Barriers to effective communication


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Rej Villenes
Report for MAEd -EdM
EdM 504
Human Behavior in Organization

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Barriers to effective communication

  1. 1. REJULIOS M. VILLENES M.A. Ed. – Educational Management PHILIPPINE NORMAL UNIVERSITY The National Center for Teacher Education Graduate Studies Quezon Campus Lopez, Quezon 15 September 2012
  2. 2. Guiding Light “Do not let any unwholesome talk come out of your mouths, but only what is helpful for building others up according to their needs, that it may benefit those who listen.” Ephesians 4:29
  3. 3. Summary Sentence Barriers to effective communication in an organization may exist in different forms from the individual itself up to the entire organization. To improve communication, the focus must be on changing people and/or changing the organizational structure.
  4. 4. Guide Questions 1. What are the barriers to effective communication that can exist in both organizational and interpersonal communications?
  5. 5. 2. How can we improve the communication process in an organization? a. How can managers become an effective communicator in general? b. What are some techniques that managers can utilize to become an effective communicator? c. How can we improve communications in diverse organizations?
  6. 6. Barriers to Effective Communication that Exist In Both Organizational and Interpersonal Communications
  7. 7. Frame Of Reference  Different individuals interpret the same communication differently depending on their experiences.  When the encoding and decoding processes are not alike, communication tends to break down. FRAME OF REFERENCE
  8. 8.  People in various organizational functions interpret the same situation differently.  This barrier is considered the most important factor that breaks down the “commonness” in communication. FRAME OF REFERENCE
  9. 9.  The important point is that communicators can encode and receivers can decode only in terms of their experiences.  The needs, values, attitudes, and expectations will differ, and this difference will result in unintentional distortion of communication. On Frame of Reference
  10. 10. Frame of Reference Examples 1. A business problem will be viewed differently by the marketing manager than by the production manager. 2. An efficiency problem in a hospital will be viewed differently by the nursing staff and by the
  11. 11. 3. There was a suggestion to an experience teacher to make use of technology and contemporary methods in the classroom setting. The teacher argued. According to her, she already spent more than the half of her life in teaching using the traditional methods and still it is effective.
  12. 12. Selective Listening  Listening takes places in four phases: perception, interpretation, evaluat ion, and action.  Form of selective perception in which we tend to block out new information, especially if it conflicts what we believe. Selective Listening
  13. 13. Four Phases of Listening Perception – meaning attached to the speaker‟s message is colored by the listener‟s cultural, educational, and social frame of references Interpretation – the meaning may be interpreted differently since it is affected by the person‟s frame of reference Selective Listening
  14. 14. Evaluation – method of evaluating the meaning is affected by the listener‟s attitude, preferences, and experience Action – type of action taken involves memory and recall Selective Listening
  15. 15. Selective Listening Examples 1. Some pro-RH bill will not listen anymore to the anti-RH bill‟s critiques since they consider them as a hindrance to their goal. 2. A notice is sent to all the operating departments that costs must be reduced. Operating employees may ignore the notice since it
  16. 16. Worthwhile Listening Pointers from Oprah Winfrey 1. Blocks out distraction and focuses on the speaker 2. Listens with great eye contact 3. Listens emphatically without interrupting 4. Paraphrase the guest‟s comments and ideas
  17. 17. Value Judgement  A receiver-made value that is based on the receiver‟s evaluation of the communicator or previous experiences with the communicator, or on the message‟s anticipated meaning. Value Judgement
  18. 18. Value Judgement Examples 1. A school administrator ignores one of the grievance concerns of his teacher because “he‟s always complaining about something.” 2. Some militant groups don‟t believe the statements of former Pres. Arroyo. According to them, it‟s just “her old dirty tactics.”
  19. 19. Source Credibility  Defines the trust, confidence, and faith that the receiver has in words and actions of the communicator  Level of credibility assigned to the speaker directly affects how the receiver views and reacts to words, ideas, and actions by the speaker. Source Credibility
  20. 20. Source Credibility Examples 1. Some students don‟t listen anymore to their course instructor whenever she‟s speaking. According to the students, she‟s giving irrelevant information and uses 90% of class hours on giving nonsense talk. 2. Union leaders view the management as exploiters while
  21. 21. Filtering  Refers to the manipulation of information so that the receiver perceives it as positive  Reason for filtering should be clear since it carries and controls information to the management Filtering
  22. 22. Filtering Example A supervisor reports to the management about the little deviation on expenditures. But he pointed out that they maximize the financial resources in order to achieve an excellent output.
