LOVE AND
COURTSHIP  <3
Relationship Development
 Characteristics Desired in a Mate
 women
 seeking men are providing information
about their p...
Relationship Development
theories
 Evolutionary theory,
 which states that women and
men behave in ways that will
maximi...
Relationship Development
Men
 value physical attractiveness and
youth in their mates because these
are indicators of fert...
Relationship Development
Women
 prefer mates who have a high
occupational status because financial
resources will help en...
 Because women’s reproductive
resources diminish with age, and
men’s financial resources generally
increase with age, evo...
social role theory
 Eagly and Wood (1999)
 provides a better explanation than
evolutionary theory for sex differences
in...
social role theory
 females will value a mate with high
earning capacity and males will value
a mate with domestic skills...
 Social role theory would predict that
sex differences in mate preferences
ought to decrease as women’s and
men’s roles b...
social construction
theory,
 which argues that social norms
dictate what is desirable in a mate.
Relationship Development
 In general, men and women have
similar reasons for entering romantic
relationships.
 Support a...
Relationship Development
 More attractive faces were associated
with the activation of areas in the brain
associated with...
Relationship Development
The authors concluded that
physical attractiveness has
more reward value for men
than women.
Relationship Development
Among Same-sex
Relationship Development
Among Same-sex
One of the primary
objections people raise with
respect to gay and lesbian
relatio...
Relationship Development
Among Same-sex
•Acceptance of homosexual relationships also has
gathered increasing support.
• In...
Relationship Development
Among Same-sex
•People who are opposed to same-
sex marriage tend to be
•Republican,
•evangelical...
Relationship Development
 gay men and lesbians look for the
same characteristics in a mate as do
heterosexuals—affection,...
Relationship Development
 Unlike heterosexual women, there is
no evidence that lesbians value a
mate’s resources.
 statu...
Relationship Development
 One study showed that romantic love
and commitment were valued more
by women than men among
het...
Relationship Initiation
Relationship Initiation
 Traditionally, the male has taken the
initiative in romantic relationships.
 Today, it is more ...
Relationship initiation
 The initiation of a relationship may be
more awkward for homosexuals than
heterosexuals.
 One w...
Relationship Initiation
the early stages of
romantic
relationships
may be one
arena in which
men are less
confident and
in...
 Several differences in the way
heterosexual men and women behave
also appear in the way gay men and
lesbians behave.
 F...
 both homosexual and heterosexual
men are more proactive than their
female counterparts.
Romantic relationships are
expected to provide
closeness or intimacy, love,
and sexual exclusivity.
THE NATURE OF
ROMANTIC...
Intimacy
 One feature of intimacy that seems to
be central to women’s and men’s
definitions is self-disclosure.
 Women
...
 The role of self-disclosure in
intimacy is evolving as our access
to one another has exponentially
increased due to onli...
 If men are more likely than women
to define intimacy through sexuality,
we would expect the most sexual
behavior to occu...
 lesbians and gay men reported
greater intimacy than
heterosexual married people.
Despite the higher intimacy,
lesbians a...
Love
 When it comes to matters
of the heart, who is more
romantic: men or women?
 men view love as more central to
marriage than women do. In this
sense, men could be considered the
more romantic sex.
...
 Men fall in love more quickly
compared to women
 Women are more likely to have a
practical view of relationships,
belie...
 According to Lee’s (1973) theory of
loves(3 Primary Love Styles):
 eros, or romantic love;
 storge, or friendship love...
 There are also three blends of these
love styles:
 mania, or manic love, is a
 blend of eros and ludus;
 pragma, or p...
 Women typically score higher
than men on pragma and
storge,
 women are more practical than
men when it comes to love.
...
Ludus is associated
with lower relationship
satisfaction, and storge
and pragma are
unrelated to
relationship
satisfactio...
sexuality
 Men seem to be more satisfied with
their sexual relationships than
women.
 one arena where men seem to
commun...
Attitudes Toward Sex
 Sexual attitudes and behaviors have
become more permissive over the
years.
 women have more negati...
 Although attitudes toward sex in
general and sex before marriage
have become more liberal over the
past few decades, att...
Motives for Sex
 women have a relational
orientation toward sex in which sex
is integrated into the relationship as
a way...
Motives for Sex
 Girls’ and boys’ reasons for having sex
are similar:
 love for their partner,
 curiosity, and
 sexual...
 Heterosexual and homosexual
women were more interested than
men in having sex to express
emotional closeness.
Maintaining
Relationships
Maintenance Strategies
 One way that couples maintain
relationships is via a series of cognitive
mechanisms that reflect ...
Gender Role Attitude
 through accommodation.
 wives maintain relationships by
taking on more than their share
wives main...
Emotional Skills
 refer to the management of one’s own
and one’s partner’s emotions during
interactions.
 Softening the ...
sexual activity
 be construed as a maintenance
behavior.
 Sexual activity is both a source
of marriage vitality and a so...
Love and courtship on Gender and Development Course 
Love and courtship on Gender and Development Course 
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Love and courtship on Gender and Development Course 

