Source Attributes and ReceiverProcessing ModesSource Attribute Process Credibility Credibility Internalization Internalization Attractiveness Attractiveness Identification Identification Power Power Compliance Compliance
Source Credibility Knowledge KnowledgeRelationshipRelationship Skill Skill to Product to Product Expertise Expertise Trustworthy Trustworthy Character Character Unbiased Unbiased Objective Objective
Experts Lend Authority to an Appeal
Endorsement by a “Celebrity Expert”
Dave Thomas - effective spokesperson for Wendy’s *Click outside of the video screen to advance to the next slide
Source Attractiveness Similarity Similarity Familiarity Familiarity Likeability Likeability Resemblance Resemblance Knowledge of the Knowledge of the Affection for the Affection for the between the between the source through source through source resulting source resulting source and source and repeated or repeated or from physical from physicalrecipient of therecipient of the prolonged prolonged appearance, appearance, message message exposure exposure behavior, or other behavior, or other personal traits personal traits Mere exposure effect Mere exposure effect
Risks of Using Celebrities The celebrity may overshadow The celebrity may overshadow the product being endorsed the product being endorsed The celebrity may be overexposed, The celebrity may be overexposed, reducing his or her credibility reducing his or her credibility The target audience may not be The target audience may not be receptive to celebrity endorsers receptive to celebrity endorsers The celebrity’s behavior may pose The celebrity’s behavior may pose a risk to the company a risk to the company
Brand Name, Celebrity, and Location AreAll Closely Linked in Meaning and Mood *Click outside of the video screen to advance to the next slide
Source Power Perceived control Perceived controlSource PowerSource Power Perceived concern Perceived concern Perceived scrutiny Perceived scrutiny
Recall and Presentation OrderRecall Beginning Middle End
Message Argumentation• One-sided Messages: only mention support arguments – Most ads are one-sided – advertisers want to avoid introducing any form of doubt or confusion. – Works better with low NFC, uneducated and low involvement audiences. – Example: “Vote George Bush – he’ll keep our country safe.”• Two-sided Messages: mention both support and counter- arguments – Better for audience members who • are pre-disposed to disagree with the advocated position • have more education • are higher NFC • are higher-involvement – Example: “Despite the ailing economy, George Bush is a good president.”
Buckley’s Uses a Two-sided Message ToAdvertise Its Cough Syrup
Message Argumentation• Refutational Appeals: A two-sided message which refutesthe opposing viewpoint. Allows for psychological inoculation against counter- arguments made by self or others. Often used in comparative advertising Useful when you expect receivers to counter-argue your message (usually in high NFC or high-involvement situations). Example: “Bush’s opponents say Americans are unhappy with the war against terror, but nothing could be further from the truth. Studies show Americans feel safer than ever under George Bush’s leadership. Vote for George Bush.”
Logical vs. Emotional Appeal Appeal mostly to the Appeal mostly to the Appeal mostly to the Appeal mostly to thelogical, rational minds logical, rational minds feelings and emotions feelings and emotions of consumers of consumers of consumers of consumers Appeal to both the logical, rational Appeal to both the logical, rational minds of consumers and to their minds of consumers and to their feelings and emotions feelings and emotions
Comparative Advertising• Definition: Mentioning/showing the competitor in your ad by way of comparison (and typically how we are better)• History: Early 80’s FTC lifts the ban on CA to enhance the provision of choice-making information to consumers.• Legal issues: Advantages must be substantiated• Used offensively (attack) or defensively (“fight back”)• CA appeals used less nowadays• The confusion aspect: Which brand was advertised???!, though consumers may remember attributes advertised.• Great for newly launched products with small (or zero) market share that offer a distinct edge over the competition.
Comparative Advertising, cont.• Political ads – Negative information tends to overshadow positive information – Typically more effective to besmirch the opponent than to praise one’s self. • Exception: Negative tit-for-tat exchanges (“mudslinging”) usually wind up helping neither candidate.• Too much attacking results in negative perceptions of the attacking brand. – Moral: Attack in moderation.
Miller Lite Uses Comparative Advertising toAttack Bud Light
Fear Appeals• Fear has facilitating effects and inhibiting effects. – Facilitation = motivation to approach/avoid something – Inhibition = discouragement from approaching/avoiding something• Moderate fear appeals work best by encouraging facilitation and minimizing inhibition. – Too much fear: the audience tunes out the message • Low credibility or elaboration of harmful consequences is hedonically unpleasant. – Too little fear: the audience isn’t motivated enough to do anything.
Fear Appeals and Message Acceptance
Threat Plus Solution Gently Persuades
Pros and Cons of Using Humor Pros ConsAidsAids attention and attention, awarenessAidsAids attention and attention, awareness Does not aid persuasion in Does not aid persuasion in and repeat attention awareness and repeat attention awareness general general May aid retention of the May aid retention of the May harm recall and May harm recall and message message comprehension comprehensionCreates a positive mood Creates a positive mood May harm complex copy May harm complex copyand enhances persuasionand enhances persuasion registration registrationMay aid name and simpleMay aid name and simple Does not aid source Does not aid source Humor is not universal Humor is not universal copy registration copy registration credibility credibilityMay serve as a distracter,May serve as a distracter, Is not “universal” humor is Good “universal” humor is Is not effective in bringing Good effective in bringingreducing counterarguing reducing counterarguing hard to produce! about sales hard to produce! about salesCompany seen as clever –Company seen as clever – May wear out faster than May wear out faster than carries over to products carries over to products non-humorous ads non-humorous ads
Where humor works Favorable UnfavorableCreative personnel ManagementRadio and television Less suited for direct mail and newspapersConsumer non- durables Corporate advertisingBusiness services Industrial productsProducts that are Goods and services humorous of a sensitive nature
Where humor works Audiences Audiences Favorable UnfavorableYounger OlderWell educated Less educatedMales FemalesProfessional Semi- or Unskilled
Self- versus Externally Paced Media Self-Paced Self-Paced Externally Paced Externally Paced Media Media Media Media • Newspapers • Newspapers • Radio • Radio • Magazines • Magazines • Television • Television vs. vs. • Direct Mail • Direct Mail • Internet • Internet
Contextual Appeals• Effects of media: “The media is the message”.• Contextually Congruent vs. Contextually Incongruent Advertising: Which works better? – Contextually Congruent: An ad for Apple’s new IPad appears in a computing magazine. – Contextually Incongruent: An ad for Apple’s new IPad appears in a sports magazine. or ?
Contextual Appeals, cont.• Show likeability correlates with ad likeability, recall and awareness. – Note that show likeability can result from show content that is either negative (sad, disturbing, frustrating, etc.) or positive (happy, uplifting, pleasant, etc).• Positive shows produce more positive reactions to advertising than negative shows.• Many advertisers (i.e. Coke) avoid advertising during shows that create negative moods (“feel-bad” programming).Question: Is it ever a good idea to advertise during ”feel-bad” programming?