Reproductive Technology Ok.


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scope of discussion: reprod. tech

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Reproductive Technology Ok.

  1. 1. Reproductive technology DONE BY: EVANGELINE, CHENGYING AND HAYDEN
  2. 2. Scope of discussion <ul><li>In-vitro fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Surrogacy </li></ul><ul><li>Contraception </li></ul>
  3. 3. In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF) <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>A technique whereby egg cells are fertilized by a sperm outside a woman’s womb. </li></ul><ul><li>Use: </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment for infertility after all other assisted reproductive technology have failed. </li></ul>
  4. 4. IVF - Impacts  <ul><li> Allowing pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>-IVF allowed women to be pregnant even in their 50s-60s. </li></ul><ul><li>-Even after Menopause, Uterus is still available to carry out this function. </li></ul>
  5. 5. IVF - Impacts  <ul><li> Separation from traditional father-mother model </li></ul><ul><li>-Third party reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>-Children not genetically related to parents </li></ul><ul><li>-Psychological problems for the child </li></ul><ul><li>-Same sex couples can have children </li></ul><ul><li>ie: lesbian couple </li></ul><ul><li>-What would the child think is he/she were born to homosexual parents? </li></ul>
  6. 6. IVF - Impacts  <ul><li> Birth defects </li></ul><ul><li>-Very controversial </li></ul><ul><li>-Some say that IVF does not increase rate of birth defects. However most are still skeptical. </li></ul><ul><li> -Results in other ethical issues </li></ul><ul><li>-Human Embryos are being destroyed in the process </li></ul><ul><li>-Unnatural environment of embryos. </li></ul><ul><li>-Not affordable to many </li></ul><ul><li>-Creation of human life in laboratory. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Surrogacy <ul><li>Defined as: </li></ul><ul><li>practice in which a woman (the surrogate mother) bears a child for a couple unable to produce children, usually because the wife is infertile or unable to carry a pregnancy to term. </li></ul><ul><li>Via artificial insemination (usually with the sperm of the husband) or through the implantation of an embryo produced by in vitro fertilization. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Surrogacy – Its Legality <ul><li>Not legal in all countries </li></ul><ul><li>(eg: UK, France) </li></ul><ul><li>WHY? </li></ul><ul><li>The surrogate mother might refuse to cede custody to the intended biological parents </li></ul><ul><li>High maternal deaths and poor “salaries” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Surrogacy – Its Legality <ul><li>Example: United States, 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>The surrogate mother of Melissa Stern (&quot;Baby M&quot;), did not surrender the custody of Melissa to the couple with whom she had made the surrogacy agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>The courts of New Jersey eventually awarded custody to Melissa's biological father William Stern and his wife Elizabeth Stern, rather than to the surrogate Mary Beth Whitehead </li></ul>
  10. 10. Surrogacy -  Impacts <ul><li> allows women unable to give birth to have their biological child , even if someone else is carrying the child during the gestation period. </li></ul><ul><li> higher birth rates , which could be extremely crucial for countries facing declining BRs </li></ul>
  11. 11. Surrogacy – Impacts  <ul><li> Problems with the law : default legal assumption in most countries is that the woman giving birth to a child is that child's legal mother. </li></ul><ul><li> Only for the rich? : Approximately $15,000 of these fees are paid to the surrogate herself for the time and sacrifice of the pregnancy. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Surrogacy -  Impacts <ul><li> unethical to pay someone to give birth to the child as child giving is perceived to be a personal fulfillment. </li></ul><ul><li> maternal deaths , like in India </li></ul>
  13. 13. Contraception <ul><li>Defined as: </li></ul><ul><li>-birth control through the deliberate prevention of conception or impregnation. </li></ul>MODERN -Barrier Methods -Hormonal/Chemical Methods - Natural Methods -Sterilization <ul><li>AGE-OLD </li></ul><ul><li>Barrier (Physical method) </li></ul><ul><li>Coitus Interruptus (Behavioral) </li></ul><ul><li>Herbal </li></ul>
  14. 14. Contraception: Age Old <ul><li>1) Barrier (Physical method) </li></ul><ul><li>  - Before sperm cells were discovered in 17th century, Asians used oiled paper as a cervical cap, Europeans, beeswax. </li></ul><ul><li>  - First condoms appeared, made of animal intestine </li></ul>
  15. 15. Contraception: Age Old <ul><li>2) Coitus Interruptus (Behavioural) </li></ul><ul><li>  - withdrawal of the penis from the vagina prior to ejaculation </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability: Relatively low </li></ul><ul><li>Reason: Self-control issues </li></ul>
  16. 16. Contraception: Age Old <ul><li>3) Herbal </li></ul><ul><li>  - Ingestion of poisons i.e. mercury, arsenic substances to induce miscarriage </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability: Dependent on type of medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Implication: Major side effects e.g. disruption of reproductive system, liver and kidney problems </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  17. 17. Contraception: Modern tech <ul><li>1. Barrier Methods </li></ul><ul><li>- condoms! (male and female): failure rate 11% and 21% respectively by the FDA </li></ul><ul><li>- diaphragm (cap-like) </li></ul><ul><li>- spermicides </li></ul>
  18. 18. Contraception: Modern tech <ul><li>2. Hormonal/Chemical Methods </li></ul><ul><li>- birth control pills </li></ul><ul><li>- emergency contraception (pills preventing fertilized egg from planting itself on uterus) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Contraception: Modern tech <ul><li>3. Natural Methods </li></ul><ul><li>- induced abortion (removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus by medical, surgical, or other means at any point during human pregnancy) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Contraception: Modern tech <ul><li>4. Sterilization </li></ul><ul><li>- tubal ligation (blocking the fallopian tubes to prevent the egg from traveling to uterus): failure rate 1% </li></ul><ul><li>- vasectomy (a minor surgical procedure for men who want permanent birth control) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Contraception - Impacts <ul><li> /  U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates: </li></ul><ul><li>- 98%< of women between the ages of 15 and 44 who have ever had intercourse have used at least one contraceptive method. </li></ul><ul><li>- According to 2002 survey, birth control pills are the most commonly used method among women in the US (11.6 million). The pill is followed by female sterilization (10.3 million) and the male condom (9 million). </li></ul>
  22. 22. THANK YOU! =)