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  • Chapter Six Source, Message and Channel Factors © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 166-178 and Figure 6-2 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows the various categories of source attributes and receiver processing modes associated with each one. The three basic source attributes and processing modes associated with each are as follows: Credibility – the extent to which the recipient sees the source as having relevant knowledge skill or experience and trusts the source to give unbiased, objective information. Internalization – the process by which a receiver adopts the position advocated by the source because it is perceived as accurate and makes it part of his or her belief system Attractiveness – refers to the similarity, familiarity, and/or likeability of the source Identification – the process by which an individual is motivated to seek some type of relationship with the source and thus adopts similar beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors. Power – refers to the ability (real or perceived) of the source to administer rewards or punishment to the receiver Compliance – the process by which the receiver accepts the position advocated by the source to receive rewards or avoid punishment. Use of this slide This slide can be used to introduce the major categories of source attributes and the mode through which each can lead to persuasion.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 166-170 of the text. Summary Overview There are two important dimensions to source credibility, expertise and trustworthiness . Marketers recognize that expertise is extremely important and choose spokespersons who have knowledge, skill, or experience with a particular product or in a service area. Endorsements from individuals or groups recognized as experts, such as doctors or dentists are common in advertising. While expertise is important, the target audience must find the source believable. Trustworthiness relates to the source’s objectivity, honesty, and believability. Use of this slide This slide can be used to show the basic dimensions of source credibility, expertise and trustworthiness. Research has shown that expert and/or trustworthy sources are more persuasive than sources that have less expertise or trustworthiness. As such, marketers try to select individuals whose credibility traits will maximize their influence.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on p. 167 and Exhibit 6-2 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows an ad for Dove soap promoting the fact that it recommended by dermatologists who are experts in skin care. This is an example of the use of source credibility where companies use endorsements from individuals or groups recognized as experts, such as doctors or dentists. Use of this slide This slide can be used to demonstrate how advertisers apply the concept of source expertise in their advertising messages. Dove is using an endorsement from a highly credible group, dermatologists, to encourage consumers to use the product.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 168-172 and Exhibit 6-1 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows an ad for Head tennis racquets featuring Andre Agassi as the spokesperson. Agassi is a very effective spokesperson for Head since he is one of the top tennis players in the world and is also very popular. Use of this slide This slide can be used to show an example of a source who has high credibility because of his knowledge, skill, and expertise regarding a product and also because of his celebrity status.
  • Relation to text This slide contains a Wendy’s commercial that relates to the material on p. 169 of the text. Summary Overview This commercial features Dave Thomas, the founder of Wendy’s fast-food restaurants, who appeared in more than 800 ads for the company between 1989 and early 2002 when he passed away. He is considered one of the most popular and effective corporate executive spokespeople ever to appear in commercials for a company. Thomas was a very unpretentious man whose folksiness made him very effective as an advertising spokesperson. He became a celebrity to the Wendy’s franchisees and workers as well as the general public. Use of this slide This commercial can be used to discuss the use of corporate leaders as advertising spokespeople. A number of companies use their founders, presidents, or CEOs as the spokesperson in their ads. While Dave Thomas was very effective for Wendy’s, the same cannot be said for many other corporate leaders who appear in ads for their companies.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 170-177 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows the various components of source attractiveness which include similarity, familiarity, and likeability. A summary of each characteristic follows: Similarity – resemblance between the source and the recipient of the message. Marketers recognize that people are more likely to be influenced by a message coming from someone with whom they feel a sense of similarity (e.g. similar needs, goals, interests, lifestyles). Familiarity – knowledge of the source through exposure. Familiarity is enhanced through repeated or prolonged exposure. Likeability – affection for the source as a result of physical appearance, behavior, or other personal traits. Consumers can admire physical appearance, talent, and/or personality even if the source is not well known or a celebrity. Use of this Slide This slide can be used to explain the three basic characteristics of source attractiveness. Marketers recognize that receivers of persuasive communications are more likely to attend to and identify with people they find likable or similar to themselves. Marketers often choose individuals who are admired such as TV and movie stars, athletes, and other popular individuals to deliver their messages.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 171-174 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows the risks associated with using a celebrity as an advertising spokesperson. Although celebrities can be effective in gaining attention and influencing consumers, there are some factors that must be considered before deciding to use them. These are: Overshadowing the product – advertisers should select a celebrity spokesperson who will attract attention and enhance the sales message, but not overshadow the brand. Overexposure – consumers can become skeptical when a celebrity endorses too many products or companies and becomes overexposed. Target audiences’ receptivity – it is important for marketers to select a celebrity endorser who matches and is well received by the advertiser’s target audience. Risk to the advertiser – the advertiser needs to select an endorser who will not embarrass the company. Researching the celebrity’s personal life and background to reduce this risk is becoming common. Use of this slide This slide can be used to demonstrate the risks to the advertiser when selecting a celebrity spokesperson. It is important for advertisers to consider these factors in their decisions as they spend huge sums of money for celebrities to appear in their ads and endorse their companies and brands.
