IVF - what everyone needs to know about IVF


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This is a presentation I gave at Hyderabad on New Biology and Society, at the National Conference for Science Communicators

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
  • http://ivfscams.wordpress.com shows proof that Dr. Samit Sekhar of Kiran IVF Clinic in Hyderabad is fraud, and scam. He suspended from medical council for cheating. He not even qualified medical doctor and he is medical degree is fake. Beware of Kiran IVF Clinic in hyderabad and take care you are not cheated by this Dr Samit Sekhar who is a fraud and criminal so is many of doctor in Kiran IVF Clinic Sai Kiran Hospital Hyderabad is scam and fake. BEWARE YOUR OWN RISK and lost of money in foreign country full of scamster
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  • Thank you a lot for a so beautiful presentation! could you be so kind to let me download it. I think it will be very interesting for my pupils.
    My mail: yesenia_kos@yahoo.com
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IVF - what everyone needs to know about IVF

  2. Dr Aniruddha Malpani, MD www.DrMalpani.com
  3. Egg plus sperm = baby !
  6. Traditional approach <ul><li>Important and urgent for the patient </li></ul><ul><li>However, most doctors take a “wait and watch “ approach </li></ul><ul><li>Often , patients get fed up and frustrated and drop out of treatment </li></ul><ul><li>This is a shame ! </li></ul>
  8. Need to change ! <ul><li>Patients are getting married at an older age </li></ul><ul><li>Time is running out as the biological clock ticks on </li></ul><ul><li>We now have effective technology to help them ! </li></ul>
  10. IVF cycle <ul><li>4 basic steps </li></ul><ul><li>1. Superovulation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Egg collection </li></ul><ul><li>3. In vitro fertilisation </li></ul><ul><li>4. Embryo transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Only 6 visits to the clinic </li></ul><ul><li>Day care basis – no hospitalisation needed </li></ul>
  11. IVF cycle 1. Superovulation <ul><li>1. With HMG ( gonadotropins) </li></ul><ul><li>Natural hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Newer recombinant preparations much more expensive, but no better </li></ul><ul><li>2. Downregulation with Buserelin ( GnRH) </li></ul><ul><li>3. GnRH antagonists to prevent LH surge </li></ul><ul><li>4. Low cost – clomiphene plus HMG </li></ul>
  12. IVF cycle Superovulation <ul><li>Monitor follicular growth ( ovarian response) </li></ul><ul><li>Vaginal ultrasound scans </li></ul><ul><li>– Day 3, 10, 12, 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely need to measure blood estradiol </li></ul><ul><li>levels ! </li></ul>
  14. IVF cycle <ul><li>2. Egg collection </li></ul><ul><li>Vaginal ultrasound guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Non-surgical </li></ul>
  19. IVF cycle <ul><li>3. Insemination </li></ul><ul><li>Sperm added to egg in the incubator </li></ul><ul><li>Kept in vitro in conditions which mimic in vivo conditions </li></ul><ul><li>The incubator is the heart of the IVF lab </li></ul>
  20. IVF cycle <ul><li>4. Embryo transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Non-surgical </li></ul><ul><li>Number of embryos ? </li></ul><ul><li>When to transfer ? Day 2 or 3 or 5 </li></ul>
  23. IVF cycle <ul><li>No need for bed rest – you cannot cough the embryo out ! </li></ul><ul><li>Still a matter of luck ! </li></ul><ul><li>Not the patient’s “fault” if she doesn’t conceive </li></ul><ul><li>She cannot “reject” the embryo ! </li></ul>
  25. Risks of IVF <ul><li>No pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Ectopic pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>OHSS – ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Managed conservatively </li></ul>
  26. Limitations of IVF <ul><li>Few medical risks </li></ul><ul><li>Major risks are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul></ul>
  27. Advanced fertilisation techniques <ul><li>Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection(ICSI) </li></ul><ul><li>Assisted Hatching </li></ul><ul><li>Blastocyst transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) </li></ul>
  28. ICSI <ul><li>Microinjection ( Intracytoplasmic sperm injection) </li></ul><ul><li>One egg + one sperm = one embryo ! </li></ul><ul><li>Can use testicular sperm even from men with testicular failure ( with high FSH levels and small testes) </li></ul>
  30. Blastocyst transfer <ul><li>Culture in vitro to Day 5 allows improved selection of viable embryos </li></ul>
