is transmitted from one person toanother Diseases which can be caused byliving organism which can be eitherinfectious or contagious.
easily be transmitted from one personto another by direct and indirectcontact. disease that cannot be transmittedeasily and transmitted through a breakon the skin or break on the mucousmembrane.
person to person transmission throughphysical contact droplet infection. Mouth to mouth contact Genitals to genitals Skin to skin contact articles contaminated with thesecretions of the patient.
inanimate objects other than foods,water, or milk.
AgentHost Environ ment
Bacteria, VirusVirulence- strength or the power or thecapacity of the micro organism to causethe disease when they grow and multiply
Susceptibility – the degree of resistancethe host have against the invading microorganism.
it must be conducive/ favourable fortheir growth and multiplication
Causative agentSusceptibl reservoir e hostPortal of Portal of entry exit Mode of transmissi on
Storage or container
is a person or animal knownto have been in such association with aninfected person or animal as to have hadthe opportunity of acquiring the infection. A person whose medicalhistory and symptoms suggest that he mayhave or be developing some communicablediseases.
medical history with diagnostictest reveals he hashaving the disease. person who without apparentsymptoms of a C.D. harbours this specificinfectious agent and may serve as a sourceof infection.
it indicates the potential of thedisease conveyance of the agent to ahost are arthropod or other invertebrate that conveys agent from a person or animal to another person or animal
it indicates the potential of thedisease conveyance of the agent to ahost viacontaminated or infected arthropodssuch as flies, mosquitoes and others.
1. Incubation Period – the time intervalbetween the first exposure to theappearance of the first s/s -premonition ofan impending attack of a disease.3. Period of Illness – patient actuallymanifesting the s/s of the disease4. Decline s/s subside5. 5.Convalescent the symptoms return to
1. To prevent the spread of the disease2. To control the disease separation of articles or discharges coming from infected person based on the period of communicability. the time interval when the body is still discharging the micro-organism.
observe for highlycontagious disease protect the patientfrom other because they have loweredresistance. separatethe discharges coming from the skin andwound.
Limitation on the freedom of movementbased on the longest incubation period.
limitation offreedom of movements of such well personsor domestic animals as have been exposedto CD for a period of time equal to thelongest usual incubation period of thedisease in such manner as to have preventeffective contact with those not so exposed.
is selectivepartial limitation of freedom of movementsof persons or domestic animals commonlyon the basis of known or presumeddifferences in susceptibility or sometimesbecause of danger of disease transmission.
is the practice of closesupervision of contacts for the purpose ofprompt recognition of infection or illness butwithout restricting their movements. is the separation forspecial consideration control observation ofsome part of a group of persons or ofdomestic animals from the others .
destruction of pathogenicmicroorganism either through physical orchemical means. done when the body is still the source of infection. done when the body is no longer the source of infection. destruction ofundesirable animals.
the pathogensmust be destroyed as it lives thebody Handwashing Placarding thepathogens must be destroyedbefore it reaches the body
invasion of the body tissue by pathogenicmicroorganism which multiply and producethe s/s of disease.
when infection aretransmitted from one patient to anotherowing their close proximity or tocarelessness by the staff. It is superimposedsecond infection when one is alreadypresent.
1. Age of the patient2. Previous health of the patient3. Duration of the patient’s stay in the hospital.
ability ofmicroorganism to invade the bodytissues proliferated thus causinginfection period where a certainmicro organism invade the patient. the return of disease after ithas already stopped. characteristic of adisease
occurring within ahospital appearance of rashwhen the eruption occurs on themucous membrane eruption occurs ont heskin.
this is a localization ofthe disease of one point of the body. spread of diseasethroughout the body by the blood stream.
poisonous product s of bacteriagrowing in a focal/local site had beendistributed throughout the body producingthereby generalized symptoms. organism that are presentand multiplying in the blood stream. indicates merely thepresence of bacteria in blood stream anddetectable in blood culture.
presence ofpathogenic agent on a body surface or inan inanimate articles or substance. study of the causes ofdisease. study of thedistribution and causation of disease
substance which iscapable of producing antibodies in thebody tissues or fluids. a specific substanceproduced in the tissues of man or animalin response to the introduction of anantigen into the body. a substance found inthe blood serum and other body fluidswhich is specifically antagonistic to somespecific toxin
the condition of being secure againstany particular disease specifically thepower which a living organismpossesses to resist and overcomeinfection.
is s state ofresistance to infection inherent in the bodytissue which was not brought about througha previous attack of the disease nor byartificial methods of immunization the bodycells are capable of producing immunesubstance or antibodies. either activeor Passive
mayresult from exposure to: 1. Previous attack of disease 2. Active Immunity may be produced by artificial means through the infection of antigen and resultant production of antibodies. 3. Repeated exposure to doses of an organism is dependent onthe presence in the blood of immunesubstances not produced by the personsown body cells.
is the intermittent ofa few isolated and unrelated cases in agiven locality. A disease which is continuouslypresent in a certain community or place. Occurrence of diseaseworldwide Occurrence in certain placesaffecting many persons for a limited periodof time.
1. Wash hands immediately after contactwith each patient and after every contactwith material may be contaminated orpotentially infectious.2. Requirement of gown mask from the pt.with CD.3. Elimination of contaminated items
4. Handles needles, syringes with extremecare5. Handle bed linens and fomites with care.6. Autoclaving of all contaminated items.7. Proper isolation.