  • Relation to text This slide contains a commercial for the Subaru Outback and relates to the material on pp. 175-177 of the text. Summary Overview This slide contains a commercial for the campaign that was used to launch the Subaru Outback sport utility vehicle. This campaign featured Australian actor Paul Hogan who is best known for his role as the star of the Crocodile Dundee movies in which he played a rugged character from the Australian outback. Hogan was an excellent spokesperson for the Outback, which Subaru positioned as the world’s first sport utility wagon and a vehicle that combines rough-terrain driving capability with the ride and comfort of a car. Hogan was chosen as the advertising spokesperson to create an image of the Outback as being tough, rugged and durable. Use of this slide This commercial is a good example of how the brand name, advertising spokesperson and even the location where a commercial is shot all combine to create a desired image. The Subaru Outback has been a very popular vehicle and the use of Hogan and the Australian outback themed advertising contributed to the effective positioning of this vehicle.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 172-79 regarding the use of celebrities in advertising. Summary Overview This slide summarizes the various ways celebrities can be used in advertising and other types of promotional messages. Endorsements are discussed at length in this chapter, but there are other ways celebrities can be used including through testimonials, placements, dramatizations, as company representatives, and as someone with whom consumers can simply identify. Use of this slide This slide can be used to discuss the various ways celebrities can be used in advertising and other forms of integrated marketing communications.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 177-178 and Exhibit 6-7 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows an ad for Dove’s Firming lotion, cream, and body wash featuring “real women.” Unilever’s Dove brand has long eschewed the use of supermodels in its ads and used everyday women and girls who resemble its typical consumers. Use of this slide This slide can be used to show an example of how some companies use marketing campaigns that take a non- traditional approach to beauty care advertising by telling women, as well as young girls, that they’re beautiful just the way they are rather than relying upon glamorous supermodels. You might ask students if they think this type of advertising is more effective than using slender supermodels to promote beauty car products.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on p. 178 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows that source power depends on several factors. The source must be perceived as being able to administer positive or negative sanctions to the receiver (perceived control) and the receiver must think the source cares about whether or not the receiver conforms (perceived concern). The receiver’s estimate of the source’s ability to observe conformity is also important (perceived scrutiny). Use of this slide This slide can be used to discuss the use of source power and its possible applications, such as in personal selling.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 179-180 and Figure 6-5 of the text. Summary Overview Message structure is very important to overall communication effectiveness. A basic consideration in the design of a persuasive message is the order of presentation of message arguments. Research on learning and memory generally indicate that items presented first and last are remembered better than those presented in the middle. This chart shows that the strongest arguments should be placed at the beginning or end of the message, but not in the middle. Use of this slide This slide can be used to explain message recall as a function of order of presentation. Presenting the strongest arguments at the beginning of the message assumes a primacy effect is operating whereby information presented first is most effective. Putting the strong points at the end assumes a recency effect , whereby the last arguments are most persuasive.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 184-185 and Figure 6-6 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows a chart depicting the relationship between fear levels and message acceptance. This chart suggests the relationship between the level of fear in a message and acceptance or persuasion is curvilinear. This means that message acceptance increases as the amount of fear used rises, but only to a point. Beyond that point, acceptance decreases as the level of fear rises. The relationship between fear and persuasion can be explained by the fact that fear appeals have both facilitatin g and inhibiting effects. Low levels of fear can have facilitating effects which attracts attention and interest in the message and may motivate the receiver to act to resolve the threat. Thus increasing the fear from low to moderate can result in increased persuasion. High levels of fear, however, can produce inhibiting effects whereby the receiver may emotionally block the message by tuning it out, perceiving it selectively or denying the arguments outright. Use of this slide This slide can be used to explain how fear operates and how the target audience might respond to the level of fear used in an appeal. Before deciding to use a fear appeal-based message strategy, the advertiser should consider how fear operates, what level to use, and how different target audiences may respond.