  31. <ul><li>Advantage of blastocyst transfer is that the number of embryos transferred can be reduced without risking a decline in pregnancy rates . This helps to reduce the risk of multiple pregnancy . </li></ul>
  32. Freezing - cryopreservation
  33. Vitrification <ul><li>Can store and preserve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eggs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovarian tissue </li></ul></ul>
  34. The promise of ART <ul><li>We can help any couple to have a baby, no matter what their medical problem ! </li></ul><ul><li>Third party reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryo adoption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Donor eggs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrogate uterus </li></ul></ul>
  35. PGD – the newest ART <ul><li>PGD marries genetic technology and IVF technology </li></ul><ul><li>The newest patient is the embryo ! </li></ul>
  36. Procedure for preimplantation genetic diagnosis <ul><li>1. IVF cycle </li></ul><ul><li>2. 8-cell embryo at Day 3 </li></ul><ul><li>3. Biopsy embryo ( micromanipulator) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Fix blastomere </li></ul><ul><li>5. Study genetic composition of blastomere using genetic probes ( FISH) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Transfer selected embryos into uterus </li></ul>
  42. Signal interpretation <ul><li>Evaluate slides with a fluorescence microscope. </li></ul><ul><li>Locate nucleus using DAPI filter </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret signals </li></ul><ul><li>Probe will bind to specific chromosome only </li></ul><ul><li>Pink = Y ( Spectrum Orange) </li></ul><ul><li>Green = X ( Spectrum Green) </li></ul>
  44. Normal blastomere
  45. Trisomy 21
  47. Comparative Genomic Hybridisation
  48. PCR
  49. Indications for preimplantation genetic diagnosis <ul><li>1. Sex linked genetic disorders Hemophilia Duchenne muscular dystrophy </li></ul><ul><li>2. Chromosomal disorders Down’s syndrome ( Trisomy 21) </li></ul>
  50. Indications for preimplantation genetic diagnosis <ul><li>3. Single gene diseases ( using PCR) Thalassemia </li></ul><ul><li>4. Older women doing IVF Screen embryos for aneuploidy </li></ul><ul><li>5. Recurrent pregnancy loss because of chromosomal anomalies </li></ul>
  51. Cloning <ul><li>Reproductive cloning </li></ul><ul><li>Therapeutic cloning </li></ul>
  52. Embryonic stem cells <ul><li>Can change the face of medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Very promising future </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of research still needs to be done </li></ul><ul><li>Indian can be a leading center in this field </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration between IVF clinics and basic research labs </li></ul>
  53. We’ve come a long way, baby !
  55. Playing God ? <ul><li>When does life begin? What are the rights of an embryo? Can human embryos be used for harvesting embryonic stem cell lines ? Should cloning be allowed ? </li></ul><ul><li>Vexed issues – and since they deal with creating human life, these debates generate more heat than light ! </li></ul>
  56. Should embryo research be banned ? <ul><li>Banning research ends up stopping scientific progress </li></ul><ul><li>We are not mad scientists trying to play God </li></ul><ul><li>We are doctors trying </li></ul><ul><li>to do the best for our patients </li></ul>
  59. ART is a medical success story ! <ul><li>However, advances in IVF have come with government guidelines and laws </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of these guidelines is to ensure that these technologies are used safely and responsibly </li></ul><ul><li>How well do these guidelines work ? What purpose do really serve ? </li></ul>
  60. Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) Act, UK <ul><li>Protect the “welfare of the child” </li></ul><ul><li>Theory - It should be the parent(s) of the child who should be empowered to make the best decisions for their child </li></ul><ul><li>Practice - An impersonal government body without a heart or a soul makes these decisions, claiming that they are acting in the interests of the child. </li></ul>
  61. UK v/s US <ul><li>Interestingly, the US has not found it necessary to pass a federal law to regulate IVF </li></ul><ul><li>And they are doing fine – thank you very much ! </li></ul>
  62. Doctors v/s politicians <ul><li>Is it better to allow doctors to make medical decisions ( as is done in the USA) ? </li></ul><ul><li>Or to have legal hurdles, as is the practice in many European countries ? </li></ul><ul><li>Who can we trust ? </li></ul>