  23. 23. In-group Language  Different groups develop words or phrases that have meaning only to members  These words provide members with feeling of belongingness, cohesiveness, and even self- esteem In-group Language
  24. 24.  When outsiders intervene or get involved in the communication, communication usually breaks down In-group
  25. 25.  One form of an in-group language is jargon  Using in-group language makes a mysterious and doubtful atmosphere as heard by the outsiders On In-group Language
  26. 26. In-group Language Example A group of undergraduate researchers requested some high school students to “complete the instrument as part of an experimental treatment”. The high school students are puzzled on what kind of instrument are they going to complete. Later, they
  27. 27. Status Differences  Status differences widen the gap of communication between the superiors and sub-ordinates. Some of the reasons include time constraints, nature of work, fear, etc. Status Differences
  28. 28. Status Differences Example 1. A nurse may prefer to remain quite instead of expressing opinion or asking a question to the nursing supervisor. 2. Meeting a bank vice president will be possible only if advance appointment is done or by passing the careful quizzing of a
  29. 29. Time Pressure  Limited time for communication  Short-circuiting is a failure of the formally described communication system that often results from time pressures.  Short-circuiting means that someone has been left out of the formal channel of communication who normally would be included. Time Pressure
  30. 30. Time Pressure Example 1. Managers have no enough time for having chat with their subordinates. 2. A teacher needs an advice on a specific instructional practices. She consults the principal in another school since her immediate head is out.
  31. 31. Communication  This refers to giving too much information directed to individuals wherein individuals cannot absorb or respond immediately on it. Communication Overload Overload
  32. 32. Communication Overload Example Giving too much memo on different matters will make a communication overload. Pressures on different tasks and imprecise & unclear notions from the group will arise.
  33. 33. Barriers within Individual Barriers within the Organization Frame of reference In-group language Value judgement Filtering To improve communication, the focus must be on changing people and/or changing the organizational structure.
  34. 34. Managers As An 1. Improving messages or the information they want to transmit 2. Improving understanding of what other people are trying to communicate with them How can managers become an effective communicator in general? Effective Communicator
  35. 35.  Managers must become better encoders and decoders. They must strive not only be to understood but also to understand. How can managers become an effective communicator in general?
  36. 36. 1. Following Up This involves assuming that you are misunderstood and, whenever possible, attempting to determine whether your intended meaning actually was received. What are some techniques that managers can utilize to become an effective communicator? Becoming An Some Techniques On Effective Communicator
  37. 37. 2. Regulating Information Flow  Regulating communication can ensure an optimal flow of information to managers, thereby eliminating the barrier of „communication overload‟.  Based on Exception Principle of Management – only significant deviations from policies and procedures should be brought to the attention of the superiors. What are some techniques that managers can utilize to become an effective communicator?
  38. 38. 3. Utilizing Feedback  Feedback provides a channel for receiver response that enables the communicator to determine whether the message has been received and has produced the intended response.  Direct feedback is possible in face-to- face communication. In downward communication, inaccuracies occur because of insufficient opportunity for feedback from the receivers. What are some techniques that managers can utilize to become an effective communicator?
  39. 39. 4. Empathy  This involves being a receiver-oriented rather than communicator oriented.  Empathy requires communicators to place themselves in the shoes of the receiver in order to anticipate how the message is likely to be decoded.  This is the ability to put oneself in the other person‟s role and to assume individual viewpoints and emotions. What are some techniques that managers can utilize to become an effective communicator?
  40. 40. 5. Repetition  This is to ensure that messages and information are communicated.  Repetition or redundancy sees that if one part of the message is misunderstood, other parts will carry the same message. What are some techniques that managers can utilize to become an effective communicator?
  41. 41. 6. Encouraging Mutual Trust  Managers who develop a climate of trust will find that following up on each communication is less critical and that no loss in understanding will result among subordinates from a failure to follow up in each communication.  An atmosphere with mutual trust will foster a high „source credibility‟ among subordinates. What are some techniques that managers can utilize to become an effective communicator?
