Ppt non marital relationship


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Ppt non marital relationship

  1. 1. Agenda <ul><li>Share your Race & Ethnic Variations chart </li></ul><ul><li>Changing Gender Roles- Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Premarital Relationships </li></ul>
  2. 2. Chapter 7: Premarital and Non-Marital Relationships
  3. 3. What are premarital relationships?
  4. 4. Socio-Cultural Context of Non-Marital Relationships <ul><li>Non-marital and premarital relationships have become increasingly ambiguous. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process is filled with uncertainty and risk. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norms regarding mate selection are changing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More emphasis on the expressive self ; less emphasis on institutional regulation. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What is love?
  6. 6. Love <ul><li>Love is a socially constructed concept because it takes on different meanings, importance, and behaviors according to the social context in which it is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Love that supports marriage and family has emotional, cognitive, relational, and behavioral aspects. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Aspects of Love <ul><li>Emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Relational </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul>
  8. 8. Individualistic Explanations of Partner Selection <ul><li>Instinctive and biological theories are rooted in evolutionary instinct, genetic similarity, and unconscious needs and drives. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. mating and ovulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parental image theories assume that individuals select mates similar to their opposite-sex parent. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. psychoanalitical theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complementary needs theories assume that people choose others who meet their psychological needs. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Socio-cultural Explanations of Partner Selection <ul><li>Value Theory—Interpersonal attraction results from having similar values. </li></ul><ul><li>Role Theory—People who share similar role definitions and expectations are more likely to partner. </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange Theory—Persons will partner when benefits outweigh costs for each. </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential Theories—view movement toward marriage or cohabitation as a series of changing criteria, stages, or patterned regularities. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Stimulus-Value-Role (SVR) Theory <ul><li>Couples pass through three stages prior to marriage. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulus –Individuals are drawn to each other based on external characteristics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value –If mutual attraction occurs, partners compare values. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role –If values are similar, partners begin to confide in each other, fulfill tasks, and evaluate each other as potential spouses. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. From Single to Married <ul><li>The process is youth-centered and competitive. </li></ul><ul><li>It occurs in a series of stages with differing commitment levels. </li></ul><ul><li>The rules, goals, and strategies of the “game” are different for males and females. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication often takes the form of nonverbal cues, signs, gestures and other symbolic movements. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. How would you describe dating?
  13. 13. How would you describe hooking-up?
  14. 14. Hooking Up and Dating <ul><li>Traditional dating is becoming more infrequent. </li></ul><ul><li>Hooking up , physical contact or intercourse without commitment, is becoming more common. </li></ul><ul><li>Hanging out in a group where individuals do not make their interests in each other explicit is also becoming the norm. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Hooking Up and Dating <ul><li>Internet chat rooms or personals ads </li></ul><ul><li>Dating scripts still tend to be fairly traditional, with men exerting greater control </li></ul><ul><li>Waller’s Principle of Least Interest suggests that the partner who is less interested in continuing the relationship controls the relationship. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HJNTIY </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Interactional Patterns of Hooking up <ul><li>Receive support from same-sex friends </li></ul><ul><li>Some research suggests it is more common among men </li></ul><ul><li>Does not have an impact on psychological well-being. </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts sexual behaviors </li></ul>
  17. 17. Engagement <ul><li>Engagement is the final transition in the process from single to married. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a ritual that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implies dating exclusiveness; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforces the importance of the couple relationship; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves a financial and symbolic commitment. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Non-Marital Cohabitation <ul><li>Non-marital cohabitation has become an important step in the courtship process. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2006, there were 4.7 million unmarried heterosexual couple households in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>More than half of first unions in the 1990’s were cohabiting, rather than marriage. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Methodological Concerns <ul><li>Self-selection bias may influence findings on cohabitation. </li></ul><ul><li>The meanings of cohabitation are less clear than the meanings of marriage. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Interactional Patterns of Cohabitation <ul><li>Compared to married persons, cohabitors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have more liberal gender roles; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are more likely to keep finances separate; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less likely to own homes; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to experience relationship violence; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a lower desire to marry; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are less likely to ever marry. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does not serve as a successful trial for marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Lower-quality marriages and are more likely to divorce (may be due to self-selection bias). </li></ul>