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 180-181 and Exhibit 6-10 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows an ad for Buckley’s cough syrup that is a good example of a two-sided message whereby a marketer presents both positive and negative information about a product. As discussed in Chapter 6, W.K. Buckley Limited has become one of the leading brands of cough syrup in Canada by using a blunt two-sided slogan, “Buckley’s Mixture. It tastes awful and it works.” Ads for the brand poke fun at the cough syrup’s terrible taste but also suggest that the taste is a reason why the product is effective. Buckley’s has a long history of dwelling on the negative, with ads containing such promises as, “Relief is just a yuck away, and “Not new. Not improved.” The humorous, two-sided ads have helped make the Buckley’s the number 3 brand of cough syrup in Canada and the company is using the campaign to enter the U.S. market The Buckley’s ad for shows how the company uses a two-sided message strategy. The headline mentions the positive aspect of taking Buckley’s by noting that it is “Everything you want in a cough remedy.” It also notes the negative with the statement “And nothing you want in taste.” The copy of the ad explains how Buckley’s will help get rid of a nasty cough due to a cold but acknowledges the terrible taste of the product. The strategy being used by Buckley’s is to suggest that the awful taste is the reason its cough syrup is so effective. Use of this slide This slide can be used to show an example of a two-sided message structure whereby an advertiser shows a negative feature of a product as well as positive attributes.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 180-181 and pp. 185-86 of the text. Summary Overview This commercial shows how Buckley’s uses a humorous, two-sided message to advertise its cough syrup. As discussed in Chapter 6, W.K. Buckley Limited has become one of the leading brands of cough syrup in Canada by using a blunt two-sided slogan, “Buckley’s Mixture. It tastes awful and it works.” Ads for the brand poke fun at the cough syrup’s terrible taste but also suggest that the taste is a reason why the product is effective. Buckley’s has a long history of dwelling on the negative, with ads containing such promises as, “Relief is just a yuck away, and “Not new. Not improved.” The humorous, two-sided ads have helped make the Buckley’s the number 3 brand of cough syrup in Canada and the company is using the campaign to enter the U.S. market Use of this slide This slide can be used to show an example of a two-sided message structure whereby an advertiser discusses a negative feature of a product as well as positive attributes. It is also an example of a humorous appeal as the spot shows the funny looks people get on their faces when they take Buckley’s cough syrup.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 184-185 and Figure 6-6 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows a chart depicting the relationship between fear levels and message acceptance. This chart suggests the relationship between the level of fear in a message and acceptance or persuasion is curvilinear. This means that message acceptance increases as the amount of fear used rises, but only to a point. Beyond that point, acceptance decreases as the level of fear rises. The relationship between fear and persuasion can be explained by the fact that fear appeals have both facilitatin g and inhibiting effects. Low levels of fear can have facilitating effects which attracts attention and interest in the message and may motivate the receiver to act to resolve the threat. Thus increasing the fear from low to moderate can result in increased persuasion. High levels of fear, however, can produce inhibiting effects whereby the receiver may emotionally block the message by tuning it out, perceiving it selectively or denying the arguments outright. Use of this slide This slide can be used to explain how fear operates and how the target audience might respond to the level of fear used in an appeal. Before deciding to use a fear appeal-based message strategy, the advertiser should consider how fear operates, what level to use, and how different target audiences may respond.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 181-182 of the text. Summary Overview One of the advertiser’s most important creative strategy decisions involves the choice of an appropriate appeal. There are two broad categories of message appeals: Rational – focus on consumer’s practical, functional, or utilitarian needs Emotional – focus on consumer’s social and/or psychological needs or feelings Many believe that the most effective advertising combines the practical reasons for purchasing a product with emotional values. Use of this slide This slide can be used to introduce the broad categories of message appeals, emotional and rational appeals. Subsequent slides will discuss the message appeal options of comparative advertising, fear, and humor appeals.