513

Published on

this is a PPT for Gender Differences for love and courtship

Published in: Entertainment & Humor
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
513
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
55
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Love and courtship on Gender and Development Course "

  1. 1. LOVE AND COURTSHIP  <3
  2. 2. Relationship Development  Characteristics Desired in a Mate  women  seeking men are providing information about their physical attractiveness and seeking men with education and a good work ethic.  men  seeking women are interested in finding an attractive mate and providing information about their financial status and work ethic.
  3. 3. Relationship Development theories  Evolutionary theory,  which states that women and men behave in ways that will maximize the survival of their genes.  Men value physical attractiveness and youth in their mates because these are indicators of fertility
  4. 4. Relationship Development Men  value physical attractiveness and youth in their mates because these are indicators of fertility.  The fact that people are better able to recall attractive than unattractive female faces has been considered evidence that physical attractiveness has evolved as a cue to fertility in women.
  5. 5. Relationship Development Women  prefer mates who have a high occupational status because financial resources will help ensure the survival of their offspring.  These ideas are based on the parental investment model, which states that women will invest more in their offspring than will men because they have less opportunity than men to reproduce.
  6. 6.  Because women’s reproductive resources diminish with age, and men’s financial resources generally increase with age, evolutionary theory also would predict that younger women would be paired with older men.
  7. 7. social role theory  Eagly and Wood (1999)  provides a better explanation than evolutionary theory for sex differences in mate selection.  They suggest that a society’s emphasis on a distinct division of labor between the sexes will bedirectly linked to sex differences in mate selection.
  8. 8. social role theory  females will value a mate with high earning capacity and males will value a mate with domestic skills in societies where  men’s role is to work outside the home and women’s role is to work inside the home.
  9. 9.  Social role theory would predict that sex differences in mate preferences ought to decrease as women’s and men’s roles become more similar.
  10. 10. social construction theory,  which argues that social norms dictate what is desirable in a mate.
  11. 11. Relationship Development  In general, men and women have similar reasons for entering romantic relationships.  Support and companionship are the primary motivating factors.  Women and men desire partners who are  honest,  warm,  affectionate,  kind, and  share their interests.
  12. 12. Relationship Development  More attractive faces were associated with the activation of areas in the brain associated with reward for both men and women. However, one of these areas in particular—the orbitofrontal cortex—was particularly active in response to attractive faces for men.
  13. 13. Relationship Development The authors concluded that physical attractiveness has more reward value for men than women.
  14. 14. Relationship Development Among Same-sex
  15. 15. Relationship Development Among Same-sex One of the primary objections people raise with respect to gay and lesbian relationship is that it will have an adverse effect on “family values.”
  16. 16. Relationship Development Among Same-sex •Acceptance of homosexual relationships also has gathered increasing support. • In 2001, 40% of Americans approved of homosexual relations; by 2010, the rate had increased to 52% •Likewise, support for same-sex marriage is gradually increasing—especially among younger people. •Although the majority ofAmericans oppose same- sex marriage, the opposition number has decreased from 68% in 1996 to 53% in 2010 Jones, 2010).
  17. 17. Relationship Development Among Same-sex •People who are opposed to same- sex marriage tend to be •Republican, •evangelical, and •less educated (Fleischmann & Moyer, 2009).
  18. 18. Relationship Development  gay men and lesbians look for the same characteristics in a mate as do heterosexuals—affection, shared interests, similarity, and dependability (Peplau & Fingerhut, 2007).
  19. 19. Relationship Development  Unlike heterosexual women, there is no evidence that lesbians value a mate’s resources.  status is less important to relationships among sexual minorities.  Like heterosexual men, homosexual men seem to value a mate’s physical attractiveness, whereas lesbians do not
  20. 20. Relationship Development  One study showed that romantic love and commitment were valued more by women than men among heterosexuals, but there were no sex differences when gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals were compared to each other (Meier et al., 2009)
  21. 21. Relationship Initiation
  22. 22. Relationship Initiation  Traditionally, the male has taken the initiative in romantic relationships.  Today, it is more acceptable for women to invite men on a date, and there are more forums set up for female initiation; there are dances in high school and parties in college where females are intended to initiate.
  23. 23. Relationship initiation  The initiation of a relationship may be more awkward for homosexuals than heterosexuals.  One way that a homosexual relationship may develop is out of friendship.  Lesbian relationships, in particular, are likely to develop out of friendship
  24. 24. Relationship Initiation the early stages of romantic relationships may be one arena in which men are less confident and influential than women.
