Perform tactical combat casualty care


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Perform tactical combat casualty care

  1. 1. In the Vietnam conflict, over 2500 soldiers died due to hemorrhage from wounds to the arms and legs even though the soldiers had no other serious injuries.
  2. 2. <ul><li>What Happened </li></ul><ul><li>This individual was wounded by an IED (improvised explosive device). He sustained a penetrating shrapnel injury to the neck with laceration of his right common carotid artery from which he bled to death. </li></ul><ul><li>What Might Have Saved Him </li></ul><ul><li>Sustained direct pressure </li></ul><ul><li>over the bleeding site </li></ul><ul><li>HemCon dressing </li></ul><ul><li>Faster evacuation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Combat Lifesaver <ul><li>Functioning as a Combat Lifesaver is your secondary mission. </li></ul><ul><li>Your primary mission is still your combat duties. </li></ul><ul><li>You should render care only when such care does not endanger your primary mission. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Why CLS? <ul><li> About 15 percent of the casualties that die before reaching a medical treatment facility can be saved if proper measures are taken. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop severe bleeding (hemorrhaging) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relieve tension pneumothorax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restore the airway </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>The three goals of CLS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Save preventable deaths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Prevent additional casualties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Complete the mission </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Care Under Fire <ul><li>Care rendered by the medic or first responder at the scene of the injury while still under effective hostile fire </li></ul><ul><li>Very limited as to the care you can provide </li></ul>
  8. 9. Tactical Field Care <ul><li>Care rendered once you are no longer under effective hostile fire </li></ul><ul><li>You and the casualty are safe and you are free to provide casualty care (primary mission is complete) </li></ul>
  9. 10. Combat Casualty Evacuation Care <ul><li>Care rendered during casualty evacuation </li></ul><ul><li>Call Medivac and set up LZ </li></ul><ul><li>Additional medical personnel and equipment may have been pre-staged and available at this stage of casualty management </li></ul>
  10. 11. Care Under Fire
  11. 12. Care Under Fire <ul><li>If the casualty can function, direct him to return fire, move to cover, and administer self-aid </li></ul><ul><li>If unable to return fire or move to safety and you cannot assist, tell the casualty to “play dead” </li></ul><ul><li>If a victim of a blast or penetrating injury is found without a pulse, respirations, or other signs of life, DO NOT attempt CPR </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>About 90 percent of combat deaths occur on the battlefield before the casualties reach a medical treatment facility (MTF). Most of these deaths cannot be prevented by you or the medic. Examples: Massive head injury, massive trauma to the body. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Care Under Fire <ul><li>move casualty to cover quickly </li></ul><ul><li>If the casualty has severe bleeding from a limb or has an amputation, apply a tourniquet </li></ul>Improved First Aid Kit
  14. 15. Care Under Fire <ul><li>Hemorrhage from extremities is the 1 st leading cause of preventable combat deaths </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt use of tourniquets to stop the bleeding may be life-saving in this phase </li></ul>
  15. 16. Combat Application Tourniquet (CAT) WINDLASS OMNI TAPE BAND WINDLASS STRAP
  16. 17. Tourniquets
  17. 18. Tactical Field Care
  18. 19. Tactical Field Care <ul><li>Perform tactical field care when you and the casualty are not under direct enemy fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Recheck bleeding control measures if they were applied while under fire. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Tactical Field Care <ul><li>Casualties with confused mental status should be disarmed immediately of both weapons and grenades. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Tactical Field Care <ul><li>Initial assessment is the ABCs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Airway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circulation </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Tactical Field Care: Airway <ul><li>Open the airway with a chin-lift or jaw-thrust maneuver </li></ul><ul><li>If unconscious and spontaneously breathing, insert a nasopharyngeal airway </li></ul><ul><li>Place the casualty in the recovery position </li></ul>
  22. 23. Nasopharyngeal Airway
  23. 24. A survivable airway problem
  24. 25. Tactical Field Care: Breathing <ul><li>tension pneumothorax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cover the wound with occlusive dressing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform a needle chest decompression </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. Needle Chest Decompression
  26. 28. Tactical Field Care: Circulation <ul><li>Any bleeding site not previously controlled should now be addressed </li></ul><ul><li>Only the absolute minimum of clothing should be removed, although a thorough search for additional injuries must be performed </li></ul>
  27. 29. Tactical Field Care: Circulation <ul><li>Apply a tourniquet to a major amputation of the extremity </li></ul><ul><li>Apply an emergency trauma bandage and direct pressure to a severely bleeding wound </li></ul><ul><li>If a tourniquet was previously applied, consider changing to a pressure dressing and/or using hemostatic dressings (HemCon) or hemostatic powder (QuikClot) to control any additional hemorrhage </li></ul>
  28. 30. Hemostatic Dressing
  29. 31. Tactical Field Care: Additional injuries <ul><li>Splint fractures as circumstances allow while verifying pulse and prepare for evacuation </li></ul><ul><li>Administer the Soldier’s Combat Pill Pack </li></ul>
  30. 32. Combat Pill Pack
  31. 33. Combat Casualty Evacuation Care
  32. 34. Casevac Care <ul><li>If the casualty requires evacuation, prepare the casualty </li></ul><ul><li>Use a blanket to keep the casualty warm </li></ul><ul><li>If the casualty is to be evacuated by medical transport, you may need to prepare and transmit a MEDEVAC request </li></ul>
  33. 35. Preservation of Amputation Parts <ul><li>Rinse amputated part free of debris </li></ul><ul><li>Wrap loosely in saline-moistened sterile gauze </li></ul><ul><li>Seal amputated part in a plastic bag or cravat </li></ul><ul><li>Place in a cool container, do not freeze </li></ul><ul><li>Never place amputated part in water </li></ul><ul><li>Never place amputated part directly on ice </li></ul><ul><li>Never use dry ice to cool an amputated part </li></ul>
  34. 37. Conclusion <ul><li>“ If during the next war you could do only two things, (1) place a tourniquet and (2) treat a tension pneumothorax, then you can probably save between 70 and 90 percent of all the preventable deaths on the battlefield.” </li></ul><ul><li>- COL Ron Bellamy </li></ul>
  35. 38. QUESTIONS?
  36. 39. United States Army Medical Material Agency (USAMMA)