Sensual pleasure with reference to sensual objects Base, vulgar, common, ignoble, unprofitable Two extremes that are not to be indulged
Two extremes that are not to be indulged Self-affliction, Ascetism Painful, ignoble, unprofitable
The Middle Way “ Without veering towards either of these extremes, the Tathagata has awakened to the middle way, which gives rise to vision, which gives rise to knowledge, which leads to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbana.”
What is the Middle Way? Right Understanding Right Thought Right Speech Right Action Right Livelihood Right Effort Right Mindfulness Right Concentration Noble Eightfold Path
The Four Noble Truths (Cattari Ariya Sacca) <ul><li>1. Dukkha : All forms of existence are unsatisfactory and subject to suffering </li></ul><ul><li>2. Samudaya : All suffering, and all rebirth, is produced by craving ( tanha ) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Nirodha : The extinction of craving results in the extinction of rebirth and suffering, i.e. Nibbana </li></ul><ul><li>4. Magga : The Eightfold Path by which Nibbana is attained </li></ul>
First Noble Truth And what is the Noble Truth of Suffering? Birth is suffering, ageing is suffering, sickness is suffering, death is suffering, association with the things which we dislike is suffering, separation from the things which we like is suffering, not to get what one wants, that also is suffering. In short, the five aggregates, which are the objects of grasping, are suffering.
Second Noble Truth This is the Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering, i.e. ‘thirst’ or ‘craving’ (tanha), which produces rebirth. Three categories of craving: craving for sensual pleasures ( kama tanha ) craving for existence and becoming ( bhava tanha ) craving for non-existence ( vibhava tanha )
Third Noble Truth This is the Truth of the Cessation of Suffering, i.e. attaining the freedom and happiness of Nibbana This is the utter quenching through the disappearance of that craving, letting go and release, with no more longing after that craving.
Fourth Noble Truth It is the Way leading to the ending of dukkha, and this Way is the Noble Eightfold Path ( ariya atthangika magga ). It is called ‘Noble’ because when practised, it leads to an ennobling of human life. It is called ‘Eightfold’ because it has eight constituents It is called ‘Path’ because it leads from samsara to Nibbana.
The 3 Turnings & 12 Aspects <ul><li>“ Monks, when my knowledge and insight of the Four Noble Truths in their three turnings and twelve aspects, just as they are, had been realized, then only do I say that . . . I had realized that incomparable supreme Enlightenment, and there arose in me knowledge and insight.” </li></ul>
Putting the Wheel in Motion The Wheel of Dhamma ( Dhamma.cakka ) was put in motion twelve times, with three turnings for each of the Four Noble Truths To understand the Four Noble Truths, not just intellectually but experientially, we have to practise the twelve turnings of the Wheel
The Three Turnings Recognition: Coming to terms with the situation as it really is, without resorting to self-denial, escapism or clouding up the issue Encouragement: Putting effort to examine a situation properly to understand its nature and causes Realisation: Gaining an insight into a situation after studying, reflecting and practising
Twelve Turnings of the Wheel Recognition: This is an ignoble way that has led to suffering Encouragement: That ignoble should be understood Realisation: That ignoble way is understood Arising of Suffering Recognition: Well being is possible Encouragement: Well being should be obtained Realisation: Well being is obtained Cessation of Suffering (well being) Recognition: There is a noble path that leads to well being Encouragement: This noble path has to be lived Realisation: This noble path is being lived Path leading to end of Suffering (how well being is possible) Recognition: This is suffering Encouragement: Suffering should be understood Realisation: Suffering is understood Suffering
Recognising the First Noble Truth <ul><li>First turning of the Truth-Recognition. We must stop running from our pain. </li></ul><ul><li>With all our courage and tenderness, we recognise, acknowledge and identify our suffering and determine whether its basis is physical, physiological, or psychological. </li></ul><ul><li>Treat our suffering with kindness and non-violence. We need to embrace our fear, hatred, anguish, and anger. </li></ul>
Encouraging the First Noble Truth <ul><li>After recognising and identifying our pain, we proceed to the second turning of the Wheel </li></ul><ul><li>We take time to look deeply into it in order to understand its true nature, its causes </li></ul><ul><li>Our suffering-depression, illness, a difficult relationship, or fear - needs to be understood and, like a doctor, we are determined to understand it </li></ul>
