No animation.Men and women are different in many ways; are these differences the cause or the result of the way gender roles are defined?
Click to reveal two bubbles.Men murder far more people than women do; it is hard to discern whether this difference is caused by men’s ability or tendency to commit murder.
Click to reveal bullets.The difference in reputation: men are seen as dominant, forceful, and independent, and women are seen as more deferential, nurturing, and affiliative.
Click to reveal two text boxes and a question.The question on this slide in more detail:Is the different style of play a result of genetic male-female differences?Or is it a part of the culturally-influenced socialization of men in preparation for competitive roles and succeeding at activities, and the socialization of women in preparation for more social, relational roles they will play? Is it nature or nurture? Image from the 9th edition of the text.
Click to reveal all text.
Click to reveal bullets.The second bullet point refers to the study about women changing roommates more often than men. The authors of that study suggest that this may happen because women are perhaps more determined to seek good emotional intimacy. If you bring up this study, ask the class based on their experiences as college students: “do you think there are any explanations for this result?” Do the males (or females) in class have a different way of explaining this?
Click to reveal bullets and sidebar.It is worth speculating: are the adult brain differences results caused by this biological difference in the fetus, or caused by the nurture/experience?
Click to reveal bullets.
Click to reveal Puberty Timing sequence.On this diagram, in addition to the changes in physical characteristics, is the activation of the reproductive organs: menarche (first menstrual period) and spermarche (first ejaculation).Social advantages include increased success in sports and dating, and increased confidence.Risks include impulsive sexual activity, alcohol abuse, and pregnancy; taking on more adult behavior while still emotionally immature.
Click to reveal bullets and sidebar.Biological changes (problems in sexual identity development) can bend gender, but not fully change it.Do students think that these gender identity phenomena originate in biology, culture influence, or in the mind and personal experience?The sidebar covers material that doesn’t appear until later in the chapter, but if you’re going to use the material on the left, this slide seems to follow up well from the other gender-bending possibilities.
Click to reveal text boxes and questions.
Click to reveal bullets.Some parents may seem mystified that even when they don’t try to shape kids toward traditional gender role behavior, it happens anyway. Does that mean it’s genetic? What may be genetic is the drive to form gender schema just as kids are driven to figure out the rest of the world, and to “play detective” in figuring out what boys and girls are supposed to do, even if parents try to present no information which differentiates gender roles. Kids find out, and then imitation does its work, along with the desire to fit in and to do behavior that gets rewarded.
Click to reveal bullets.Biological changes (problems in sexual identity development) can bend gender, but not fully change it.Do students think that these gender identity phenomena originate in biology, culture influence, or in the mind and personal experience?The sidebar covers material that doesn’t appear until later in the chapter, but if you’re going to use the material on the left, this slide seems to follow up well from the other gender-bending possibilities.
Click to reveal bullets.
Click to reveal table.Instructor: you could remind students that this study was based on a sample of people willing to be observed in arousal and orgasm. What adjustment might we have to make in generalizing the results to the whole population? Do students think that the era of the study or the laboratory conditions limit the applicability of the results? If so, how? How might unobserved, spontaneous sexual response be different than these phases seen in the laboratory? Given the era of the study (the initial phase was 1957-65) , do students think that results would be different now?
Click to reveal text box on right.Again, I have modified the title of the topic to narrow it (see explanation on earlier slide notes) but I left the term “disorders.” Do students see a problem (stigma, etc) using that term? These disorders impair arousal and response; the paraphilias direct arousal and response to objects, situations, or individuals that are not part of normative response cycle. Psychologists and psychiatrists once believed homosexuality was a disturbance of normative sexual response. In 1973, homosexuality was removed from the DSM-II classification of mental disorders.
Click to reveal bullets and sidebar
Click to reveal all text boxes.I have modified the title of “Teen Pregnancy” to go beyond the obvious “adolescent sexual activity puts you at risk of teenpregnancy” to highlight the disruption of the typical path to independent or emergent adulthood.
Click to reveal bullets.Instructor: you might add the following background material: "the term “homosexual” was first used in the 1800s; were there “homosexuals” before the 1800s? The issue is politically charged and hotly disputed. Clearly there were people who engaged in homosexual acts, but saying they had a homosexual ‘identity’ may be introducing a modern view of sexuality that was alien to the times. Most premodern people viewed sexual acts as homosexual or heterosexual, but they did not classify the people performing the acts
Click to reveal bullets.Instructor: in case students challenge that figure, you can point out that 9 x 9 x 9 = 729. However, that total in the real world is likely to count some partners twice, so “511” may reduce the number to the likely number of separate individuals potentially contracting the STI.
