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Introduction to the Semantic Web
 

Introduction to the Semantic Web

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    Introduction to the Semantic Web Introduction to the Semantic Web Presentation Transcript

    • The Semantic Web - a useful, usable technology? Liddy Nevile La Trobe University
      • The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries. It is a collaborative effort led by W3C with participation from a large number of researchers and industrial partners. It is based on the Resource Description Framework ( RDF ), which integrates a variety of applications using XML for syntax and URIs for naming. - W3C
      • WWW2004 Semantic Web Track and Devday Presentations Online 2004-05-26 ,The W3C Track on the Semantic Web and the Semantic Web Developers Day presentations are now online. These presentations provide a status update on the Semantic Web Activity at the W3C and highlight examples of industry adoption and novel applications using Semantic Web technologies.
      • See http://www.w3.org/2001/ sw /
      • "The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. ” -- Tim Berners-Lee, James Hendler, Ora Lassila, The Semantic Web , Scientific American, May 2001
    • A use case
      • DCMI has elements, terms, schemata, as well as growing sets of documents. All these need to be managed. What happens when new terms are created, when new documents are generated?
      • Can the semantic web technology being developed make this nightmare of human management an automated task?
    • A better question …
      • Can metadata become operational so it does some of the things that we have had to do to it in the past?
      • Instead of having to develop applications to sort and shift information about, can we get the information to do that work for us?
    • General Public (on the Web) Users (with middle wear/ AT / Browsers) Website Your Current Website Semantic Annotations, Automatic Fixes, Database views Engine Layer of Meaning Presentational Layer Alternative versions Untouched original
    • Before…. As see on the Web Navigation Bar made with images-only. Completely inaccessible to assistive technology. Relationship between text and form elements inaccessible to assistive technology.
    • After…(1) Meaning behind images is known Relationship between text and form elements is known Enhanced Navigation for screen readers, PDA’s and orientation As see on the Web
    • Middleware Architecture (taken from SWAP) Original HTML SWAP ML Translation rules Semantic annotations Data Base XHTML Scenario-specific transformations XHTML XHTML XHTML Original presentation Extract presentation Scenario-specific CSS Rules and transformations
    • Semantic web
      • Additional layers of information
        • Provide meanings of terms
        • Provide relationship information
        • Links to relevant information
        • Links to relevant people
      • Allow software agents to manipulate this information
      • Ontology defines terms
    • Resource Description Framework (RDF)
      • Language for semantic web
      • Not just machine readable information
      • Also machine understandable information
      • eg:
      • <? xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; ?> <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf=&quot; http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns# &quot; xmlns:s=&quot; http://description.org/schema/ &quot;> <rdf:Description about=&quot; http://www.w3.org/Home/Lassila &quot; bagID=&quot; D_001 &quot;> <s:Creator> Ora Lassila </s:Creator> <s:Title> Ora's Home Page </s:Title> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF>
    • Ontology
      • System of concepts and relations between them:
        • Table [is piece of] furniture
        • Arm [is part of] body
        • Japan [is located in] East Asia
      • A method for storing and representing knowledge
    • EGs of types of annotations
      • Meaning behind text gaps – text equivalents
      • Relationship to applications – no frames / functional equivalents
      • Relationship between text nodes and form elements - accessible forms and labels
      • Structural identification of page elements - orientation
      • Role information – this is a data, types of content
      • Concepts – implied content
      • Resolving ambiguities and relative importance – simplifications
      • Plus interpretation = communication of knowledge
    • Relationships and meanings
      • This picture has meaning of welcome
      • This picture is a link to the home page
      • This color code implies feminine relevance
      • This list of links is similar to a main menu
      • This format is similar to a title
      • This paragraph is less important for this user group
      • The word ‘it’ refers to the table
    • Components
      • an ontology for accessibility
      • a authoring tool for creating RDF using this ontology for specific pages
      • a user agent that renders accessible pages based on our ontology
      • a flexible testing tool
    • Roles and rel’ships (predicates)
      • IsBlock - point to a block of links (is included in V1 of SWAP) and associates a content type
      • BelongsToBlock - associates link or section of content with a block (IsBlock) (is included in V1 of SWAP)
      • ContentType - associates a section of content or link with a content type
      • Header - points to link block header, Can also associate a block of links (sub-menu) with a parent menu, etc
      • SubmenuOf - associates a sub-menu with main menu
      • Association – Implied meaning behind the content and presentation
    • Properties
      • Advertisement
      • Warning (less safe)
      • Off-site
      • Important
      • Less important
    • Annotation Based Accessibility
      • Provide conditional alternate content