  42. 42. 7. Effective Timing  Messages are more likely to be understood when they are not competing with other messages.  Information and messages must be „heard‟ or communicated.  Poor timing results in distortions and value judgement. What are some techniques that managers can utilize to become an effective communicator?
  43. 43. 8. Simplifying Language  Complex language has been identified as a major barriers to effective communication.  Managers must ensure that communication is effectively transmitted and it involves understanding the message.  Messages must be encoded in words, appeals and symbols that are meaningful to the receiver. What are some techniques that managers can utilize to become an effective communicator?
  44. 44. 9. Using the Grapevine  Though an informal form of communication, grapevine is an important information communication channel that uses bypassing mechanism, and sometimes is faster to communicate than the formal one. What are some techniques that managers can utilize to become an effective communicator?
  45. 45. 10. Promoting Ethical Communication  Kreps‟ three broad principles: Organizational members should not intentionally deceive one another Communication should not purposely harm any other members Organization members should be treated justly. What are some techniques that managers can utilize to become an effective communicator?
  46. 46. 1. Encourage employees to organize cultural communication networks. These networks help new employees adjust, arrange cultural events, and provide feedback from management. How can we improve communications in diverse organizations? Improving Communications In Diverse Organization
  47. 47. 2. Consider establishing a managerial position, the responsibility of which includes developing and overseeing multicultural and affirmative action programs. 3. Institute a mentor program whereby new minority employees are introduced to the company culture. How can we improve communications in diverse organizations?
  48. 48. 4. Celebrate cultural events. 5. Conduct diversity-management workshops which allow managers to explore the meaning of being a minority in a majority society. How can we improve communications in diverse organizations?
  49. 49. Improving Communications in an Organization: Narrowing the Gap  Following up  Principle of sufficiency  Empathy  Repetition MESSAGE Decoding RECEIVER Encoding COMMUNI- CATOR  Encouraging mutual trust  Effective timing  Simplifying language  Utilizing feedback  Effective listening  Using the grapevine Field of Experiences Field of Experiences
  50. 50. Interaction Tungkol sa hog feeds na 30 seconder dapat ang commercial. Ginawan ng ganitong story board: Nanganak yung inahing baboy ng walong maliliit at payat na biik. Tapos, nang bigyan ng feeds, ilang buwan lang, mataba na. Tuwang tuwa ang inahing baboy lalo na nung makitang halos sumabog yung timbangan at nagkaabutan ng pera yung bibili at may ari. Analyze and identify what barrier to effective communication is present in the situation.
  51. 51. Interaction Matapos mag-present ang mga kasamahan ko, palakpakan ang lahat. Ako lang yata ang hindi. Tanong agad ni bossing kung bakit. Sabi ko, sino ba namang ina ang matutuwang makita na kaya pala pinatataba ang anak niya kasi ibebenta? Tapos sa harap niya ginawa ang bayaran habang tinitimbang ang mga biik, nakangiti pa ang inahin? Awkward silence. Pero maraming nakasimangot. Lalo na yung proponent at project head.
  52. 52. Interaction “Since, si Mr. Villalobos ang nakakita ng flaws, siya na lang ang pagawain niyo ng story board, give my account to him!” sigaw ng project head. Walk out ang dalawa. “Kaw kasi, e” sisi ni bossing. “Tinanong nyo ako, e…” “Ba‟t kasi…?” “Eh…” Ending? Walang kumausap o pumansin sa akin sa opis sa buong maghapon.
  53. 53. Interaction Ako rin ang gagawa. Pero konsyensya ko naman kung kontrapelo na ako sa trabaho, kontrapelo pa ako sa sweldo. Ako na ang magtatrabaho, kanila na ang bayad. Ngayon ko lang napag-isip-isip, kung si Rizal ay pinahamak ng kanyang panulat, ako malamang ay ang tamang pagsagot sa tamang tanong sa maling pagkakataon at sa harap ng mga taong pikon. From Eros Atalia’s “It’s Not That Complicated: Bakit Hindi Pa Sasakupin ng mga Alien ang Daigdig sa 2012”
  54. 54. Application How will you handle communication barriers in your school? What are the techniques you‟re going to utilize to address or to avoid such problems?