EUROCALL Teacher Education SIG Workshop 2010 Presentation Melinda Dooly & Victoria Antoniadou

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  • But what do we mean by communities? We have taken 2 fairly well-known concepts: CoPs and Imagined communities. While they are 2 different concepts and applied in completely different contexts, there are links between the 2 notions that serve our study as broad frameworks for understanding the way in which initial teacher training attempts to provide the right guidelines for an expert practitioner within the classroom: Both emerge from Anderson’s notion of imagined communities and an essential element to both is the idea of MEMBERSHIP.
  • But what do we mean by communities? We have taken 2 fairly well-known concepts: CoPs and Imagined communities. While they are 2 different concepts and applied in completely different contexts, there are links between the 2 notions that serve our study as broad frameworks for understanding the way in which initial teacher training attempts to provide the right guidelines for an expert practitioner within the classroom.
  • So how can we reconcile these 2 concepts to our study on students learning to become EFL teachers? First of all, looking at CoPs, as it was originally envisioned, we have a situation in which the novice works closely with the expert to move from peripheral participation towards the centre of full-fledged ‘expertise membership’. In other words they are engaged. But we are talking about students who are NOT teachers although they do take part in school placement. (click) BUT we still have this rather vague notion of the tangible community of practitioners. There is not a static, external community of ‘teachers’ (workpool yes) but TEACHING is not homogeneous, it’s not all done the same way and by the same norms. So the teachers have to imagine an idealised teaching community (The Good Teacher) which we all know is elusive and unattainable. But in order to facilitate our novice teachers with some generally accepted notions of the good teacher, we used the EPOSTL for them to rank what they felt was important for them and in order to set their own goals for the end of the year. So they are required to ‘imagine’ the type of teacher they aspire to be. (click) As for alignment, the sequence of abundant activities required in the tutorials (designing, implementing, evaluating, critiquing and re-designing a teaching unit, input on colleagues’ teaching units, telecollaborative designing of teaching activities, action research and a long list of etceteras) helped the novice teachers begin to organise themselves as members of the teaching community. But all of this is still on a rather ‘tangible’ level of evident participation. What about the imagined communities? How could we articulate the real with the imagined? It was our premise that by creating as many opportunities as possible for them to interact with others (more experienced peers, less experienced peers, virtual peers, school peers) then we could help establish the conditions for this imagined community of teacher experts.
  • It was out intention to design a placement education ‘packet’ that allowed for the formation of ‘good teacher’ identities. According to Wenger, this can be done by providing 3 infrastructures: places of engagement. For this, the students had (click & read). (click) Here’s an image of a place for engagement in SL that we provided to the UAB and UIUC students. Next, the students need materials and experiences to help build an image of the educational world and themselves in order to facilitate their imagined participation. (click) This meant providing them with (read). (Click). Here’s an extract from an online chat where a UAB st gives input to his UIUC counterpart on her teaching unit. Finally, students in order to see different ways of having an effect on the world through ‘accepted, tried and true’ community practices. Students must see ways that their actions matter and thus align themselves with that community. (click) This means testing and then reflecting on the effects of new practices and ‘trying on’ the different available roles in that community. (click) Here you have a picture of a st discussing a teaching vignette while her peers, acting as teachers, give her feedback based on questions she has posed prior to this session, thus effectively they are positioned in all the roles of student and teacher while giving reflection on their and other’s teaching praxis.
  • It was out intention to design a placement education ‘packet’ that allowed for the formation of ‘good teacher’ identities. According to Wenger, this can be done by providing 3 infrastructures: places of engagement. For this, the students had (click & read). Next, the students need materials and experiences to help build an image of the educational world and themselves (click & read) in order to facilitate their imagined participation. Finally, students in order to see different ways of having an effect on the world through ‘accepted, tried and true’ community practices, student must see ways that their actions matter and thus align themselves with that community. (click & read)
  • In short, the design of our online collaboration between the UAB & UIUC drew on the idea of providing a space for both groups of future teachers to build up a CoP.
  • There are precedents to the use of CoPs and Imagined Communities as a means of analysis for understanding the process of teacher education. Norris has underlined the importance of imagination, Norton underlines how belonging helps bring about investment of time and energy. Ryan has used imagined communities to explore learners’ motivation and Moore & Dooly related imagined communities of both the teacher trainer and the student teachers with the socially constructed reality of the teacher education classroom.