  21. 21. Chapter 8: Sexuality and Non-Marital Relationships
  22. 22. Regulation of Sexual Relationships <ul><li>Sexual relationships are regulated by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutions such as family, religion, and education; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social norms, statuses and roles, and social sanctions; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differing expectations, rights, and privileges by gender, age, marital status, and sexual orientation </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Biological versus Sociological Approaches <ul><li>Biological approaches emphasize anatomical, hormonal, and chemical factors relevant to sexual drives, needs and responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Sociological explanations focus on socialization and social context. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Social Dimensions of Sexuality <ul><li>Social Network Theory focuses on the sexual dyad within a larger network of social relationships. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home, School, or Neighborhood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choice Theory explains sexual decision making in terms of available resources, behavioral goals, and potential rewards versus costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Scripting Theory explains how people construct sexual ideas through social interaction. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Sexual Orientation <ul><li>Sexual Orientation is an enduring emotional, romantic, sexual, or affectional attraction to another person. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterosexuals are attracted to the opposite sex. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homosexuals are attracted to the same sex. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bisexuals are attracted to both sexes. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Origins of Sexual Orientation <ul><li>Sexual orientation results from a complex interplay of biological, cognitive, and environmental factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Both appear early in life. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals have little choice in their sexual orientation. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Heteronormativity <ul><li>Heteronormativity social process whereby the rules or scripts for acceptable social behavior are constructed by labeling unacceptable behaviors and attaching negative images and sanctions to those labels. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defines ‘normal’ sexuality as heterosexual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumes that non-heterosexual sexuality is ‘deviant’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumes that everyone is heterosexual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are the implications of heteronormativity? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Non-Marital Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Antecedents of sexual behavior are factors that precede a given sexual activity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological antecedents include age and sexual maturation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological antecedents include cognitive and emotional development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social antecedents include family and peers, religion, and cultural norms. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Family Antecedents of Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Families are central in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forming sexual attitudes and behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching standards of sexual conduct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing role models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoting a healthy environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neither parental attitudes nor parent-child communication affect the sexual and contraceptive behavior of teens . </li></ul><ul><li>Both lenient and strict parental disciplinary styles result in greater child sexual permissiveness. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Non-Family Influences on Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Reference group theory posits that we form and re-form our self concepts and experiences based on reactions we receive from others in our social network. </li></ul><ul><li>When children reach adolescence, peer sexual behaviors and attitudes gain in importance. </li></ul><ul><li>Using alcohol or drugs greatly increases the risk of early sexual activity. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Formal Sex Education <ul><li>The decision to engage in sexual behavior is not influenced by sex education classes. </li></ul><ul><li>Formal sex education seems to have some effect on knowledge about, and effective use of, contraceptives. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstinence only vs Comprehensive </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Premarital Sexual Intercourse <ul><li>Involves at least one partner who is single and has not been previously married. </li></ul><ul><li>First sexual intercourse in the U.S.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most often occurs within a ‘hooking up’ or dating context; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is usually an unplanned event; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seldom includes the use of contraceptives; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is often not pleasurable, especially for women. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Changes in Premarital Sexual Activity <ul><li>Premarital sexual activity has increased since 1971, but at a much slower rate since 1980. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes are more pronounced for females: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater permissiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer male/female differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double standard remains in place </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. High Risk Sexual Behavior
  35. 35. Chlamydia
  36. 36. Gonorrhea
  37. 37. HPV
  38. 38. High Risk Sexual Behavior and AIDS <ul><li>More than 80% of AIDS cases in the U.S. are males age 20 and over. </li></ul><ul><li>High risk behavior is most common among: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Young people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unmarried people </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Influence of AIDS on American Sexuality <ul><li>Increased selectivity of sexual partners </li></ul><ul><li>Greater condom usage </li></ul><ul><li>NOT abstention from sexual activity </li></ul>