Source message and channel factors


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Chapter 6

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Source message and channel factors

  1. 1. Source, Message and Channel Factors
  2. 2. Persuasion Matrix• Independent variables: Controllable components of communication process• Dependent Variables: Steps a receiver goes through in being persuaded• This helps a marketer see how each controllable element interacts with the consumer’s responsive process
  4. 4. Source FactorsSource: The person involved in communicating a marketingmessageDirect Source: A spokesperson who delivers a messageand/or demonstrates a product or serviceIndirect Source: Doesn’t actually deliver a message but drawsattention to and/or enhances the appearance of the adThree basic categories of source attributes: credibility,attractiveness and power
  5. 5. Source CredibilityCredibility is the extent to which the recipient sees the source as havingrelevant knowledge, skill, or experience and trusts the source to giveunbiased, objective informationExpertise and trustworthiness are two important dimensions to credibilityInformation from a credible source influences beliefs, opinions, attitudes,and/or behaviour through a process known as internalization, which occurswhen the receiver adopts the opinion of the credible communicator since heor she believes information from this source is accurate
  6. 6. Source AttractivenessAttractiveness encompasses similarity, familiarity, andlikabilitySource attractiveness leads to persuasion through a processof identification, whereby the receiver is motivated to seeksome type of relationship with the source and thus adoptssimilar beliefs, attitudes, preferences, or behaviour
  7. 7. Source PowerA source has power when he or she can actually administer rewards andpunishments to the receiverThe source must be perceived as being able to administer positive ornegative sanctions to the receiver (perceived control)The receiver must think the source cares about whether or not thereceiver conforms (perceived concern)The receiver’s estimate of the source’s ability to observe conformity isalso important (perceived scrutiny)When a receiver perceives a source as having power, the influenceprocess occurs through a process known as compliance
  8. 8. MESSAGE STRUCTUREAn important aspect of message strategy is knowing the best way tocommunicate these points and overcome any opposing viewpointsaudience members may hold
  9. 9. Order Of Presentation• Presenting the strongest arguments at the beginning of the message assumes a primacy effect is operating, whereby information presented first is most effective.• Putting the strong points at the end assumes a recency effect, whereby the last arguments presented are most persuasive Ad message recall as a function of order of presentation
  10. 10. Conclusion Drawing:• Messages with explicit conclusions are more easily understood and effective in influencing attitudes• The effectiveness of conclusion drawing may depend on the target audience, the type of issue or topic, and the nature of the situationMessage Sidedness:• A one-sided message mentions only positive attributes or benefits• One-sided messages are most effective when the target audience already holds a favourable opinion about the topic• A two-sided message presents both good and bad points• Two-sided messages are more effective when the target audience holds an opposing opinion or is highly educatedRefutation:• The communicator presents both sides of an issue and then refutes the opposing viewpoint• They are more effective than one-sided messages in making consumers resistant to an opposing messageVerbal vs. visual messages:• The use of a visual that is inconsistent with the verbal content leads to more recall and greater processing of the information presented
  11. 11. • The practice of either directly or indirectly naming competitors in an ad and comparing one or more specificComparative Advertising attributes • Ads sometimes use fear appeals to evoke this emotional response and arouse individuals to take steps to remove theFear Appeals threat • Humorous ads are often the best known and best Humor remembered of all advertising messages Appeals
  12. 12. CHANNEL FACTORSWhile a variety of methods are available to transmit marketingcommunications, they can be classified into two broad categories, personaland non-personal media. Information received from personal influencechannels is generally more persuasive than information received via the massmedia.
  13. 13. Effects of Alternative Mass Media:• The various mass media that advertisers use to transmit their messages differ in many ways, including the number and type of people they reach, costs, information processing requirements, and qualitative factors• Information from ads in print media, such as newspapers, magazines, or direct mail, is self-paced; readers process the ad at their own rate and can study it as long as they desire.• In contrast, information from the broadcast media of radio and television is externally paced; the transmission rate is controlled by the mediumEffects of context and environment:• A qualitative media effect is the influence the medium has on a message media• Buyers are advised to follow the conventional wisdom of placing their ads during “feel- good” programming, especially if the message is intended to work through a central route to persuasion.• Messages intended to operate through a peripheral route to persuasion might be more effective if they are shown during more negative programs, where presumably viewers will not analyse the ad in detail because of their negative mood stateClutter:• Clutter is the amount of advertising in medium• Clutter is of increasing concern to advertisers since there are so many messages in various media competing for the consumer’s attention• Clutter has become a major concern among television advertisers as a result of increases in non-program time and the trend toward shorter commercials