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Introduction to the Semantic Web


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  • 1. The Semantic Web - a useful, usable technology? Liddy Nevile La Trobe University
  • 2.
    • The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries. It is a collaborative effort led by W3C with participation from a large number of researchers and industrial partners. It is based on the Resource Description Framework ( RDF ), which integrates a variety of applications using XML for syntax and URIs for naming. - W3C
  • 3.
    • WWW2004 Semantic Web Track and Devday Presentations Online 2004-05-26 ,The W3C Track on the Semantic Web and the Semantic Web Developers Day presentations are now online. These presentations provide a status update on the Semantic Web Activity at the W3C and highlight examples of industry adoption and novel applications using Semantic Web technologies.
    • See sw /
  • 4.
    • "The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. ” -- Tim Berners-Lee, James Hendler, Ora Lassila, The Semantic Web , Scientific American, May 2001
  • 5. A use case
    • DCMI has elements, terms, schemata, as well as growing sets of documents. All these need to be managed. What happens when new terms are created, when new documents are generated?
    • Can the semantic web technology being developed make this nightmare of human management an automated task?
  • 6. A better question …
    • Can metadata become operational so it does some of the things that we have had to do to it in the past?
    • Instead of having to develop applications to sort and shift information about, can we get the information to do that work for us?
  • 7. General Public (on the Web) Users (with middle wear/ AT / Browsers) Website Your Current Website Semantic Annotations, Automatic Fixes, Database views Engine Layer of Meaning Presentational Layer Alternative versions Untouched original
  • 8. Before…. As see on the Web Navigation Bar made with images-only. Completely inaccessible to assistive technology. Relationship between text and form elements inaccessible to assistive technology.
  • 9. After…(1) Meaning behind images is known Relationship between text and form elements is known Enhanced Navigation for screen readers, PDA’s and orientation As see on the Web
  • 10. Middleware Architecture (taken from SWAP) Original HTML SWAP ML Translation rules Semantic annotations Data Base XHTML Scenario-specific transformations XHTML XHTML XHTML Original presentation Extract presentation Scenario-specific CSS Rules and transformations
  • 11. Semantic web
    • Additional layers of information
      • Provide meanings of terms
      • Provide relationship information
      • Links to relevant information
      • Links to relevant people
    • Allow software agents to manipulate this information
    • Ontology defines terms
  • 12. Resource Description Framework (RDF)
    • Language for semantic web
    • Not just machine readable information
    • Also machine understandable information
    • eg:
    • <? xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; ?> <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf=&quot; &quot; xmlns:s=&quot; &quot;> <rdf:Description about=&quot; &quot; bagID=&quot; D_001 &quot;> <s:Creator> Ora Lassila </s:Creator> <s:Title> Ora's Home Page </s:Title> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF>
  • 13. Ontology
    • System of concepts and relations between them:
      • Table [is piece of] furniture
      • Arm [is part of] body
      • Japan [is located in] East Asia
    • A method for storing and representing knowledge
  • 14. EGs of types of annotations
    • Meaning behind text gaps – text equivalents
    • Relationship to applications – no frames / functional equivalents
    • Relationship between text nodes and form elements - accessible forms and labels
    • Structural identification of page elements - orientation
    • Role information – this is a data, types of content
    • Concepts – implied content
    • Resolving ambiguities and relative importance – simplifications
    • Plus interpretation = communication of knowledge
  • 15. Relationships and meanings
    • This picture has meaning of welcome
    • This picture is a link to the home page
    • This color code implies feminine relevance
    • This list of links is similar to a main menu
    • This format is similar to a title
    • This paragraph is less important for this user group
    • The word ‘it’ refers to the table
  • 16. Components
    • an ontology for accessibility
    • a authoring tool for creating RDF using this ontology for specific pages
    • a user agent that renders accessible pages based on our ontology
    • a flexible testing tool
  • 17. Roles and rel’ships (predicates)
    • IsBlock - point to a block of links (is included in V1 of SWAP) and associates a content type
    • BelongsToBlock - associates link or section of content with a block (IsBlock) (is included in V1 of SWAP)
    • ContentType - associates a section of content or link with a content type
    • Header - points to link block header, Can also associate a block of links (sub-menu) with a parent menu, etc
    • SubmenuOf - associates a sub-menu with main menu
    • Association – Implied meaning behind the content and presentation
  • 18. Properties
    • Advertisement
    • Warning (less safe)
    • Off-site
    • Important
    • Less important
  • 19. Annotation Based Accessibility
    • Provide conditional alternate content
    • Address traditionally problematic areas in accessibility
      • Interfaces for cognitive / age related disabilities
      • Summaries, clarifications and illustrations for these disabilities can be hidden..
    • Address emerging accessibility issues
      • Inaccessible languages
      • Schemas can be annotated
      • Elements can be marked as “similar”..
  • 20. What else can it do?
    • Allow anyone to annotate any document with alternatives
    • Attach a user profile to alterative content
    • Concept mapping / sign and symbols
    • Remove ambiguity in language
    • Device independence
    • Knowledge systems integration
    • Support for internationalization / localization and translation ….
  • 21. Quinkan Example 1
    • Translation .. service
    Tommy George inspecting red rock ochre. &quot;A lot of paintings are made in red.&quot;
  • 22. Quinkan Example 2
    • Objects without explanation
    • How is it done?