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 184-185 and Figure 6-6 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows a chart depicting the relationship between fear levels and message acceptance. This chart suggests the relationship between the level of fear in a message and acceptance or persuasion is curvilinear. This means that message acceptance increases as the amount of fear used rises, but only to a point. Beyond that point, acceptance decreases as the level of fear rises. The relationship between fear and persuasion can be explained by the fact that fear appeals have both facilitatin g and inhibiting effects. Low levels of fear can have facilitating effects which attracts attention and interest in the message and may motivate the receiver to act to resolve the threat. Thus increasing the fear from low to moderate can result in increased persuasion. High levels of fear, however, can produce inhibiting effects whereby the receiver may emotionally block the message by tuning it out, perceiving it selectively or denying the arguments outright. Use of this slide This slide can be used to explain how fear operates and how the target audience might respond to the level of fear used in an appeal. Before deciding to use a fear appeal-based message strategy, the advertiser should consider how fear operates, what level to use, and how different target audiences may respond.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 184-185 and Figure 6-6 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows a chart depicting the relationship between fear levels and message acceptance. This chart suggests the relationship between the level of fear in a message and acceptance or persuasion is curvilinear. This means that message acceptance increases as the amount of fear used rises, but only to a point. Beyond that point, acceptance decreases as the level of fear rises. The relationship between fear and persuasion can be explained by the fact that fear appeals have both facilitatin g and inhibiting effects. Low levels of fear can have facilitating effects which attracts attention and interest in the message and may motivate the receiver to act to resolve the threat. Thus increasing the fear from low to moderate can result in increased persuasion. High levels of fear, however, can produce inhibiting effects whereby the receiver may emotionally block the message by tuning it out, perceiving it selectively or denying the arguments outright. Use of this slide This slide can be used to explain how fear operates and how the target audience might respond to the level of fear used in an appeal. Before deciding to use a fear appeal-based message strategy, the advertiser should consider how fear operates, what level to use, and how different target audiences may respond.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to the material in IMC Perspective 6-1 on page 183 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows a print ad that the Miller Brewing Company ran as part of its “Good Call” advertising campaign. The comparative ad campaign hammered home the message that the Miller’s beers are better tasting than Anheuser-Busch brands such as Budweiser and Bud Light. This ad for Miller Lite questions why ads for Bud Light keep discussing freshness instead of taste. The copy suggests that it is because a national taste test found that Bud Light drinkers said that Miller Lite had more taste than their brand. It encourages Bud Light drinkers to take the challenge and try Miller Lite to see which beer tastes better. Use of this slide This ad is an example of how the Miller Brewing Company effectively used comparative advertising to take on Anheuser-Busch brands. As discussed in IMC Perspective 6-1, the comparative campaign has been very successful as Miller Lite sales increased by 10 percent and reached their highest level in a decade.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 184-185 and Figure 6-6 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows a chart depicting the relationship between fear levels and message acceptance. This chart suggests the relationship between the level of fear in a message and acceptance or persuasion is curvilinear. This means that message acceptance increases as the amount of fear used rises, but only to a point. Beyond that point, acceptance decreases as the level of fear rises. The relationship between fear and persuasion can be explained by the fact that fear appeals have both facilitatin g and inhibiting effects. Low levels of fear can have facilitating effects which attracts attention and interest in the message and may motivate the receiver to act to resolve the threat. Thus increasing the fear from low to moderate can result in increased persuasion. High levels of fear, however, can produce inhibiting effects whereby the receiver may emotionally block the message by tuning it out, perceiving it selectively or denying the arguments outright. Use of this slide This slide can be used to explain how fear operates and how the target audience might respond to the level of fear used in an appeal. Before deciding to use a fear appeal-based message strategy, the advertiser should consider how fear operates, what level to use, and how different target audiences may respond.