  63. Global picture <ul><li>What is remarkable about the regulations which govern ART in each country is that they vary so widely! </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines are arbitrary and often designed to fulfill prevailing political pressures, rather than being based on scientific principles. </li></ul>
  64. Law of unintended consequences <ul><li>In Spain, it is legal to put embryos in frozen storage, but it is illegal to destroy embryos or to donate them to research </li></ul><ul><li>There are currently 50,000 embryos sitting unused in frozen storage in Spain - some beyond the five-year storage limit. </li></ul><ul><li>Sad mockery . The law which was designed to protect embryos on paper , ends up destroying them in practice ! </li></ul>
  65. IVF laws and doctors <ul><li>By forcing doctors to practice medicine as laid down in a mindless statue drafted by bureaucrats, rather than by applying their own judgment, we are ending up harming our patients. </li></ul>
  66. Doctors are trusted professionals <ul><li>Our freedom to do what is best for our patients will be curtailed by bureaucrats , activists and politicians. </li></ul><ul><li>If doctors can be trusted to make life and death decisions in the ICU, then why can’t we be trusted to make decisions about IVF responsibly ? </li></ul>
  67. Useful regulation <ul><li>Most doctors would agree that there is a need to regulate the practice of IVF, so that all IVF clinics meet certain basic standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to protect infertile patients, who are emotionally vulnerable, and can get cheated easily by unscrupulous doctors </li></ul>
  68. In real life <ul><li>Bureaucrats only understand paperwork </li></ul><ul><li>Overburdened doctors end up spending more time filling up forms rather than talking to patients ! </li></ul><ul><li>Good doctors don’t need to be </li></ul><ul><li>monitored; and monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>bad doctors does not help ! </li></ul>
  69. Real life problem - How many embryos to transfer ? <ul><li>Ideal would be one. However, the technology is still not perfect </li></ul><ul><li>The law is blind – limit of 2 for everyone ! </li></ul><ul><li>Why ? Makes sense for the NHS ! </li></ul><ul><li>Does this make sense for a 43 year old woman doing her 5 th IVF cycle ? </li></ul><ul><li>Let the couple decide for themselves – weigh the pros and cons </li></ul>
  71. Surrogacy <ul><li>One of the thorniest issues ! </li></ul><ul><li>Who has the rights ? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens when something goes wrong ? </li></ul><ul><li>Will India become the surrogacy outsourcing capital of the world ? </li></ul><ul><li>Are we exploiting poor women by “hiring their wombs” ? </li></ul>
  72. <ul><li>The fact that rules vary so much from country to country means that there are no right answers. </li></ul><ul><li>Rather than apply rules blindly, isn’t it better to allow doctors the freedom to select what is best for their patients ? </li></ul>
  73. Solution ? <ul><li>Let patients decide for themselves – after all, it’s their life – and their baby ! </li></ul><ul><li>A democracy empowers people to make their own choices – and they should be allowed to use the technology to fulfill their personal reproductive desires, as long as they don’t harm anyone else ! </li></ul><ul><li>It’s unethical to interfere in their personal family-building plans ! </li></ul>
  74. Going too far ?
  75. 3 principles of medical ethics <ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Beneficence </li></ul><ul><li>Non-maleficence </li></ul>
  77. Simplifying IVF to make it affordable <ul><li>Low cost IVF </li></ul><ul><li>Young couples ( get married young) </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot afford expensive treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Mistake – have copied the West blindly so far </li></ul><ul><li>Need to adapt IVF for India ! </li></ul>
  78. Low cost innovations <ul><li>Minimal stimulation IVF ( gentle IVF) </li></ul><ul><li>Transport IVF – eggs and sperm transported to central IVF lab </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite IVF </li></ul>
  79. Intravaginal Culture <ul><li>Use the patient’s vagina as an incubator ! </li></ul><ul><li>No need for expensive incubator or electric supply </li></ul><ul><li>Stepped care IVF – can be made available in government hospitals in district towns </li></ul><ul><li>Should be part of each teaching hospital in India </li></ul>
  81. What society can do <ul><li>Infertility treatment should be a part of the Family Planning and Family Welfare services </li></ul><ul><li>Should be covered by medical insurance because infertility is a disease and needs medical treatment </li></ul>