  • The relationship between CoPs and Imagined communities to Computer Mediated communication AND teacher education has also been explored by Kahn, who looked at how virtual communities provide collaborative environments for construction of knowledge, Murphy & Laferriere who focused on the space for collaborative reflection and Keown who discusses the possibility of teacher development with distributed learners.
  • Taking Tobin’s idea of a ‘bricolage’ approach of qualitative data, we can say that our approach is hermeneutic in the sense that it is an interpretative process of the different forms of communication and meaning-making taking place in the situation or process being analysed. It is phenomenological in the sense that it is a reflective and descriptive approach of a large corpus of qualitative data. It is ethnomethodological in the sense that is aims to explore how people interact with the world and make sense of reality, based on implicit social norms and ‘ways of being’ in the world. We principally use the conventions and protocol devised by Coulton, Psathas and other conversation analysts who have followed Sacks’ membership categorisation analysis. people ‘do things’ with words. For instance, with what I’m saying now, I’m ‘doing’ being-expert. Whether that’s true or not is totally irrelevant to the conversation analyst (although I probably shouldn’t say that because I risk all of you walking out because I’m pretty much debunking my expert role here). Anyway, a conversation analyst would be interested in what I’m doing now with my words. I’m not ‘doing being-a-friend’´; I’m doing ‘being-a-conference presenter’.
  • What identity would you give to participant 1? How do you know he or she is a teacher? Actually it’s a child ‘being a teacher’. Using words to construct an identity; using words to make herself a member of an identity with what are called ‘category-bound attributes’. But we won’t go into that here. This is just an example to show, quite superficially how CA, from the premise of talk-in-interaction, works. In other words, we look at how these students begin to construct their identities as real members of the teaching community by analysing their discourse for moments when they are ‘doing being a teacher’.
  • While MCA was first applied to conversation analysis it has been fruitfully applied to a wider concept of texts as a means of pinpointing the dialogic nexus of intertextuality or multi-voicedness of public and individual discourse. We do the same by combining different types of ‘communicative’ events such as f2f interaction, text chat interaction, virtual world interaction, forums and other written texts (teaching units, teaching goals, etc.)
  • First of all, we are the first to recognise that we have a huge data corpus when considering the fact that we are doing qualitative analysis with a micro-analysis approach. The data collected for analysis involve (read). All of this is multiplied by the 7 participants involved in the placement tutorials. This fact inevitably means finding a means of data selection (click). The Podcast supplemented by follow-up activities and the process of designing the teaching sequence are two important products of the course and therefore I considered best to focus my analysis on the process of creating each of those products they would give a comprehensive account of the teacher development process.
  • We are aware that when dealing with qualitative data, that unsystematic selection of the samples for data violates the principle of public accountability of research. Traditionally, ethnographic and ethnomethodological work has used triangulation in data sessions to identify interactional "hot spots" - sites of activity that promise to be productive. We attempt to keep our work free from predetermined analytic categories by taking an emic approach, while at the same time, we acknowledge the need to consider data that is relevant to our research on the development of language teacher competences. This does not mean that we have only selected extracts that support our vision of their development; we have focused on events that are made relevant by the participants themselves and the recurrency of these events. Due to time, we have decided to present here a year-long observation of just one student (Anita). It is data compiled during a year and it presented in temporal progression although we do not imply that there is linear development.
  • Willingness to collaborate with tutor and other pupils (initial engagement with reduced community of practitioners – those she has contact with on an institutional level). As an ‘imagined member’ of the communities of practitioners of experienced teachers, she projects more vague notions of that membership (learn to be a teacher/expand her toolbox of experiences/gain confidence when teaching).
  • Indicates that she prefers to take a peripheral role (taking notes) rather than taking the discussion leader role (the teacher was looking for a volunteer to lead the discussion in the focus troup).
  • As you can see in this survey at the mid-point of the year, student 1 is quite positive about both the f2f and online interaction between herself and her peers. She appears to be moving towards full participation and is aligning herself with the ‘ways of being’ of the CoP of teachers. She is able to specify more clearly learning points and objectives (remember previously her goals were ‘to learn to be a teacher’? She is aware of the importance of joint activities, discussions, helping each other, and sharing information (all of which are elements of CoPs, according to Lave & Wenger).