    “ A hand stencil”
  • 23. SVG images
    • <?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;iso-8859-1&quot;?>
    • <!DOCTYPE svg PUBLIC &quot;-//W3C//DTD SVG 20000303 Stylable//EN&quot; &quot;; [ <!ENTITY st0 &quot;fill-rule:nonzero;clip-rule:nonzero;stroke:#000000;stroke-miterlimit:4;&quot;> <!ENTITY font1 'font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;;'><!ENTITY size1 &quot;font-size:24;&quot;>]>
    • <svg width=&quot;690&quot; height=&quot;182&quot; viewBox=&quot;130 10 550 220&quot; xml:space=&quot;preserve&quot;>
    • <g id=&quot;Ebene_x0020_1&quot; style=&quot;&st0;&quot;>
    • <image width=&quot;690&quot; height=&quot;182&quot; xlink:href=&quot;data:image/jpeg;base64,/9j/4AAQSkZJRgABAQEAYABgAAD/2wBDAAgGBgcGBQgHBwcJCQgKDBQNDAsLDBkSEw8UHRofHh0aHBwgJC4nICIsIxwcKDcpLDAxNDQ0Hyc5PTgyPC4zNDL/2wBDAQkJCQwLDBgNDRgyIRwhMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjIyMjL/wAARCAC2ArIDASIAAhEBAxEB/8QAHwAAAQUBAQEBAQEAAAAAAAAAAAECAwQFBgcICQoL/
    • ……
    • … </g>
    • … ..
  • 24. Quinkan Example 3
    • When Aboriginal people meet, they greet each other with lengthy descriptions of their identity and family connections.
    • Tom adds his photo.
    • Mary adds her photo.
    • The relationship between them is in the metadata (dc:subject and dc:description)
    • but it is not operational.
  • 25. How do we represent families?
    • Traditional western ‘family tree’
      • has-mother, has-father
      • -> has-grandmother, has-grandfather, has-sibling,...
  • 26. How do we represent families?
    • Traditional western ‘family tree’
      • has-mother, has-father
      • -> has-grandmother, has-grandfather, has-sibling,...
    • Start with Friend-of-a-friend (FOAF)?
  • 27. Graphical cataloguing
    • <rdf:RDF
    • xmlns:rdf=''
    • xmlns:NS0=''>
    • <rdf:Description rdf:about='#red'>
    • <rdf:type rdf:resource=''/>
    • </rdf:Description>
    • <rdf:Description rdf:about='#A0'>
    • <rdf:type rdf:resource=''/>
    • <NS0:has-name rdf:resource='#TommyGeorge'/>
    • </rdf:Description>
    • <rdf:Description rdf:about='#AADXEVJJKH'>
    • <rdf:type rdf:resource=''/>
    • </rdf:Description>
    • <rdf:Description rdf:about='#TommyGeorge'>
    • <rdf:type rdf:resource=''/>
    • </rdf:Description>
    • <rdf:Description rdf:about='#r23g67b98i'>
    • <rdf:type rdf:resource=''/>
    • <NS0:is-same-as rdf:resource='#098734827'/>
    • <NS0:is-same-as rdf:resource='#AADXEVJJKH'/>
    • </rdf:Description>
    • <rdf:Description rdf:about='#098734827'>
    • <rdf:type rdf:resource=''/>
    • </rdf:Description>
    • <rdf:Description rdf:about='#pfgjner25243'>
    and lots more…..
  • 28.
    • So how do we understand the semantic web?
  • 29. The drawers method
  • 30. The filing cabinet
  • 31. Metadata labels
  • 32. RDF Labels
  • 33. RDF labels for labels Has father Fred Has mother Mary Has father Fred Has mother not-Mary Has sister Jean Has half-sister Jean
  • 34. RDF Labels
  • 35. The Yolngu Language Project
  • 36. Metaphors
    • The intelligent links ...
    • The patchwork quilt …
    • We can find not only what we want but about what interests us …
  • 37.
    • Semantic Web Best Practices and Deployment Working Group (see sw / BestPractices /
  • 38. SWeb Task Forces
    • The following task forces are in progress:
    • OEP - Ontology Engineering and Patterns Coordinator: Deb McGuinness
    • PORT - Porting Thesaurii to RDF and OWL description Coordinator: Dan Brickley
    • WordNET description, notes toward revised description Coordinator: Aldo Gangemi
    • WRLD - World View description Coordinator: Jim Hendler
  • 39. SWeb Task Forces
    • The following task forces are under discussion to start:
    • VM - Vocabulary Management description Coordinator: Tom Baker
    • XSCH - XML Schema Datatypes description Coordinator: Jeremy Carroll & (open - XML Schema WG)
    • HTML - Embedding RDF in HTML
    • ADTF - Applications and Demos description Coordinators: Libby Miller, Brian McBride
  • 40. SWeb Task Forces
    • Other task forces that have expressions of interest from WG members include:
    • Coping with evolving ontologies
    • Links to MPEG
    • Style conventions (naming, namespaces, uri, rdf:label usage)
    • Tools index
    • Ontology Design Issues
    • Units and measures
  • 41. Semantic Web Tools
    • W3C Co-ordinated activity - see ( local )
  • 42.
    • Thank you.