Learning Objectives Identify how City of God’s representation of Rio differs from the Dominant ‘Identity’ created by Brazilian ruling class Complete short contextual analysis of Rio and the Flavela’sDiscuss the causes of the BrazilianDrug War and how they arerepresented in City of God
City of the Gods?Watch this short tourism advertfrom Brazil and answer thefollowing question: How does this representation of Rio contrast with the environment seen in City of God?Include example from theAdvertisement and from the film You must make direct comparisons between the two texts
Rio De Janeiro• City of God’s realistic depiction of Rio’s slums challenges the established ‘Dominant Ideology’ reinforced by the Brazilian ruling class• As we have already identified “National cinema is often at odds with the dominant cultural ideology of the country it depicts”• This tourism trailer paints a vibrant picture of Rio as it attempts to attract tourists and reinforce the ‘positive’ image of Rio• City of God offers an alternative depiction of Rio and challenges everything put forward by the ruling classes of Brazil
Favela• Favela is a Brazilian word meaning ‘Shanty Town’• The majority of Favelas have electricity but it is mostly tapped illegally from the public grid• Flavela’s are small, cramped and close together an made from a mix of materials ranging from brick to refuse (Garbage)• Flavela communities are plagued by sewage, crime and hygiene problems• Flavelas are found throughout Brazil in most mid-large sized cities• One in every four Cariocas (as Rio’s inhabitants are known) lives in a Favela
Drugs in the Favelas Rio (City) Murder Rate:• The Colombian cocaine trade has impacted 40 per 100,000 Brazil and in turn, it’s Flavelas• Favelas tend to be ruled by Drug Lords Rio (Favelas) Murder Rate:• Regular shoot outs between traffickers and ? per 100,000 Police or other criminals are common place, as well as an assortment of other illegal activities Paris Murder• 40 Murders per 100,000 is extremely high it is Rate: believed that the rate in the Favelas is much 2 per 100,000 higher What• Traffickers ensure safety to the citizens in their comparisons can we make areas through their actions and political between La connections Haine & City of God?
Drugs in the Favelas• They achieve this through building reciprocal relationships and respect, creating an environment in which critical segments of the local population feel safe, despite the ongoing high levels and violence and murders How did Lil Ze do this in City of God? How does this inform our understanding of characters like Lil Zee and his role in the City of God? given or felt by each toward the other; mutual: reciprocal respect
Brazils Drug Wars• Watch the following short and prepare to answer the following questions: Do the police really have the situation under control? Why do the drug gangs remain such a ‘formidable force?’ How does the government plan to ‘solve’ the problem? Why do you think Lou Lou was seen as a Robin Hood figure by the people? What are the potential problems with sending in the Army?
The Dividing Line• The best known Favelas are those in and around Rio De Janeiro• Rio’s peculiar urban geography has placed most of them up the hills that face the city’s seaside neighbourhoods and tourist spots• The geographical separation provides a dramatic illustration of the gap between wealthy and the poor• The Favelas are juxtaposed with the luxurious apartment buildings and mansions of Rio’s social elite• It is estimated that at least 19% of Rio’s population lives in Favelas
Flavela Wars• Watch the following short and prepare to answer the following questions: What are some of the programs being run to help the young people? Outline the differences between the Wealthy and the Poor How are the locals trying to help? “Kill or be Killed”... How is this mantra or rule demonstrated in City of God?