Realising the First Noble Truth <ul><li>The third turning of the wheel can be expressed as such: “This suffering has been understood” </li></ul><ul><li>The effort of understanding started with the second turning of the wheel </li></ul><ul><li>After studying, reflecting upon, and practising the First Noble Truth, we can now call our suffering by its specific name and identify its characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>This alone brings us happiness and joy </li></ul>
Recognising the Second Noble Truth <ul><li>After successfully diagnosing our ailment, for a time we continue to create suffering for ourselves </li></ul><ul><li>The first turning of the Second Noble Truth is the recognition that I continue to create suffering </li></ul><ul><li>When we look deeply we discover the kinds of nutriments that have helped it come to be and that continue to feed it (SN II, 47) </li></ul>
Four Nutriments <ul><li>Edible food : What we eat or drink can bring about mental or physical suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Sense impressions : Our six sense organs are in constant contact with sense objects and these contacts become food for our consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Volition, intention , or will to obtain what we want </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness : Composed of all the seeds sown by past actions. Nourish it with love and compassion rather than hatred and greed. </li></ul>
Encouraging the Second Noble Truth <ul><li>We see that real happiness is possible if we can stop ingesting the nutriments that cause us to suffer. We see the nature of suffering and the way out. </li></ul><ul><li>Mindfulness is the energy that can help us stop, including mindful walking, mindful breathing, etc., this is the Four Noble Truths in action. </li></ul><ul><li>When the cause of suffering is seen, healing is possible. </li></ul>
Realising the Second Noble Truth <ul><li>We not only vow, but we actually stop ingesting the nutriments that create our suffering. </li></ul><ul><li>“ When hungry, I eat. When tired, I sleep.” </li></ul><ul><li>You only have to be yourself after you’ve gained genuine insight. </li></ul>
Recognising the Third Noble Truth <ul><li>Recognising the possibility of the absence of suffering and presence of peace, Nibbana. </li></ul><ul><li>If we don’t have peace and joy at this moment, we can at least remember some peace and joy we experienced in the past or observe the peace and joy of others. </li></ul><ul><li>We see that well-being and the complete release of Nibbana is possible. </li></ul>
Encouraging the Third Noble Truth <ul><li>Encourage yourself to find peace and joy. Touch deeply the things that bring you peace and joy. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t run away from things that are unpleasant in order to embrace things that are pleasant. Face the difficulties and grow new happiness. </li></ul><ul><li>Embrace your suffering, smile to it, and discover the source of happiness that is right there within it. Learn the art of cultivating joy. Your suffering is not worth suffering for. </li></ul>
Realising the Third Noble Truth <ul><li>When you face your suffering directly, your joy will become deeper. You know that suffering and joy are both impermanent. </li></ul><ul><li>Be like an organic gardener that transform garbage into flowers. </li></ul><ul><li>This practice will lead you to realise that suffering and happiness are not two. </li></ul><ul><li>When you reach this stage, your joy is no longer fragile. </li></ul>
Recognising the Fourth Noble Truth <ul><li>We recognise that the Noble Eightfold Path can lead us out of suffering, but we don’t yet know how to practice it. </li></ul>
Encouraging the Fourth Noble Truth <ul><li>We encourage ourselves to practice this path. This is realised by learning, reflecting, and practising. </li></ul><ul><li>The path deals with our real difficulties in life. Transformation is gradual, but once we see clearly the causes of our suffering, we can make the effort to change our behaviour and bring our suffering to an end. </li></ul>
Realising the Fourth Noble Truth <ul><li>By seeing our suffering clearly, by understanding is roots, we are able to “understand things as they are” ( yatha bhuta jnana ) in our life and practice. </li></ul><ul><li>You understand the interbeing nature of the Four Noble Truths. When you look deeply in anyone, you see the other three. </li></ul><ul><li>The Buddha said: “The moment you know how your suffering came to be, you are already on the path of release from it” (SN II, 47) </li></ul>
Añña-Kondañña At the end of the Discourse, the Blessed One exclaimed: "So you really know, Kondañña? So you really know?"