  • Lays claim to ‘being’ a teacher (we’ve already done some teaching) as well as highlighting that they are there TO LEARN TO BE GOOD TEACHERS
  • Here she takes on ‘being a teacher’ if you look at this discourse (and we had about 5 slides of this) she is CONSISTENTLY using ‘discussion leader’ or ‘teacher talk’ to orient the way the conversation goes (stating what needs to be done, rephrasing, recapitulating decisions made in order to move the dialogue on to the next point, asking questions to get the other to ‘re-think’ their position …). IMPORTANT: By the time this transcript had taken place, she had had the opportunity of leading a discussion group (or participating in one) at least 48 times.
  • Here’s she still doing being a teacher … what do you prefer, let’s start again (gives time for an answer and doesn’t get it so restates the questions). She finally gets an answer but it is not a ‘complete’ answer so she acknowledges it and then tries to draw her partner out for more information and finally ends up shouting TOPIC. When she gets an answer she then moves the negotiation of the activity onward, focusing on teacher-related events.
  • As with the previous slides, we can see that Anita is beginning to appropriate the repertoire of ideas, discourse and ways of doing and approaching things of the community of practice related to teaching.
  • In her methods course, she chose to present an activity that included many of the concepts and resources worked both implicitly and explicitly during the placement teaching tutorials.
  • EUROCALL Teacher Education SIG Workshop 2010 Presentation Melinda Dooly & Victoria Antoniadou

    1. 1. From imagining to belonging: Research into teachers-in-training and Communities of Practice Melinda Dooly & Victoria Antoniadou Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
    2. 2. Content <ul><li>Principle paradigms underlying the study </li></ul><ul><li>Context and Data Corpus </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis approach </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary results </li></ul>
    3. 3. Paradigm of Communities (& its origins)
    4. 4. Membership & Belonging Imagined Community (beginning with Anderson, 1991) Means of describing the processes by which a sense of nationality exists amongs members who have no contact or apparent links. Visca Barça, Visca Catalunya
    5. 5. CoPs & ICs Communities of Practice (beginning with Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger 1998) Learning is not merely a cognitive practice. Situated learning: most learning takes place as the individual engages in accessible communities of practice (e.g. tailors; AA meetings). Move from peripheral members towards centre. Imagined Community (Norton 2000; 2001) Means for the learner to reach out beyond one’s immediate environment and experience, thus providing possibility of alignment and commitment to that community. Future teachers participate in situated learning due to imagined (validated) role in imagined community of teaching practitioners . Situated learning Investment
    6. 6. Imagined identities & communities <ul><li>Modes of belonging to CoPs (Wenger 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement: active involvement in mutual processes of negotiation of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Imagination: how people create images of the world and see connections through time and space by extrapolating from their own experience </li></ul><ul><li>Alignment: how energies and activities are organised to develop a sense of belonging to the community </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions for existence of ICs (Kanno & Norton, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Membership </li></ul><ul><li>Community influence on members and viceversa </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement of individual’s identity as community member by other members </li></ul><ul><li>Shared affective connections </li></ul>School placement/tutorials/f2f & online discussions EPOSTL Sequences of teaching activities during tutorials Participation in an imaginary community is not mere flight of fancy or daydreaming; it has real consequences for the individual (…) constant creation and recreation of an individual identity, but also a continual re-evaluation of the nature of the imagined community itself and the requirements of membership. (Ryan 2006: 41)
    7. 7. Sharing <ul><li>Members share: </li></ul><ul><li>a sense of joint enterprise and identity around a specific area of knowledge and activity. </li></ul><ul><li>a repertoire of ideas, commitments and memories. </li></ul><ul><li>ways of doing and approaching things. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Learning is mutual development process between communities and individuals that helps form new identities. Must provide scaffolding of 3 infrastructures: engagement, imagination and alignment (Wenger 1998). Engagement Imagination Alginment Tutorial sessions, school placement, online sites such as moodle & SL. Models of teaching sequences & activities, their own designs, other designs, input from peers & experts, lectures & reading, etc. Try out new practices, take part in peer-teaching; peer-evaluating, self-reflection (place themselves in teacher role with own students AND peers) Juan: your final goal is to make students understand how to summarize in a sentence the whole paragraph, isn't it? Nancy:Yeah, my final goal is that students will be able to write an effective paragraph […] Juan: so, have you thought about working on very very bad examples of topic sentences before asking students to create their own topic sentences??? Nancy: I like that idea---bad examples often work better than good examples!