The ‘City of God’• The neighbourhood of Cidade de Deus is located to the west of Rio in the borough of Jacarepaguá• The neighborhood was founded in 1966• Between 1960 – 1975 Rio made up the City Today with a population state of Guanabara of almost 50 thousand• During this time the government began inhabitants, City of God systematically removing Favelas from the presents social indicators centre of Rio and resettled their inhabitants which are among the in the suburbs most critical in Rio de Janeiro
The ‘City of God’ Area (2003): 1.2058 km² Population (2000): 38,016 Residences (2000): 10,866
The ‘City of God’• Cidade de Deus (City of God), is technically not a Power real Favela, since it was originally a government- sponsored housing community designed to replace a Poverty Favela, which subsequently ran down and took on Conflict many of the very social features of Favelas it was intended to eradicate. Drug Traffikiing Violence What do you think these ‘Social Features’ are? Isolation Make a list of Social Issues that are commented upon in City of God and provide Lack of education at least one scene that demonstrates your point Hopelessness Fear
Favelas in Pop Culture• The City of God and Favelas have been used many times in modern pop culture• As a result, the Favelas are as symbolic of Rio De Janeiro as the famous beaches
Representin’ the City• Representation is constructed through textual elements and informed by the context of a film’s production• You will need to give detailed consideration to the ways in which cinematography, mise- en-scene, editing and sound are combined to create a specific representation of the City of God How important is the location in the film? Use the following stills from the film and make notes on how the lighting and mise-en- scene give us information about the different time periods the film is set across
Location, Location• During the 1960’s ‘Tender Trio’ era the city is bathed in golden light and wide shots present a poor but content neighbourhood• Individual, one levelled houses fill the environment and represents the positive intentions of the City• Characters are seen swimming in a river enjoying their environment• During the 1970’s the landscape is filled with high rise tower blocks, creating a very intense and claustrophobic setting• It also demonstrates the radical transformation and degeneration of the city – however the is still golden and most scenes are set in the bright day time
Location, Location• As we move in to the early 1970’s the lighting slowly transitions to a cold blue tint• In the early 1980’s many more scenes are filmed at night• Flavelas have taken over and the cramped streets feel far more oppressive and dangerous• This change in visual style underscores the war between Lil Zee and Carrot• The mise-en-scene shows a city in decay with building collapsed and dead bodies littering the streets• Graffiti and gang posters litter the walls – a subtle touch that adds depth to the unseen gang wars• The final phase of the film returns to bright day light – a symbolic foreshadowing of Lil Zee’s death
Location, Location In the film the Favela is almost like a separate character in the film. Discuss.Working in pairs discuss this comment andprepare an essay plan for how you would answer the question
Representation of the Flavela• The real world of the slum can be seen to exist in the use of the film’s location.• It can be read as a ‘street urchin a child who spends most of his time in the streets chronicle’ set in a city in the especially in slum areas developing world and featuring non- professional actors a homeless boy who has been• Audiences and critics may approach abandoned and roams the them as sociological documents streets giving them an insight in to the problems that the protagonists face Do you agree with this assessment? Provide examples from the film to support your points
Los Olvidados (The Young and the Damned / The Forgotten) Los OlvidadosA snippet from Spanish-Mexicanfilmmaker Luis Buñuel classic film: LosOlvidados - winner of Prix de la mise enscène (Best Director) at the 1950 CannesFilm Festival.In this clip some street kids led by El Jaiboharass a disabled man because he refusesto give them cigarettes.
Pixote - A Lei do Mais Fraco Pixote - A Lei do Mais Fraco Hector Babenco 1982 - BrazilPixote, a 10-year-old runaway boy, isarrested on the streets of Sao Paulo duringa police round-up homeless people.Pixote endures torture, degradation andcorruption at a local youth detentioncenter where two of the runaways aremurdered by policemen who frame Lilica,a 17-year-old transvesite hustler. Pixotehelps Lilica and three other boys escapewhere they make their living by the life ofcrime which only escalates to moreviolence and death
Centro do Brasil (Central Station) Centro do Brasil (Central Station)Walter Salles 1998 – BrazilDora, a dour old woman, works at a Rio deJaneiro central station, writing letters forcustomers and mailing them. She hatescustomers and calls them trash. Josue is a9-year-old boy who never met his father.His mother is sending letters to his fatherthrough Dora. When she dies in a caraccident, Dora takes Josue and takes a tripwith him to find his father.
Orfeu Negro Orfeu Negro Marcel Camus 1959In Rio, Orfeo is a trolley conductor andmusician, engaged to Mira. During Carnivalweek, he sees Eurydice, whos fled her villagein fear of a stalker; its love at first sight. Hercousin Sarafina, with whom she stays in Rio, isa friend of Orfeo and Mira, so the star-crossedlovers meet again. Later, during the revels,wearing Sarafinas costume, Eurydice dances aprovocative samba with Orfeo. Not only isMira enraged when her rival is unmasked, butshe is being stalked by Death: Eurydice is indanger, pursued through noisy crowds and amorgue.
Past and PresentHow do these past representations ofthe Favelas compare to the present?
Authenticity The location filming is anothercontributor to the film’s perceived authenticity. Discuss.
Modern ChangesAs with any medium the representation of thefavelas has continually been in a state of flux. Where do you see the future of this representation going?
Favela RisingThe 2005 documentary, Favela Rising,directed by Jeff Zimbalist, has wonseveral awards for its daring look atlife in Brazils slums. The film focuseson the work of Anderson Sá, aformer drug trafficker whoestablishes the music group AfroReggae. This group aims at usingmusic and education to better thelives of youth and prevent furthergrowth of gangs.
Homework Are the locations represented within City of God presented in a way that seems to conform to the dominant social attitudes, or do they seem to challenge dominant ideologies? Word Count: 750 words Deadline: Monday 31st Octobermatthew.firstname.lastname@example.org