Click to reveal bullets on left.Sexual preference, especially if it is bisexual or homosexual, may not be revealed or acted on when one’s attractions are the subject of prejudice.Click to reveal sidebar.Does protecting anonymity ensure honest answers about a stigmatized subject? People may worry about information being revealed or tracked despite the promise of anonymity, and they may not want to document a stigmatized behavior even to themselves. This is actually a problem in all self-reported surveys, such as those that ask, “how happy is your marriage,” or “how satisfied are you with your life.”
Click to reveal bullets.
Click to reveal bullets and sidebar.A comment implied in the text about these two examples: non-sexual differences between gay and straight men could be biological but could also be a function of the social experience of being gay in this society.
Click to reveal bullets.
Click to reveal bullets.As more people are open about their sexual orientation, acceptance may spread thanks to the mere exposure effect. However, the acceptance of gay and lesbian friends and family members does not always translate into general acceptance and vice versa.
Click to reveal bullets, question and answers.Instructor: more about other male/female differences, ones which are presumed to be more influenced by culture than genes, later in the chapter.The information below is for your use in case you decide not to use upcoming 2-3 slides to save time:The potential answer to this question that I hope students can figure out: males who had the trait of promiscuity are more likely to have their genes continue, even spread, in the next generation. And there is little cost to spreading extra genes. Promiscuous women, by contrast, might have been LESS likely to have this result, because they would be less likely to have stable male partners around to help with the parenting than women who were more selective about whom they had sex with.
Click to reveal bullets.
Click to add notes.
PSY 150 403 CHAPTER 5 SLIDES
by Jim Foley
Gender refers to the physical, social, and
behavioral characteristics that are culturally
associated with male and female roles and
Some of these traits may be genetic differences;
other role differences may be nurtured by culture.
Gender differences and similarities
45 out of 46 genes
Same body and
brain structures and
Similar levels of
Compared to men, women (as a
group, on average):
• Start puberty 2 years sooner
• Live 5 years longer
• Have 70% more fat
• Have 40% less muscle
• Are 5 inches shorter
• Express more emotion
• Are more vulnerable to
• Are less prone to autism, alcohol
dependence, ADHD, antisocial
personality, and suicide
Differences Between Genders
have more fat
Mental and Behavioral Health:
women are more likely to have
depression, anxiety, or eating
men are more likely to have
autism, ADHD, and antisocial
Average/Group differences do not
predict individual comparisons
In this example related to self-esteem, the difference
between groups is small compared to differences
within each gender.
This means: many
women rate higher
than the average
man, in self esteem
and other measures.
Gender and Aggression
Men behave more
women, and are more
likely to behave in
ways that harm
This difference applies
to physical aggression
rather than verbal or
And yet violent acts by
occur, including acts of
terrorism. Bombing in Russia by
female suicide bombers
Gender and Social Power
In a variety of
cultures, men have
reputations that help
them attain more social
controlling more people
and resources) than
Men tend to interact in
more dominating ways
than women. Men
often speak opinions
rather than offering
support and inviting
input as women do.
Gender and Social Connection: Play
When boys play, the focus
tends to be on the activity.
Male play is more competitive.
Men tend to dictate how the
playtime will proceed.
When women play, the focus
tends to be on connection and
Female play is more social.
Girls tend to invite feedback.
Are these differences due to nature or nurture?
Gender and Social Communication
more than men:
more time with
more text messages
longer phone calls
However, men and
women speak about the
same number of words
per day. What fills in the
extra time on those
longer phone calls?
Men and women use communication differently.
Women seek input and
Women speak about
people and feelings.
Men state their
opinions and solutions .
Men speak about things
Gender and Social Connectedness
Both men and women
turn to women when
they want someone
to talk to, seeking the
“tend and befriend”
response or better
In general, women
Women tend to have
stronger ties to
friends and family.
Women are often
more involved with
The Biology of Gender
What biologically makes us
male or female?