    9. 9. Learning is mutual development process between communities and individuals that helps form new identities. Must provide scaffolding of 3 infrastructures: engagement, imagination and alignment (Wenger 1998). Engagement Imagination Alginment Tutorial sessions, school placement, online sites such as moodle & SL. Models of teaching sequences & activities, their own designs, other designs, input from peers & experts, lectures & reading, etc. Try out new practices, take part in peer-teaching; peer-evaluating, self-reflection (place themselves in teacher role with own students AND peers)
    10. 10. Learning involves a deepening process of participation in a CoP Moving from legitimate peripheral participation To full participation!
    11. 11. Relevance to Teacher Education <ul><li>Simon (1992): imagination plays a crucial role in determining what kind of future is worth struggling for . </li></ul><ul><li>Norton (2001): feeling of belonging to an imagined community (e.g. language speakers) will play role in willingness to ‘invest’ time and energy . </li></ul><ul><li>Ryan (2006): it is possible for the motivation of learners to be shaped by their membership and participation in imagined communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Moore & Dooly (2010): imagined community of teachers provides a useful model for describing & enacting tangible, mutual social activities guided by certain rules and practices recognized by that particular community and therefore come to align themselves with ‘being teachers’ (in which language has a central role). </li></ul>
    12. 12. Relevance to CMC in Teacher Education <ul><li>Kahn (1999): Virtual communities address [rapid change of knowledge] by providing an environment for people to connect with and learn from others through collaboratively participating in the construction of new knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Murphy & Laferriere (2003): Teachers can collaboratively reflect on specific classroom problems arising from the shift to Internet use. </li></ul><ul><li>Keown (2009): Recent technological developments have created sophisticated means of bringing widely distributed learners together , within flexible timeframe, online (virtual) discussion communities, thus providing a workable approach to teacher professional development and learning (TPDL). </li></ul>
    13. 13. Approach to Analysis
    14. 14. “ Bricolage” (Tobin): Hermeneutic, phenomenological & ethnomethdological <ul><li>*Talk-in-interaction is an examination of how discourse is precisely developed to explicate how people bring off social actions through their talk (Hutchby & Wooffitt, 1998; ten Have, 1999; Sacks, 1992; Psathas 1995). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*Area of study that draws from discursive psychology, ethnography and sociology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examine dialogue to determine the social and pragmatic principles of speakers (and hearers) in order to negotiate, structure, and interpret conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Doing being-a-_____’ </li></ul>
    15. 15. Doing being-a-? <ul><li>Participant 1: ok_ you have to raise your hand (1.5) what is this/| (holds up a letter block) </li></ul><ul><li>Participant 2: a block/ </li></ul><ul><li>Participant 1 : no_ you have to raise your hand </li></ul><ul><li>Participant 2 : ok </li></ul><ul><li>Participant 1 : now what’s this/| </li></ul>
    16. 16. MCA & Content Analysis <ul><li>The applicability of MCA theory to textual-analytic approaches has been demonstrated (Dilevko & Gottlieb, 2009). </li></ul><ul><li>Can examine the way categorizations are produced in the interactional context of texts by considering the normative accountability associated with the production of orderliness in ‘text-in-interaction ’. </li></ul><ul><li>With a Bakhtinian understanding of the research participants’ meanings being drawn from a multi-voiced background, the convergences in categories is significant since these confluences can provide insight into ‘nodal’ (Fairclough 2005) or wide-spread, hegemonic discourse in teaching . (Dooly 2009: 23) </li></ul>
    17. 17. Data Corpus, Participants & Context
    18. 18. <ul><li>7 Education students (TEFL) </li></ul><ul><li>-Video and audio recordings of the face to face interaction in classroom. (40 recorded hours) </li></ul><ul><li>-Instances of asynchronous (forum) interaction between the students exchanging feedback on: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-the teaching sequence* (5 sessions: draft revised minimally 3 times following f2f/online interactions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-the podcast* (1 session: designed with online partner) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>individual Action Research (data yet to be compiled). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Micro-teaching sessions (Methodology course) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>-Online synchronous interactions for </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>*the design of the teaching sequence (MSN transcripts) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>*the design of the podcast (SL recordings) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Data Selection <ul><li>LARGE qualitative data corpus; how to avoid ‘selective’ selection? </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of data based on emic approach: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>on constancy of participation of subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saliency of events for the participants (recurrency of events) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Present only one subject here </li></ul>
    20. 20. Peripheral participation (Stated expectations 09/2009) Resolve problems together (tutor and students). Have the tutor as a model of support and guide. Grow as a person, learn to be a teacher. Expand my ‘toolbox’ of experiences that I can use as a future teacher. Become more sure of myself when teaching.