      • Address traditionally problematic areas in accessibility
        • Interfaces for cognitive / age related disabilities
        • Summaries, clarifications and illustrations for these disabilities can be hidden..
      • Address emerging accessibility issues
        • Inaccessible languages
        • Schemas can be annotated
        • Elements can be marked as “similar”..
    • What else can it do?
      • Allow anyone to annotate any document with alternatives
      • Attach a user profile to alterative content
      • Concept mapping / sign and symbols
      • Remove ambiguity in language
      • Device independence
      • Knowledge systems integration
      • Support for internationalization / localization and translation ….
    • Quinkan Example 1
      • Translation .. service
      Tommy George inspecting red rock ochre. &quot;A lot of paintings are made in red.&quot;
    • Quinkan Example 2
      • Objects without explanation
      • How is it done?
      “ A hand stencil”
    • SVG images
      • <?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;iso-8859-1&quot;?>
      • <!DOCTYPE svg PUBLIC &quot;-//W3C//DTD SVG 20000303 Stylable//EN&quot; &quot;http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/03/WD-SVG-20000303/DTD/svg-20000303-stylable.dtd&quot; [ <!ENTITY st0 &quot;fill-rule:nonzero;clip-rule:nonzero;stroke:#000000;stroke-miterlimit:4;&quot;> <!ENTITY font1 'font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;;'><!ENTITY size1 &quot;font-size:24;&quot;>]>
      • <svg width=&quot;690&quot; height=&quot;182&quot; viewBox=&quot;130 10 550 220&quot; xml:space=&quot;preserve&quot;>
      • <g id=&quot;Ebene_x0020_1&quot; style=&quot;&st0;&quot;>
      • <image width=&quot;690&quot; height=&quot;182&quot; xlink:href=&quot;data:image/jpeg;base64,/9j/4AAQSkZJRgABAQEAYABgAAD/2wBDAAgGBgcGBQgHBwcJCQgKDBQNDAsLDBkSEw8UHRofHh0aHBwgJC4nICIsIxwcKDcpLDAxNDQ0Hyc5PTgyPC4zNDL/2wBDAQkJCQwLDBgNDRgyIRwhMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjL/wAARCAC2ArIDASIAAhEBAxEB/8QAHwAAAQUBAQEBAQEAAAAAAAAAAAECAwQFBgcICQoL/
      • ……
      • … </g>
      • … ..
    • Quinkan Example 3
      • When Aboriginal people meet, they greet each other with lengthy descriptions of their identity and family connections.
      • Tom adds his photo.
      • Mary adds her photo.
      • The relationship between them is in the metadata (dc:subject and dc:description)
      • but it is not operational.
    • How do we represent families?
      • Traditional western ‘family tree’
        • has-mother, has-father
        • -> has-grandmother, has-grandfather, has-sibling,...
    • How do we represent families?
      • Traditional western ‘family tree’
        • has-mother, has-father
        • -> has-grandmother, has-grandfather, has-sibling,...
      • Start with Friend-of-a-friend (FOAF)?
    • Graphical cataloguing
      • <rdf:RDF
      • xmlns:rdf='http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#'
      • xmlns:NS0='http://quinkan.org/index.html#'>
      • <rdf:Description rdf:about='#red'>
      • <rdf:type rdf:resource='http://quinkan.org/index.html#colour'/>
      • </rdf:Description>
      • <rdf:Description rdf:about='#A0'>
      • <rdf:type rdf:resource='http://quinkan.org/index.html#person'/>
      • <NS0:has-name rdf:resource='#TommyGeorge'/>
      • </rdf:Description>
      • <rdf:Description rdf:about='#AADXEVJJKH'>
      • <rdf:type rdf:resource='http://quinkan.org/index.html#Getty-colour'/>
      • </rdf:Description>
      • <rdf:Description rdf:about='#TommyGeorge'>
      • <rdf:type rdf:resource='http://quinkan.org/index.html#name'/>
      • </rdf:Description>
      • <rdf:Description rdf:about='#r23g67b98i'>
      • <rdf:type rdf:resource='http://quinkan.org/index.html#Q-colour-code'/>
      • <NS0:is-same-as rdf:resource='#098734827'/>
      • <NS0:is-same-as rdf:resource='#AADXEVJJKH'/>
      • </rdf:Description>
      • <rdf:Description rdf:about='#098734827'>
      • <rdf:type rdf:resource='http://quinkan.org/index.html#CIMIcolour'/>
      • </rdf:Description>
      • <rdf:Description rdf:about='#pfgjner25243'>
      and lots more…..
      • So how do we understand the semantic web?
    • The drawers method
    • The filing cabinet
    • Metadata labels
    • RDF Labels
    • RDF labels for labels Has father Fred Has mother Mary Has father Fred Has mother not-Mary Has sister Jean Has half-sister Jean
    • RDF Labels
    • The Yolngu Language Project
    • Metaphors
      • The intelligent links ...
      • The patchwork quilt …
      • We can find not only what we want but about what interests us …
      • Semantic Web Best Practices and Deployment Working Group (see http://www.w3.org/2001/ sw / BestPractices /
    • SWeb Task Forces
      • The following task forces are in progress:
      • OEP - Ontology Engineering and Patterns Coordinator: Deb McGuinness
      • PORT - Porting Thesaurii to RDF and OWL description Coordinator: Dan Brickley
      • WordNET description, notes toward revised description Coordinator: Aldo Gangemi
      • WRLD - World View description Coordinator: Jim Hendler
    • SWeb Task Forces
      • The following task forces are under discussion to start:
      • VM - Vocabulary Management description Coordinator: Tom Baker
      • XSCH - XML Schema Datatypes description Coordinator: Jeremy Carroll & (open - XML Schema WG)
      • HTML - Embedding RDF in HTML
      • ADTF - Applications and Demos description Coordinators: Libby Miller, Brian McBride
    • SWeb Task Forces
      • Other task forces that have expressions of interest from WG members include:
      • Coping with evolving ontologies
      • Links to MPEG
      • Style conventions (naming, namespaces, uri, rdf:label usage)
      • Tools index
      • Ontology Design Issues
      • Units and measures
    • Semantic Web Tools
      • W3C Co-ordinated activity - see http://www.w3.org/RDF/#developers ( local )
      • Thank you.