Development of the English language

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A short (and fairly superficial!) account of how the English language developed from Old English to Modern English

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Development of the English language

  1. 1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
  2. 2. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Old English ( 500-1066) </li></ul><ul><li>Middle English (1066-1470) </li></ul><ul><li>Early Modern English (1470-1650) </li></ul><ul><li>Modern English (1650 - ) </li></ul>
  3. 3. OLD ENGLISH (500-1066) <ul><li>A West-Germanic language </li></ul><ul><li>Called Englisc by those who spoke it, namely the Angles, Angelcynn or Angelfolc. </li></ul><ul><li>They called their country Englaland. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Old English was split into four different dialects: </li></ul><ul><li>West Saxon </li></ul><ul><li>Mercian </li></ul><ul><li>Northumbrian </li></ul><ul><li>Kentish </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Old English language was influenced by other languages: <ul><li>Old Norse (the Vikings) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get, leg, root, sky, same </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Celtic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Names like ”Avon”, ”Thames” </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Cases <ul><li>Old English had five cases </li></ul><ul><li>(compared to only four in Old Norse): </li></ul><ul><li>nominative </li></ul><ul><li>accusative </li></ul><ul><li>dativ </li></ul><ul><li>genitive </li></ul><ul><li>instrumental </li></ul><ul><li>Remnants of these cases are to be found only in a few pronouns in modern English. </li></ul>
  7. 7. BEOWULF <ul><li>The most famous written text in Old English is the epic poem Beowulf. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a mixture of facts and fiction from the time when the Anglo-Saxons began migrating and settling in present day England. </li></ul><ul><li>Is by many considered to be England’s national epic. </li></ul>
  8. 8. OUR FATHER <ul><li>Fæder ure, ðu ðe eart on heofenum, si ðin nama gehalgod; to-becume ðin rice; geweorþe ðin willa on eorðan swa swa on heofenum. Urne ge dæghwamlican hlaf syle us to-deag, and forgyf us ure gyltas swa swa we forgifaþ urum gyltendum, ane ne gelæde ðu us on costnunge, ac alys us of yfle. Amen. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/ballc/oe/paternoster-oe.html </li></ul><ul><li>Our Father, Who art in heaven, Hallowed be Thy Name. Thy Kingdom come. Thy Will be done, on earth as it is in Heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. Amen . </li></ul>
  9. 9. MIDDLE ENGLISH (1066-1470) <ul><li>The spoken language of the majority of the people. </li></ul><ul><li>Latin was the language of the Church. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Angel, mass, pope, priest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>French was the language of courtly life, literature and documentation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture, theatre, economy, parliament </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. GEOFFREY CHAUCER (1343-1400) <ul><li>The Canterbury Tales: </li></ul><ul><li>A collection of stories ” told” by a collection of pilgrims on a pilgrimage from Southwark to Canterbury to visit the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral. </li></ul><ul><li>The tales are considered to be one of the most influential works in Western literature. </li></ul><ul><li>The Wife of Bath’s Tale: http://classiclit.about.com/library/bl-etexts/gchaucer/bl-gchau-can-bath.htm </li></ul>
  11. 11. EARLY MODERN ENGLISH (1470-1650) <ul><li>1470: The printing press was invented; more books were produced and people had more access to books. </li></ul><ul><li>The language was much like the English that we know today, but there are some differences in spelling and grammar. </li></ul>
  12. 12. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE (1565-1616) <ul><li>Here you are to find your own facts about ”the Bard”. Use the Internet or other resources available. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Shakespeare’s Sonnet no.18 Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day <ul><li>Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate. Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date. Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimmed; And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance, or nature's changing course untrimmed. But thy eternal summer shall not fade Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st; Nor shall death brag thou wand'rest in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st,     So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,     So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. </li></ul>

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