    21. 21. Peripheral Participant (10/2009) transcript f2f <ul><li>A: [who's] taking the minutes today </li></ul><ul><li>Tchr: who feels CHATTY today you feel chatty/ </li></ul><ul><li>Ad: why me come on </li></ul><ul><li>A: Andrew </li></ul><ul><li>Tchr: YOU feel chatty today feel chatty/ who else/ </li></ul><ul><li><1> </li></ul><ul><li>Ad: =no i'm not </li></ul><ul><li>A: (laughs) </li></ul><ul><li>Tchr: these are questions I want you to try to build into the conversation you don't have to ask them i mean take notes to SHA:RE later </li></ul><ul><li>Ad: a:h we've got the same questions </li></ul><ul><li>A: = i like to take notes [yeah yeah] </li></ul>
    22. 22. Reluctance to try new technological resources in student (own) practice <ul><li>Tchr: so up to you guys shall we have a discussion XX ALL of it it's gonna be hard work no matter what </li></ul><ul><li>[…] </li></ul><ul><li>A: i mean it's quite different to do it in moo:dlel </li></ul><ul><li>[…] </li></ul><ul><li>Tchr: it does the link to zoho automatically =yeah </li></ul><ul><li>Ad: uh-hm </li></ul><ul><li>Tchr: you're gonna have to do a link no matter what there's just no platforms </li></ul><ul><li>J: °zohoº X ºzohoº yes </li></ul><ul><li>A: but we haven't used zoho before for these things </li></ul>
    23. 23. Anita Feedback (1/2 year) Becoming more active participant
    24. 24. Disposition to align to CoP/learn from others (St 1: 10/2009) transcript f2f <ul><li>Ad: _ he's been teaching_ i think for four years/ he's got a lot of experience </li></ul><ul><li>A =sorry/ </li></ul><ul><li>MS but with small children/ or_ with small children/ </li></ul><ul><li>Ad no in my opinion/ </li></ul><ul><li>MS XXXX is he teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Ad in my opinion they some of them are teaching in some secondary: secondary_ </li></ul><ul><li>MS so in that case we a:re we have more experience than thEm: </li></ul><ul><li>A =that's what what's: </li></ul><ul><li>Ad but you have some you don't have any experience YOU you have some </li></ul><ul><li>experience/ </li></ul><ul><li>MS bu:t teaching_ with kids/ they are teaching secondary schools that's not the same </li></ul><ul><li>Ad no that's that's the problem the problem because i think </li></ul><ul><li>A melinda said something really interesting last time tha:t <1> that they are stronger in some areas/ than we are we aren´t but we are stronger in other ones so we complement each o/ther_by exchanging opinions we can learn they can learn from us i think and we can learn from them </li></ul>
    25. 25. Aligns herself with IC of Tchr (St 1, 10/2009) Transcript f2f <ul><li>Ad: the course they are taking it's a MASTERS degree so i mean_ </li></ul><ul><li>A: yeah </li></ul><ul><li>Ad: they are well ABOVE us </li></ul><ul><li>A: but they they i mean they know u:m_ more stuff related to languages/ more theory to XX theory/ </li></ul><ul><li>A: =they know and we are more prepared to_ </li></ul><ul><li>V: that they know more th- </li></ul><ul><li>A: to teach we are HE:RE_ learning studying a_ degree ALSO_ ehm_ in order to be a good teacher <.5>in order to know how to teach the students </li></ul><ul><li>Ad: [yeah] but at the moment you don't have any practice because </li></ul><ul><li>A: [we have] </li></ul><ul><li>A :[have little] practice [last years] we did practicum also </li></ul>