It begins with whether our
23rd pair of chromosomes
looks like XX (female) or
Testes develop, and at
seven weeks, the testes
produce a flood of
Hormones then guide the
development of external
During the fourth and
fifth month of
hormones bathe the
In adulthood, women
have thicker areas in a
part of the frontal lobes
that help with verbal
There are also
differences in the
, and ratio of cell bodies
Development and differences
Puberty is the time of sexual
maturation (becoming physically
able to reproduce).
During puberty, increased sex
hormones lead to:
primary and secondary sex
some changes in mood and
Height changes are an early
sign of puberty.
Because girls begin puberty
sooner than boys, girls briefly
overtake boys in height.
Primary Sex Characteristics: Reproductive organs
Secondary Sex Characteristics: body hair, changing voice
The sequence of sexual
predictable, but the time of
onset varies from person to
Maturing early can have
social advantages and also
Variations in Sexual Development
Some people develop with a combination of male
and female physical characteristics, despite being
genetically male or female. This can lead to
controversies of sex typing in athletic competition.
In cases where males had genitalia that were
underformed, absent, or accidentally
removed, attempts to raise them as females often
did not work out well psychosocially.
David “Brenda” Reimer case: After his genitalia
were accidentally damaged, then removed, he was
raised as a female, though he showed male
behaviors. As an adult, he learned the truth, lived
as a man, got married, but eventually committed
The Influence of Culture
Does culture define which behaviors fill a gender role?
Or do the roles affect culture?
Gender role: the behaviors
expected of people related to
their identity as men and
Gender identity: one’s sense of
whether one is male and
female, including a sense of what it
means to be that gender
Gender roles and culture: Expectations may vary
Gender roles have simplified, yet constrained, choices for
men and women.
In the past century, women have been gaining more options
for participation in workplaces and politics.
In North American
societies, men have
been providers, women
In some societies, men
and women share more
in child rearing and
on Gender Role Development
Social learning theory: we learn gender role
behavior by imitation, and by rewards and
punishments that shape our behavior
Gender schemas: the cognitive frameworks for
developing concepts of “male” and “female”;
these frameworks guide our observations
Gender typing: the instinct which drives some
children to fit into traditional gender roles
Variations in Sexual Identity
Breaking free of gender roles
Transgendered people have a sense of sexual identity
(sense of being male or female) or gender expression
(behaviors and appearance that express gender
identity) that is different from what is culturally typical
for the biological sex/gender they were born with.
Transsexual people act on this sense of difference by
living as a member of the opposite sex, often with
hormonal and surgical interventions that support this
Hormones and Sexual Behavior
Hormones such as estrogens
(female sex hormones) and also in
testosterone (male sex hormones)
guide the physical development of
sex characteristics and behaviors.
During ovulation, women show a
rise in both sex hormones.
As this happens, sexual desire rises
in women and also in the men
around them (whose testosterone
Low levels of testosterone can
reduce sexual motivation.
Sex hormone levels fall with age
(menopause), drugs, or surgery.
The Sexual Response Cycle
Beginning in the late 1950s, William Masters and
Virginia Johnson observed sexual arousal and orgasm to
learn about the typical pattern of human response to
sexual stimulation. Their findings:
Phase Physiological Response
Genitals fill with blood and lubricate, ready for
intercourse; breathing and pulse become rapid
Plateau The changes related to excitement reach a peak
Orgasm Contractions all over the body; sexual release
Enlarged genitals release blood; male goes
through refractory phase, women resolve slower
Sexual Response Disorders
Some people have a variation or impairment in some phase
of the sexual response cycle.
These variations are sometimes distressful or problematic
enough to be seen as disorders:
low sexual desire
lack of orgasm response
The Psychology of Sex
Like hunger, sexual desire is a function of biological factors, internal
drives, external and imagined stimuli, and cultural expectations.
The brain is involved in
sexuality; people with no
genital sensation (e.g.
spinal cord injuries) can
feel sexual desire.
The brain also contains
dreams, memories, and
fantasies that stimulate
Fantasies are not just a
replacement for sexual
activity; they often
The Effect of External Stimuli
All effects of external stimuli on
sexual behavior are more
common in men than in women.
The short-term effect of
exposure to images of nudity
and sexuality increases sexual
arousal and desire.
Possible dangers include:
the distortion of our ideas of
what is appropriate and
effective for mutual sexual
the habit of finding sexual
response through idealized
images may lead to
decreased sexual response to
real-life sexual partners.
rates, and age of first
cultures, families, and
How can we tell it isn’t
just a function of
Adolescent Sexual Activity
Adolescents often begin to engage in sexual activity, including
intercourse. This may be related to basic drives but is mostly a
function of social environment.
