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  • Computer mediated communication (CMC) : “ the process by which people create, exchange, and perceive information using networked telecommunications systems that facilitate encoding, transmitting, and decoding messages” (December, 1996).  Luppicini (2007); Herring (2001); Warschauer (1999).
  • Next slide: CMCL. What is CMCL?
  • While participation is important as collaboration cannot occur without roughly equal participation among the participants, equal participation in itself is not enough. The level of interaction and synthesis of ideas of the group should also and mainly be analysed. Without these three characteristics, group work may be many things, but it cannot be called collaboration (Ingram & Hathorn, 2004).
  • Wiki CALICO

    2. 2. Long V Nguyen [email_address] CALICO 2010 Enhancing Language Learning: Research, Innovation, and Evaluation in CALL Amherst College, MA
    3. 3. <ul><li>CMC Overviews </li></ul><ul><li>Participants </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Socioculturally, “ CMC is not just a tool. It is at once technology, medium, and engine of social interactions. It not only structures social relations, it is the space within which the relations occur and the tool that individuals use to enter that space ” (Jones, 1995, p. 16). </li></ul>
    5. 5. Websites Email Blogs Wikis Chat SMS  ============================================  Product-oriented Process-oriented CMC Aural Textual Visual Asynchronous Synchronous
    6. 6. <ul><li>Lee (2010): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase students’ satisfaction and motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foster creativity and encourage attention to form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsecure and uncomfortable to correct each other’s work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arnold, Ducate and Kost (2009): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclude that wikis as an effective educational tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foster collaborative writing & revision behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solve equal contribution issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combine writing process and final product </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Participation Interaction Synthesis The three central components of collaborative learning (Ingram & Hathorn, 2004)
    8. 8. Participants <ul><li>Control class (10 groups of 3 students) </li></ul><ul><li>Pen-and-paper peer review </li></ul><ul><li>CMC class (10 groups of 3 students) </li></ul><ul><li>Wiki peer review (PBWiki) </li></ul>N = 60 Age: 20-22 Program: BA in TESOL Course: American Culture The task : A essay about three similarities and/or differences between American and Vietnamese culture.
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    11. 11. Pen-and-paper versus wiki peer comments: T-test analysis Control Class (n=10) CMC Class (n=10) Mean S. D. Mean S. D. t p* Total words by groups 434.40 184.44 997.60 469.86 3.53 .004 Total comments by groups 47.40 15.95 101.50 52.36 3.13 .006 (a comment = a sentential unit) Control members (n=30) CMC members (n=30) Mean S. D. Mean S. D. t p* Comments by members 15.80 9.49 33.83 23.84 3.85 .000 *Significant at p < .01
    12. 12. Unit of analysis: Sentential units Collaborative exchanges
    13. 13. Phuong, 0210: I like studying this way. I love this Friday. Finally, it comes, yeah yeah. (theme: Socioaffective; subcategory: Emotional expressions) M. Hang, 0210: xong dat page m day^^ [Translated: Glad to be the first footer in your page^^]. (theme: Socioaffective; subcategory: Use of L1) Ngan, 0203: hello. i have some comments to your assignment! i put what i comments in CAPITALIZED LETTERS. (theme: Organisational; subcategory: Feedback management) H. Phuong, 0202: ok, if you have not any comment, I'll edit again and send to our teacher! (theme: Organisational; subcategory: Group management)
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    17. 17. Anh, 0206: (19/3/09) i think that your topic sentence is not good enough! it's should be more general! the best thing is that you showed the reason why the view of cohabition are quite different between US and VN. in my opinion, you should add more information about the result of this life style Thoa, 0206: (20/3/09) thanks for your comments. however, my paragraph only focus on comparison &quot;the social attitudes toward cohabitation in US and VN&quot; so i think the results is not necessary. and my topic sentence is the first sentence, the last sentence is to sumarise for my paragraph.
    18. 18. While the global comments include those with regard to idea development, essay structure and organisation, and audience and purpose, the local feedback covers those relating to grammar structure, wording, punctuation and spelling.
    19. 19. Ratio: 2.5 Ratio: 1.9
    20. 20. <ul><li>Wiki: “architecture of participation” (Wheeler, et al, 2008) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-way interactive mode of collaborative learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socioaffective feedback: emotional behaviors, social cohesiveness, and mutual respect  construct, maintain, and enhance the collaborative community of learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational feedback: higher degree of autonomy  ZPD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociocognitive feedback: online exchanges outnumbered paper mode in types, areas, and nature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Linear process versus adaptive process of writing </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. “… we could have many more comments on wiki. I gave comments to others’, then the others gave feedback on mine, then I commented again … continuously. It was hard to do this on paper.” (Tam, 0202) “ I like being able to share ideas with my partners every time I want and feel free to give them my comments without worrying that I am hurting their feelings. It is because I can think carefully and choose appropriate words before I type them down. More than that, I can delete previous comments and replace them with more suitable ones. ” (Phuong, 0210) However, “ It was fatiguing and inconvenient to edit on the wiki because I had to go to the Internet shop each time. It was more difficult to correct [the drafts] online than on paper because it was harder to read. It was clearer on paper.” (Anh, 0206)
    22. 22. <ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul><ul><li>Cam on! </li></ul><ul><li>The ppt file is available at; </li></ul><ul><li>Keyword: “nguyen wiki calico”. </li></ul>