    26. 26. Engagement; negotiating meaning thru ‘teacher dialogue’ (i) transcript chat <ul><li>[12:02] Anita Vordun: fisrt of all </li></ul><ul><li>[12:02] Janet Peretz: its okey </li></ul><ul><li>[12:02] Anita Vordun: do you know how to save this conversation? </li></ul><ul><li>[12:02] Disconnected from in-world Voice Chat </li></ul><ul><li>[12:02] Janet Peretz: I just was trying to let you guys know that I was here. </li></ul><ul><li>[12:03] Anita Vordun: ok ok </li></ul><ul><li>[12:04] Anita Vordun: Ok </li></ul><ul><li>[12:04] Anita Vordun: let's decide objectives, etc... </li></ul><ul><li>[12:05] Anita Vordun: hey </li></ul><ul><li>[12:05] Janet Peretz: Well we can just do copy and paste to a word document </li></ul><ul><li>[12:05] Anita Vordun: ?? copy & paste what? </li></ul><ul><li>[12:06] Anita Vordun: let's say what we know okay? </li></ul><ul><li>[12:06] Janet Peretz: the conversation </li></ul><ul><li>[12:06] Janet Peretz: Where do you want to start? </li></ul><ul><li>[12:07] Anita Vordun: do you really want to do a bilingual podcast? </li></ul><ul><li>[12:07] Janet Peretz: We can do something more simple </li></ul><ul><li>[12:07] Anita Vordun: cause if we do it for College students then I don't mind if it's all in Spanish </li></ul>
    27. 27. Engagement; negotiating meaning thru ‘teacher dialogue’ (ii) transcript chat <ul><li>[12:08] Anita Vordun: what you prefer </li></ul><ul><li>[12:08] Anita Vordun: Let's start again </li></ul><ul><li>[12:08] Anita Vordun: ... </li></ul><ul><li>[12:09] Anita Vordun: Spanish podcast for 14 year old students? does this fit in your classes? </li></ul><ul><li>[12:09] Janet Peretz: Well I don't really mind the language. If you want to use it. We can choose english. </li></ul><ul><li>[12:09] Anita Vordun: ok </li></ul><ul><li>[12:10] Anita Vordun: So english podcast for College students? </li></ul><ul><li>[12:10] Anita Vordun: TOPIC? </li></ul><ul><li>[12:10] Janet Peretz: We can use the posd cast as a pre activity </li></ul><ul><li>[12:10] Anita Vordun: yes yes </li></ul><ul><li>[12:10] Janet Peretz: I mean we can do it for children. If we are going to use English </li></ul><ul><li>[12:11] Anita Vordun: I think the podcast should be like an intro and then we can do activities related to it </li></ul>
    28. 28. Alignment & engagement with IC: Integration of tchr knowledge
    29. 29. Anita aligns herself with new learning opportunities associated with ICT (transcript f2f) (i) <ul><li>M: january the fifteenth and then you could give us extra time to prepare the voicethread <1> that's a possibility: ok/ what do you have to say </li></ul><ul><li>J: :one week <1> yes how have you planned your voicethread voicethread or: </li></ul><ul><li>M: ok so that's that's an option/ what do you think </li></ul><ul><li>A: i just wanted to say that if we finally do the wiki as a wi:ki: then doing the voicethread it's also GOO:D but </li></ul><ul><li>J: XX repeat </li></ul><ul><li>A: it's not just because we want to do it it's just because we have to </li></ul><ul><li>M: um-hm </li></ul><ul><li>J: ok/ </li></ul><ul><li>A: at the end of the semester it's for us </li></ul><ul><li>J: what do you think </li></ul><ul><li>MS: i think it would be a nice XX to avoid stress bu:t </li></ul><ul><li>J: ok ok/ </li></ul><ul><li>MS: with extra time </li></ul><ul><li>A: or maybe we can do a voicethread </li></ul><ul><li>J: at the end of the course </li></ul><ul><li>A: [at the end of the] course </li></ul>
    30. 30. Anita aligns herself with new learning opportunities associated with ICT (SL finale) (ii)
    31. 31. Our micro-teaching session was based on the CLT approach and was done using, firstly a VoiceThread presentation and then group work - cooperative learning. To do this, we started the session contextualizing the project and presenting the final product students were expected to do further on: a VoiceThread presentation introducing themselves to Australian students. I would like to point out that we spent quite a lot of time planning this session and rehearsed twice before put it into practice. We built it up from the basis that we wanted to create a micro-teaching plan which has some purposeful and contextualized communicative events . I believe that was the reason why we finally imagined we would get in touch with an Australian school and then we came up with the idea of doing a VoiceThread as a tool to meet new people .
