in order to accomplish organizational goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changing nature of organizations and work has blurred the clear lines of distinction between managers and non-managerial employees </li></ul></ul>New Managers Profile
    7. 7. The New Manager/Leader Profile <ul><li>Managers who: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are no longer “the boss,” rather they act as sponsors, team leaders, or internal consultants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No longer control from the top of the pyramid; nor try to control the action from the sidelines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empower individual employees to do what is necessary to achieve goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure that employees have the resources to get the job done. </li></ul></ul>Managing 21 st cent.
    8. 8. Managing in the 21st Century <ul><li>What’s different? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The rate of change continues to increase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What’s the same? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The same basic business, economic, and managerial principles still apply </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important change factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet and information technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing globalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. What Is An Organization? <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>elements of definition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>each organization has a distinct purpose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>each organization is composed of people </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>all organizations develop some deliberate structure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>today’s organizations have adopted: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>flexible work arrangements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>open communications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>greater responsiveness to changes </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Common Characteristics of Organizations
    11. 11. Management Activities Model of Management Planning Defining goals and establishing action plans Controlling Monitoring activities to ensure that they are achieving results Leading Guiding and motivating all involved parties Organizing Determining what needs to be done, in what order, and by whom Effective Management
    12. 12. Models of Management Resources <ul><li>Human </li></ul><ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><li>Raw Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Technological </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul>Performance <ul><li>Attain goals </li></ul><ul><li>Products </li></ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness </li></ul>Planning Leading Controlling Organizing Use influence to motivate employees Select goals and ways to attain them Assign responsibility for task accomplishment Monitor activities and make corrections
    13. 13. What Do Managers Do? <ul><li>Management Functions: most useful conceptualization of the manager’s job </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning - defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving those goals, and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing - determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading - directing and motivating all involved parties and dealing with employee behavior issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling - monitoring activities to ensure that they are going as planned </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Management Levels (typical) SOURCE: Adapted from Thomas V. Bonoma and Joseph C. Lawler, “Chutes and Ladders: Growing the General Manager,” Sloan Management Review (Spring 1989), 27-37.
    15. 15. Management Levels And Features <ul><li>Management level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top-level managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>senior executives responsible for overall management of an organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>focus on long-term issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>emphasize the survival, growth, and effectiveness of the firm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>concerned with the interaction between the organization and its external environment </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Management level (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle-level managers ( tactical managers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>located between top-level and frontline managers in the organizational hierarchy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>responsible for translating strategic goals and plans into more specific objectives and activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>traditional role was that of an administrative controller who bridged the gap between higher and lower levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>evolving role is that of a developmental coach to the people who report to them </li></ul></ul></ul>Management Levels And Features
    17. 17. <ul><li>Management level (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontline managers ( operational managers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lower-level managers who supervise the operational activities of the organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>directly involved with nonmanagement employees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increasingly being called on to be innovative and entrepreneurial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working leaders with broad responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in leading small companies, managers have strategic, tactical, and operational responsibilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>have a knowledge of all business functions, are accountable for results, and focus on internal and external customers </li></ul></ul></ul>Management Levels And Features
    18. 18. Distribution of Time per Activity by Organizational Level Source: Adapted from T. A. Mahoney, T. H. Jerdee, and S. J. Carroll, “The Job(s) of Management.” Industrial Relations 4, no. 2 (1965), p. 103.
    19. 19. Why Study Management? <ul><li>Universal applicability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The basic functions that managers perform, the roles that managers play, and the skills that managers use are universal. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The basic functions—planning, organizing, leading, and controlling—are required in every organization. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. UNIVERSAL NEED FOR MANAGEMENT

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