Sexual activity includes risks
that may be magnified in
adolescence such as:
pregnancy while still in school.
sexually transmitted infections.
Teen Pregnancy and
American teens have higher rates of pregnancy and
abortion than European teens. Possible reasons
inadequate communication about birth control with
parents and sexual partners.
guilt about sex may make American teens less likely
to plan for it and use contraception.
alcohol use may make impulsive sex more likely and
impair decision making.
media portrayals in the United States make
unprotected sex look common and free from
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Unlike the risk of pregnancy, the risk of STIs
multiplies and spreads, and condoms do not offer
sufficient protection for STIs like herpes.
Sex and bad math: Herb has sex with 9 people, each
of whom has 9 other partners who each have sex
with 9 people. To how many people could his STI
(Laura Brannon and Timothy Brock study estimate)
programs, even when
randomly assigned to
High intelligence test
scores, thinking of
focusing on future
Presence of father in
others, even when
randomly assigned to
Factors Correlating with Sexual Restraint
Sexual orientation refers
to one’s preferences as an
object of sexual
This attraction may not
necessarily result in sexual
activity, but may exist in
the form of
desires, interests, infatuati
ons, and fantasies.
“Identity” as either
heterosexual, bisexual, or
homosexual, emerges in
How many people are
Based on a compilation of
3 percent of men and
1-2 percent of women.
Are the surveys missing
These surveys protected
anonymity, BUT they
preference as sexual
activity. Many do not
act on their preference.
and Mental Health
ago, homosexuality was
Having a homosexual
orientation in today’s
society still puts one at
risk for anxiety and mood
disorders because of the
stress of discrimination
and isolation, and the
difficulty in finding
satisfying and loving
Origins of Sexual Orientation
Theories suggesting that
sexual preference is related to
parenting behaviors or
childhood abuse are not
supported by evidence.
Differences appear to begin at
birth. This could be genetic, or
it could be caused by
exposure to hormones or
antigens in the womb.
The fraternal birth order
effect: being born after a
brother increases the
likelihood of being gay.
Cause or Effect? The
brain and other
differences in sexual
Heterosexual men have a
certain cell cluster in the
hypothalamus that, on
average, is larger than in
gay men and in women.
Gay men are more likely
than straight men to be
writers, artists, and
Biological and Behavioral Differences
Associated with Sexual Preference
Associated with Sexual Preference
Genetics and Homosexuality
In fruit flies, a difference in one gene
determined sexual orientation and behavior.
Homosexuality seems to run in families and
among identical twins, but still emerges
spontaneously, even in one of a pair of twins.
Genes related to homosexuality could be
passed on by siblings or by people not living
exclusively according to their sexual
Homosexuality and Gender
Hormones that affect gender may also affect sexual orientation.
In mammals, female fetuses exposed to extra testosterone, and
male fetuses exposed to low levels of testosterone, often grow
bodies, brains, and faces with traits of the opposite sex.
the sexual attraction expected of the opposite sex to one’s
Whatever the level of evidence accumulates that
sexual orientation becomes part of one’s identity
because of biology:
it is possible to accept another person’s sexual
orientation and behavior.
This acceptance seems to be growing, at least in the
acceptance of homosexual life commitment in the
form of marriage.
Gender Differences in Sexuality:
An Evolutionary Perspective
• Generally, men think more than women about
sex, and men are more likely to think that casual sex
• Why might natural selection have resulted in greater
An evolutionary psychologist’s answer:
For women, a trait of
promiscuity would not greatly
increase the number of
babies, and it would have
greater survival costs
(pregnancy, once a life-
Men who had the trait of
promiscuity were more likely to
have their genes continue, and
even spread, in the next
generation. And there is little
cost to spreading extra genes.
Natural Selection and
Men seek women with a
to make sure they are
not too young or too old
to have children?
Women seek males with
loyal behavior and
physical/social power and
in order to ensure the
survival of the mother’s
Q: How would evolutionary psychology explain
why males and females have different preferences
for sexual partners?
Critiquing the Evolutionary Perspective on
Gender Differences in Sexuality
Are males and
female really so
different in their
Isn’t much of gender
behavior a function
How do you explain
Differences are less in
cultures that move to
Yes, though genetics
may be part of the
Guesses such as
unproven and seem