    32. 32. Summary of preliminary findings <ul><li>Naïve expectations/goals </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to specify concrete knowledge/traits of the community </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral participation </li></ul><ul><li>Reluctance to integrate ICT into placement outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Specific goals through comparison of ‘community norms’ (EPOSTL) </li></ul><ul><li>Alignment with community; open to community influence (input) </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement with new knowledge (e.g. Integration of ICT into placement outcomes & own teaching practices) </li></ul><ul><li>Identity through discursive traits (Appropriation of linguistic repetoire) </li></ul><ul><li>Engaged in joint activities belonging to ‘way of doing’ of CoP Shared repertoire (from CoP) of knowledge, tools, resources, experiences, ways of addressing problems, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Ready for full membership in community </li></ul>
    33. 33. Works Cited (i) <ul><li>Anderson, B. (1991) Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism . London/New York: Verso. </li></ul><ul><li>Appadurai, A. (1990) Disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy. Theory, Culture and Society, 7 , 295-301. </li></ul><ul><li>Dilevko, J. & Gottlieb, L. (2009) The relevance of classification theory to textual analysis. Library & Information Science Research, 31 (2), 92-100. </li></ul><ul><li>Dooly, M. Doing diversity. Teachers’ construction of their classroom reality. Bern: Peter Lang. </li></ul><ul><li>Giddens, A. (1991) Modernity and self-identity: Self and society in the late modern age . Stanford CA: Stanford University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Kahn, T. (1999) A New Model of Education: Designing Virtual Communities for Creativity and Learning. Edutopia . Downloaded 08/05/2010 from http://www.edutopia.org/designing-virtual-communities-creativity-and-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Kanno, Y. & Norton, B. (2003) Imagined communities and educational possibilities: Introduction. Journal of Language, Identity and Education , 2(4), 241-249. </li></ul><ul><li>Keown, P.A. (2009) A virtual community of practice approach to teacher professional development and learning , PhD Dissertation, University of Waikato. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Works Cited (ii) <ul><li>Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (1991) Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Moore, E. & Dooly, M. (2010) ‘How do the apples reproduce (themselves)?’ How teacher trainees negotiate language, content, and membership in a CLIL science education classroom at a multilingual university. Journal of Language, Identity and Education, 9, 58-79. </li></ul><ul><li>Murphy, E. & Laferriere, T. (2003) Virtual Communities for Professional Development: Helping Teachers Map the Territory in Landscapes without Bearings. Alberta Journal of Educational Research , 49(1), 70-82. </li></ul><ul><li>Norton, B. & Kamal, F. (2003) The imagined communities of English language learners in a Pakistani school. Journal of Language, Identity and Education , 2(4), 301-317. </li></ul><ul><li>Pennycook, A. (2003) Global Englishes, Rip Slyme and performativity. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 7 (4), 513-533. </li></ul><ul><li>Ryan, S. (2006) Language learning motivation within the context of globalisation: An L2 self within an imagined global community. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies: An International Journal , 3 (1), 23-45. </li></ul><ul><li>Simon, R. (1992) Teaching against the grain: Texts for a pedagogy of possibility. New York: Bergin & Garvey. </li></ul><ul><li>Syed, Z. (2001) Notions of self in foreign language learning: A qualitative analysis. In Z. Dörnyei & R. Schmidt (Eds.) Motivation and second language acquisition (pp. 127-148). Honolulu: Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center, University of Hawai’i at Moanoa. </li></ul><ul><li>Wenger, E. (1998) Communities of practice: learning, meaning and identity . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul>Thank you for your attention!

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