  25. 25.  Several differences in the way heterosexual men and women behave also appear in the way gay men and lesbians behave.  For example, gay men place a greater emphasis on the physical aspects of intimacy (sex) and  lesbians place a greater emphasis on the emotional aspects of intimacy, suggesting that the sex differences observed among heterosexuals is related to being male versus female rather than status
  26. 26.  both homosexual and heterosexual men are more proactive than their female counterparts.
  27. 27. Romantic relationships are expected to provide closeness or intimacy, love, and sexual exclusivity. THE NATURE OF ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS
  28. 28. Intimacy  One feature of intimacy that seems to be central to women’s and men’s definitions is self-disclosure.  Women  Intimacy is by talking or self-disclosure  Men  intimacy more as a feeling of comfort in the other’s presence and physical proximity.
  29. 29.  The role of self-disclosure in intimacy is evolving as our access to one another has exponentially increased due to online communications and technologies.  Even among teens, males are more likely than females to incorporate sex into their notions of an intimate relationship (Cavanagh, 2007).
  30. 30.  If men are more likely than women to define intimacy through sexuality, we would expect the most sexual behavior to occur among two gay men and the least to occur among two lesbians.  it seems likely that a romantic relationship between two women will be closer or more intimate than a romantic relationship that involves at least one man.
  31. 31.  lesbians and gay men reported greater intimacy than heterosexual married people. Despite the higher intimacy, lesbians and gay men also reported a greater sense of autonomy than heterosexual married couples
  32. 32. Love  When it comes to matters of the heart, who is more romantic: men or women?
  33. 33.  men view love as more central to marriage than women do. In this sense, men could be considered the more romantic sex.  One reason men were more romantic than women had to do with the historical relationship between the sexes.  Women were marrying not just a man, but a way of life; thus women were taught to be practical in mate selection.
  34. 34.  Men fall in love more quickly compared to women  Women are more likely to have a practical view of relationships, believing that it is possible to love more than one person and that economic security is more important than passion to a relationship.
  35. 35.  According to Lee’s (1973) theory of loves(3 Primary Love Styles):  eros, or romantic love;  storge, or friendship love  ludus, or game-playing love.
  36. 36.  There are also three blends of these love styles:  mania, or manic love, is a  blend of eros and ludus;  pragma, or practical  love, is a blend of storge and ludus;  agape, or  pure love, is a blend of eros and storge. The
  37. 37.  Women typically score higher than men on pragma and storge,  women are more practical than men when it comes to love.  men score higher than women on ludus.  men are less willing than women to commit to a relationship
  38. 38. Ludus is associated with lower relationship satisfaction, and storge and pragma are unrelated to relationship satisfaction.
  39. 39. sexuality  Men seem to be more satisfied with their sexual relationships than women.  one arena where men seem to communicate more effectively than women.
  40. 40. Attitudes Toward Sex  Sexual attitudes and behaviors have become more permissive over the years.  women have more negative attitudes toward sex compared to men.  men have more permissive standards compared to women, meaning men find sex to be more acceptable in general
  41. 41.  Although attitudes toward sex in general and sex before marriage have become more liberal over the past few decades, attitudes toward extramarital affairs have not changed and remain negative.
  42. 42. Motives for Sex  women have a relational orientation toward sex in which sex is integrated into the relationship as a way to convey intimacy.  men have a recreational orientation toward sex in which physical gratification is the goal and a relationship is not required,
  43. 43. Motives for Sex  Girls’ and boys’ reasons for having sex are similar:  love for their partner,  curiosity, and  sexual desire.  Boys and girls also agreed that having sex increases a boy’s—but not a girl’s—popularity.
  44. 44.  Heterosexual and homosexual women were more interested than men in having sex to express emotional closeness.
  45. 45. Maintaining Relationships
  46. 46. Maintenance Strategies  One way that couples maintain relationships is via a series of cognitive mechanisms that reflect both accuracy and bias.  In terms of bias, couples who view each other more positively than they really are (positivity bias)  and couples who perceive each other as more similar than they really are (similarity bias) are happier.  Although women show more biases than men, the biases are equally associated with marital satisfaction for both women and men
  47. 47. Gender Role Attitude  through accommodation.  wives maintain relationships by taking on more than their share wives maintain relationships by taking on more than their share.  wives sacrifice personal leisure time
  48. 48. Emotional Skills  refer to the management of one’s own and one’s partner’s emotions during interactions.  Softening the delivery of a negative message, being open and receptive to others’ communication, anger directed at the behavior rather than the person are examples of emotion skills.
  49. 49. sexual activity  be construed as a maintenance behavior.  Sexual activity is both a source of marriage vitality and a source of marriage conflict.
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×