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 184-185 and Figure 6-6 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows a chart depicting the relationship between fear levels and message acceptance. This chart suggests the relationship between the level of fear in a message and acceptance or persuasion is curvilinear. This means that message acceptance increases as the amount of fear used rises, but only to a point. Beyond that point, acceptance decreases as the level of fear rises. The relationship between fear and persuasion can be explained by the fact that fear appeals have both facilitatin g and inhibiting effects. Low levels of fear can have facilitating effects which attracts attention and interest in the message and may motivate the receiver to act to resolve the threat. Thus increasing the fear from low to moderate can result in increased persuasion. High levels of fear, however, can produce inhibiting effects whereby the receiver may emotionally block the message by tuning it out, perceiving it selectively or denying the arguments outright. Use of this slide This slide can be used to explain how fear operates and how the target audience might respond to the level of fear used in an appeal. Before deciding to use a fear appeal-based message strategy, the advertiser should consider how fear operates, what level to use, and how different target audiences may respond.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 184-185 and Exhibit 6-14 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows an ad for Havrix Hepatitis A Vaccine and is a good example of the use of a moderate fear appeal approach. The ad educates its reader by explaining the risks of contacting Hepatitis A while traveling outside the U.S. To reduce the anxiety created by this information a solution is offered which is a vaccination with Havrix. Use of this slide This slide can be used to show an example of a fear appeal. This ad uses a mild fear appeal, and reduces anxiety by offering a solution to the problem.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 185 –186 and Exhibit 6-15 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows a humorous print ad for Altoids gum and is a very good example of how humor can be executed in print media. This award-winning magazine ad was used to attract attention and generate curiosity about the new brand. Use of this slide This slide can be used to show the use of humor in print advertising and aid in a discussion of why advertisers use humor. Humorous appeals can be difficult to execute in print advertisements but the Leo Burnett agency has been able to do so very effectively with the ads it creates for Altoids.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 185-186 and Figure 6-7 of the text. Summary Overview This slide summarizes findings from a study conducted of top advertising agency research and creative directors regarding the pros and cons of using humor. Positive aspects of humor include the following: May aid attention and awareness May aid retention of the message May create a positive mood and enhance persuasion May aid name and simple copy point registration May serve as a distracter and reduce counterarguing Problems associated with humor include the following: May not aid persuasion in general May harm recall and comprehension May harm complex copy registration May not aid source credibility May not be effective in producing sales May wear out faster than non-humorous ads Use of this slide This slide can be used to discuss the pros and cons of using humor appeals. Although, humorous ads are some of the best known and most memorable of all advertising messages, not every product or every marketing situation lends itself to humor. Advertisers should consider these pros/cons in their decisions regarding the use of humor to attract attention and gain awareness for their products.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 185-187 and Figure 6-7 of the text. Summary Overview This slide summarizes findings from a study conducted of top advertising agency research and creative directors regarding the use of humor. The slide shows that humor is favored by creative directors; perceived as working best on radio and TV, for consumer nondurables, business services and product related to the humorous play. Research directors are less favorable regarding the use of humor and it is seen as less valuable for direct mail and newspapers, corporate advertising, industrial products, and products and services that are sensitive in nature. Use of this slide This slide can be used to discuss the pros and cons of using humor appeals. Although, humorous ads are some of the best known and most memorable of all advertising messages, not every product or every marketing situation lends itself to humor. Reasons for different perspectives regarding the value of humor might be discussed.