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Fall Prevention Intro

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Fall Prevention Intro Fall Prevention Intro Presentation Transcript

  • Focus on Falls Fall Prevention Program Fall Prevention Clinical Team
  • Facts About Falls
    • Leading cause of injury deaths for people 65+
    • 20-30% of those who fall suffer injuries that reduce mobility and independence
    • 95% of hip fractures are caused by falls
    • 50% of continuing care residents fall at least once each year
    • Older adults who fall once are 2-3 times as likely to fall again within a year
  • What is a Fall?
    • a sudden, uncontrolled, unintentional, downward displacement of the body to the ground or lower level
      • Un-witnessed falls (resident is unable to explain the events and there is evidence to support that a fall has occurred)
      • Near falls (resident eased to the floor by staff)
  • Types of Falls
    • Accidental Falls:
      • These occur when a resident slips (i.e., on water, bathrobe tie, etc.)
    • Unexpected Physiological Falls:
      • These occur when a resident falls for a physiological reason that has not been identified (i.e., fainting, seizures, a pathological hip fracture)
    • Expected Physiological Falls:
      • These occur in individuals who have already been flagged as being at risk of falling
      • They are expected to fall again, because the Fall Risk Assessment has identified them being high risk
  • Impact of Falls
    • Physical injury (fracture, abrasion, contusion)
    • Restriction of activity/functional deterioration
    • Loss of confidence/fear of falling in the future
    • Pain/limitation of activity following a fall
    • Depression and feelings of helplessness
    • Social isolation and decreased quality of life
  • Risk Factors
    • Falls are caused by the interaction of a number of different factors both
      • Internal risk factors (related to the individual) and
      • External risk factors
  • Internal Risk Factors
    • History of falls
    • Nutritional deficiencies
    • Impaired cognition
    • Visual impairments
    • Impaired mobility and/or gait
    • Poly-pharmacy
    • Medical conditions such as diabetes, stroke, respiratory disease
    • Foot problems and musculoskeletal disorders
    • Muscle weakness and limited endurance
    • Fear of falling
  • External Risk Factors
    • Environmental hazards such as clutter, poor lighting, polished or wet floors
    • Footwear and clothing
    • Inappropriate walking aids or assistive devices
  • Key Fall Risk Factors 2 x risk (<110 systolic) Systolic hypotension 1.5 x risk Vision (decreased) Polypharmacy (4+ medications) and Benzodiazepines = 1.5 x risk Psychotrophics = 2 x risk Diuretics = 7 x risk Vasodilators = 3 x risk Drugs Restraint use = 10 x risk Environmental hazards 1.5 x risk Ambulatory aids 1.5 x risk Balance and gait Wandering behaviour = 2 x risk Cognitive impairment 3.5 times as much risk for a fall Previous fall INCREASE OF RISK OVER AVERAGE FACTOR
  • Restraints and Falls
    • Restraints can actually contribute to fall-related injuries and deaths:
      • Limiting freedom of movement and independence results in de-conditioning and muscle atrophy, adding to functional decline