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Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)
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Chapter4: Distribution (group 3)

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Submitted by : Madeliene Ocampo, Kalvin Kier Arao, Luisito Lumbre, Mirriam Ocenar …

Submitted by : Madeliene Ocampo, Kalvin Kier Arao, Luisito Lumbre, Mirriam Ocenar

Submitted to : Prof. Thes Sagadraca

Subject : Principles of Economics

SChool : University of Makati

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  • 1. Chapter 4DISTRIBUTION
  • 2. Lesson 1FACTOR PRICES AND INCOME DISTRIBUTION
  • 3. Distribution of the National Income1. Personal Distribution - is the distribution of the National Income among the persons or households which produced the aggregative product of society.
  • 4. Lorenz Curve
  • 5. 2. Functional Distribution - distributes income according to one’s function or role in society.
  • 6. Functional Distribution of the Country’s Output
  • 7. Lesson 2FACTOR PAYMENTS AND ITS RELATED CONCEPTS
  • 8. Rent (Upa)Payment, usually monthly, for use of spaceor property.
  • 9. Wage (pasahod) Price paid for human exertion or effort.Or called payment for manual labor andusually paid in money.
  • 10. Classifications of Wages1. Time wages -It has the basis of length of the time duringwhich the laborer renders his services.
  • 11. Classifications of Wages2. Piece wages -wages paid according to the amount of worklabor performs.3. Fees -wages paid to professionals.
  • 12. Classifications of Wages4. Commissions - based on the percentage of the total sales ofproducts or goods by memebers of the labor force.
  • 13. Classifications of Wages5. Extra wages -wages in addition to the regular salaries and income of workers.6. Wages-in-kind -non-monetary wages paid to labor.
  • 14. Two kinds of labor1. Physical labor (Skilled labor, semi-skilled labor, unskilled labor)2.Mental labor (Professional labor, labor of administration and supervision, labor of invention and creation)
  • 15. Theories of wages1. Subsistence theory of wages2. Minimum wage theory3. Wage fund doctrine4. Marginal productivity theory of labor and wages
  • 16. Theories of wages5. Demand and supply of labor theory6. Bargaining theory7. Business cycle theory
  • 17. Labor theory of value -wage paid to labor is equal to the amount of work applied to produced a commodity or its cost.
  • 18. Demand for labor -the firm hires more labor when the demand for its product goes up.
  • 19. Labor productivity and labor mobility - the expected productivity of the workers lies behind the demand for labor. -labor mobility is the ability of labor to move from one place industry or sector of economy to another
  • 20. Supply of labor -in determining the amount of the labor supplied to an industry or firm the supply curves of all factors tend to be upward-sloping in the short-run.
  • 21. Interest -a person usually receives income in the form of money.
  • 22. Interest rates vary among financial instruments because of differences :1. Risk2. Maturity3. Liquidity
  • 23. Theories of interestAgio or premium theory -future goods are importantAbstinence theory -income not consumedMarginal productivity theory -capital + interest
  • 24. Theories of interestSupply and demand theory -supply, demand and price go togetherGovernment policies and interest rates -loan paid in long period of time with low interest.PROFIT -entrepreneurs income
  • 25. ENTREPRENEURIAL PROFITS -Profits are rewards of the entrepreneur for his labor.• Functional return• Residual return
  • 26. TYPES OF PROFITA. GROSS VIS-AS- VIS NET OR PURE -Remuneration vs. Contractual costB. NORMAL VIS-AVIS EXCESS -Gain profit vs . Profit + excess profit
  • 27. THE MEASURE OF PROFITS -The amount of profit made.GENERATION OF PROFITS -Contineous profit.RESULT OF MONOPOLY -The goods are unique.
  • 28. LABOR EXPLOITATION -Give what is due to caesar.PROFIT AND INNOVATION -Innovators introduce the newest goods and services.
  • 29. RISK AND PROFIT -Positive notion prosper.ORGANIZATION OF PRODUCERS -Unity is the best policy.
  • 30. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING -Working condition must be observed.EFFECTS OF UNIONS -Strong union and fair competition.BUSINESS CARTELS -Learn,study and create.
  • 31. Lesson 3LAND REFORM VIS-À-VIS AGRARIAN REFORM
  • 32. 1.The difference between land reform and agrarian reform.2.The difference between unemployment and underemployment
  • 33. 3.The types of unemployment4. Philippine unemployment rate5. The Philippines’ rank regarding world poverty
  • 34. Land Reform -The distribution of land from the landlords to the tenant farmers in order to improve the plight of these tenant farmers
  • 35. Agrarian Reform -Is not a distribution land but goes beyond the question of land rights. -Promote social justice
  • 36. Unemployment and PovertyUnemployment - without jobs and actively looked for work within four weeksUnderemployment - employed in a job but not within his field of specialization; receiving less payment for his work
  • 37. Types of Unemployment Seasonal Frictional Structural Cyclical Real Wage
  • 38. Unemployment rate - the level of unemployment divided by the labor forceLabor force - the number of people employed and unemployed but finding work
  • 39.  7.1%-rate of unemployment in the Philippines in July of 2011 (www.dole.gov.ph) No.70 among 141 countries all over the world on a Population Below poverty line research

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