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 185-187 and Figure 6-7 of the text. Summary Overview This slide summarizes the favorable and unfavorable target audiences for the use of humor appeals. Favorable audiences for using humor are younger, more educated, up-scale, and professional. Humor also works better with males than females. Unfavorable audiences are generally less educated, older, lower scaled, and semi or unskilled occupations. Use of this slide This slide can be used to discuss the findings of a study conducted of the top advertising agencies executives relative to the favorable and unfavorable target audiences for the use of humor appeals. The types of audiences best/least suited to humor appeals are listed on the slide.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 186-188 of the text. Summary Overview The final controllable variable of the communications process is the channel or medium used to deliver the message to the target audience. There are basic differences in the manner and rate at which information from various forms of media is transmitted and can be processed. The two broad classifications of media are: Self-paced – readers/viewers process the ad at their own rate. Self-paced media include print media such as newspapers, magazines, and direct mail as well as the Internet. Externally-paced – the transmission rate is controlled by the medium. Externally- paced media include radio and television. Use of this slide This slide can be used to explain the concept of self-paced versus externally-paced media. Some implications for advertisers are that self-paced media make it easier for the message recipient to process long, complex messages. Advertisers can use print media or the Internet to present a detailed message with a lot of information. Externally-paced media are more effective for shorter message and are good for getting attention and then directing consumers to specific print media or the Internet where more detailed information can be presented.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 184-185 and Figure 6-6 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows a chart depicting the relationship between fear levels and message acceptance. This chart suggests the relationship between the level of fear in a message and acceptance or persuasion is curvilinear. This means that message acceptance increases as the amount of fear used rises, but only to a point. Beyond that point, acceptance decreases as the level of fear rises. The relationship between fear and persuasion can be explained by the fact that fear appeals have both facilitatin g and inhibiting effects. Low levels of fear can have facilitating effects which attracts attention and interest in the message and may motivate the receiver to act to resolve the threat. Thus increasing the fear from low to moderate can result in increased persuasion. High levels of fear, however, can produce inhibiting effects whereby the receiver may emotionally block the message by tuning it out, perceiving it selectively or denying the arguments outright. Use of this slide This slide can be used to explain how fear operates and how the target audience might respond to the level of fear used in an appeal. Before deciding to use a fear appeal-based message strategy, the advertiser should consider how fear operates, what level to use, and how different target audiences may respond.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 185-187 and Figure 6-7 of the text. Summary Overview This slide summarizes the favorable and unfavorable target audiences for the use of humor appeals. Favorable audiences for using humor are younger, more educated, up-scale, and professional. Humor also works better with males than females. Unfavorable audiences are generally less educated, older, lower scaled, and semi or unskilled occupations. Use of this slide This slide can be used to discuss the findings of a study conducted of the top advertising agencies executives relative to the favorable and unfavorable target audiences for the use of humor appeals. The types of audiences best/least suited to humor appeals are listed on the slide.
  • Relation to text This material relates to the material on pp. 187-188 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows a cover of Travel & Leisure magazine and provides an example of how magazines can create a favorable reception environment for advertising. Travel-related magazines such as Travel & Leisure contain stories, pictures and other ads that help get readers excited about travel and thus create a very favorable climate for advertising. Use of this slide This slide can be used as part of a discussion of qualitative media effects and the reception environment that magazines create for advertisers. Media planners give considerable attention to the context or environment in which an ad will appear.

6 f 6 f Presentation Transcript

  • Source, Message andChannel Factors
  • Source Attributes and ReceiverProcessing ModesSource Attribute Process Credibility Credibility Internalization Internalization Attractiveness Attractiveness Identification Identification Power Power Compliance Compliance
  • Source Credibility Knowledge KnowledgeRelationshipRelationship Skill Skill to Product to Product Expertise Expertise Trustworthy Trustworthy Character Character Unbiased Unbiased Objective Objective
  • Experts Lend Authority to an Appeal
  • Endorsement by a “Celebrity Expert”
  • Dave Thomas - effective spokesperson for Wendy’s *Click outside of the video screen to advance to the next slide
  • Source Attractiveness Similarity Similarity Familiarity Familiarity Likeability Likeability Resemblance Resemblance Knowledge of the Knowledge of the Affection for the Affection for the between the between the source through source through source resulting source resulting source and source and repeated or repeated or from physical from physicalrecipient of therecipient of the prolonged prolonged appearance, appearance, message message exposure exposure behavior, or other behavior, or other personal traits personal traits Mere exposure effect Mere exposure effect
  • Risks of Using Celebrities The celebrity may overshadow The celebrity may overshadow the product being endorsed the product being endorsed The celebrity may be overexposed, The celebrity may be overexposed, reducing his or her credibility reducing his or her credibility The target audience may not be The target audience may not be receptive to celebrity endorsers receptive to celebrity endorsers The celebrity’s behavior may pose The celebrity’s behavior may pose a risk to the company a risk to the company
  • Brand Name, Celebrity, and Location AreAll Closely Linked in Meaning and Mood *Click outside of the video screen to advance to the next slide
  • Modes of Celebrity Presentation Endorsements Endorsements Identification Identification Testimonials Testimonials Celebrity CelebrityRepresentativesRepresentatives Placements Placements Dramatizations Dramatizations
  • Undermining the Traditional Approach
  • Source Power Perceived control Perceived controlSource PowerSource Power Perceived concern Perceived concern Perceived scrutiny Perceived scrutiny
  • Recall and Presentation OrderRecall Beginning Middle End
  • Message Argumentation• One-sided Messages: only mention support arguments – Most ads are one-sided – advertisers want to avoid introducing any form of doubt or confusion. – Works better with low NFC, uneducated and low involvement audiences. – Example: “Vote George Bush – he’ll keep our country safe.”• Two-sided Messages: mention both support and counter- arguments – Better for audience members who • are pre-disposed to disagree with the advocated position • have more education • are higher NFC • are higher-involvement – Example: “Despite the ailing economy, George Bush is a good president.”
  • Buckley’s Uses a Two-sided Message ToAdvertise Its Cough Syrup
  • Buckley’s Uses a Humorous Two-Sided TVcommercial *Click outside of the video screen to advance to the next slide © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  • Message Argumentation• Refutational Appeals: A two-sided message which refutesthe opposing viewpoint.  Allows for psychological inoculation against counter- arguments made by self or others.  Often used in comparative advertising  Useful when you expect receivers to counter-argue your message (usually in high NFC or high-involvement situations).  Example: “Bush’s opponents say Americans are unhappy with the war against terror, but nothing could be further from the truth. Studies show Americans feel safer than ever under George Bush’s leadership. Vote for George Bush.”
  • Logical vs. Emotional Appeal Appeal mostly to the Appeal mostly to the Appeal mostly to the Appeal mostly to thelogical, rational minds logical, rational minds feelings and emotions feelings and emotions of consumers of consumers of consumers of consumers Appeal to both the logical, rational Appeal to both the logical, rational minds of consumers and to their minds of consumers and to their feelings and emotions feelings and emotions
  • Comparative Advertising• Definition: Mentioning/showing the competitor in your ad by way of comparison (and typically how we are better)• History: Early 80’s FTC lifts the ban on CA to enhance the provision of choice-making information to consumers.• Legal issues: Advantages must be substantiated• Used offensively (attack) or defensively (“fight back”)• CA appeals used less nowadays• The confusion aspect: Which brand was advertised???!, though consumers may remember attributes advertised.• Great for newly launched products with small (or zero) market share that offer a distinct edge over the competition.
  • Comparative Advertising, cont.• Political ads – Negative information tends to overshadow positive information – Typically more effective to besmirch the opponent than to praise one’s self. • Exception: Negative tit-for-tat exchanges (“mudslinging”) usually wind up helping neither candidate.• Too much attacking results in negative perceptions of the attacking brand. – Moral: Attack in moderation.
  • Miller Lite Uses Comparative Advertising toAttack Bud Light
  • Fear Appeals• Fear has facilitating effects and inhibiting effects. – Facilitation = motivation to approach/avoid something – Inhibition = discouragement from approaching/avoiding something• Moderate fear appeals work best by encouraging facilitation and minimizing inhibition. – Too much fear: the audience tunes out the message • Low credibility or elaboration of harmful consequences is hedonically unpleasant. – Too little fear: the audience isn’t motivated enough to do anything.
  • Fear Appeals and Message Acceptance
  • Threat Plus Solution Gently Persuades
  • Humor Appeals
  • Pros and Cons of Using Humor Pros ConsAidsAids attention and attention, awarenessAidsAids attention and attention, awareness Does not aid persuasion in Does not aid persuasion in and repeat attention awareness and repeat attention awareness general general May aid retention of the May aid retention of the May harm recall and May harm recall and message message comprehension comprehensionCreates a positive mood Creates a positive mood May harm complex copy May harm complex copyand enhances persuasionand enhances persuasion registration registrationMay aid name and simpleMay aid name and simple Does not aid source Does not aid source Humor is not universal Humor is not universal copy registration copy registration credibility credibilityMay serve as a distracter,May serve as a distracter, Is not “universal” humor is Good “universal” humor is Is not effective in bringing Good effective in bringingreducing counterarguing reducing counterarguing hard to produce! about sales hard to produce! about salesCompany seen as clever –Company seen as clever – May wear out faster than May wear out faster than carries over to products carries over to products non-humorous ads non-humorous ads
  • Where humor works Favorable UnfavorableCreative personnel  ManagementRadio and television  Less suited for direct mail and newspapersConsumer non- durables  Corporate advertisingBusiness services  Industrial productsProducts that are  Goods and services humorous of a sensitive nature
  • Where humor works Audiences Audiences Favorable UnfavorableYounger  OlderWell educated  Less educatedMales  FemalesProfessional  Semi- or Unskilled
  • Self- versus Externally Paced Media Self-Paced Self-Paced Externally Paced Externally Paced Media Media Media Media • Newspapers • Newspapers • Radio • Radio • Magazines • Magazines • Television • Television vs. vs. • Direct Mail • Direct Mail • Internet • Internet
  • Contextual Appeals• Effects of media: “The media is the message”.• Contextually Congruent vs. Contextually Incongruent Advertising: Which works better? – Contextually Congruent: An ad for Apple’s new IPad appears in a computing magazine. – Contextually Incongruent: An ad for Apple’s new IPad appears in a sports magazine. or ?
  • Contextual Appeals, cont.• Show likeability correlates with ad likeability, recall and awareness. – Note that show likeability can result from show content that is either negative (sad, disturbing, frustrating, etc.) or positive (happy, uplifting, pleasant, etc).• Positive shows produce more positive reactions to advertising than negative shows.• Many advertisers (i.e. Coke) avoid advertising during shows that create negative moods (“feel-bad” programming).Question: Is it ever a good idea to advertise during ”feel-bad” programming?
  • The Image of a Magazine Can Enhance an Ad