Converging research towards AccessForAll


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  • Converging research towards AccessForAll

    1. 1. Research convergence to enable accessibility to be customised for individual users Liddy Nevile La Trobe University Australia
    2. 2. Ideas … <ul><li>Concepts behind AccessForAll </li></ul><ul><ul><li>personal choice of adaptation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accessibility for everyone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discovery of what “I” need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interoperability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approaches to accessibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>universal design and/or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distributed and cumulative metadata </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. AccessForAll Accessibility <ul><li>What do we want to achieve? </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility with respect to resources and services so everyone can use them as they choose. </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s see what TILE does: http: //inclusivelearning .ca/tile/ </li></ul>
    4. 4. TILE <ul><li>E-learning environment that enables learner-centric transformation of learning content and delivery </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authoring support for transformable content and Metadata </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Browser </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Object Repository </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learner Preference System </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 13. So what’s happening?
    6. 14. DRD metadata
    7. 15. In fact, ……
    8. 16. TILE is … <ul><li>A centralised system </li></ul><ul><li>All resources are digital </li></ul><ul><li>All resources standards compliant </li></ul><ul><li>All resources are ‘atomic’ </li></ul><ul><li>All resources are appropriately described </li></ul>
    9. 17. Digital resources (Microsoft research)
    10. 18. Digital resources (Microsoft research)
    11. 19. AfA definition of accessibility <ul><li>the accessible relationship between the user and the resource enables the user to make sensory and cognitive contact with the content of the resource. </li></ul>See http://www. imsglobal .org/accessibility/
    12. 20. Sensory needs and preferences <ul><li>I can’t see now </li></ul><ul><li>I like Braille but screen-reading is OK </li></ul><ul><li>I can’t see well now </li></ul><ul><li>I may have an epileptic seizure if I see flashing </li></ul><ul><li>I read (Braille) slowly and may need extra time </li></ul><ul><li>Note - no mention of disabilities! </li></ul>
    13. 21. Relationship Descriptions <ul><li>So how do we describe sensory and other accessibility needs and preferences for digital resources? </li></ul><ul><li>We have opted for display , control and content as the three relationships that can be affected and can change. </li></ul>
    14. 22. Adapting to all devices & contexts
    15. 23. Adaptive technologies <ul><li>Some replace standard technologies and some have special requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Many have features users like to use. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, there may be requirements for other display characteristics, and there may be separate needs for content adjustment. </li></ul>
    16. 24. Adaptive technologies <ul><li>Some requirements can conflict, eg an on-screen keyboard and a ‘full-screen’ resource. </li></ul><ul><li>For this reason, descriptions of needs and preferences for display, control and content characteristics need to be separated. </li></ul>
    17. 25. Needs and preferences <ul><li>Some people can choose between several alternative resources </li></ul><ul><li>Some people can use only one </li></ul>
    18. 26. Multiple PNPs <ul><li>Descriptions of users needs and preferences (PNPs) will be used according to the context or circumstances and may differ according to the occasion. </li></ul><ul><li>PNPs may be personal, situational, contextual, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>PNPs should be stored and available any time, anywhere. </li></ul>
    19. 27. <ul><li>Accessible resource components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in general this means WCAG compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUT ….. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>resources may be distributed </li></ul><ul><li>resources may be produced ‘just in time’ </li></ul>Dependencies
    20. 28. What else is happening? <ul><li>IMS and Dublin Core and IEEE/LOM and CEN ISSS/LT and INCITS/V2 and W3C and ISO JTC1 SC …. and </li></ul>
    21. 29. Metadata is … <ul><li>Structured, machine-readable information about resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(data about data) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used when Google can’t help… </li></ul><ul><li>Human-input is valued </li></ul><ul><li>but interoperability is not implied…. </li></ul><ul><li>And now it might be tagging as well…. </li></ul>
    22. 30. Personal Needs and Preferences (PNPs) <ul><li>Display: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how resources are to be presented and structured, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how resources are to be controlled and operated, and </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what supplementary or alternative resources are to be supplied. </li></ul></ul>
    23. 31. Display preferences <ul><li>Where the person can’t see text, it may need to be transformed into another mode - auditory or tactile (Braille). </li></ul><ul><li>Text may need to be bigger and a different colour. </li></ul><ul><li>Images may need to be bigger. </li></ul>
    24. 32. Control preferences <ul><li>Some assistive technologies effectively replace the typical mouse and keyboard combination without any adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>but others use technologies that require special configuration. </li></ul><ul><li>An on-screen keyboard will use screen space e.g. </li></ul>
    25. 33. Content preferences <ul><li>A dyslexic person may need additional images to avoid excessive text density </li></ul><ul><li>a ‘foreigner’ may need an alternative language </li></ul><ul><li>a eyes-busy person may need a text description of an image. </li></ul>
    26. 34. Digital Resource Description (DRDs) <ul><li>Display: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how the resource can be presented and structured, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how the resource can be controlled and operated, and </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what supplementary or alternative resources are supplied with the resource. </li></ul></ul>
    27. 35. Basic DRD metadata includes: <ul><li>Access Mode: vision, hearing, touch, text </li></ul><ul><li>Access Mode Usage: informative or ornamental </li></ul><ul><li>Display: amenability of a resource to transformation of the display </li></ul><ul><li>Control: how the method of control is flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives: any known alternatives </li></ul>
    28. 36. and, where appropriate, <ul><li>Components: any parts that make up this resource (a sound file, an image, etc.) or a composite resource of which it is a part </li></ul><ul><li>Hazards: any dangerous characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Support tools: electronic tools associated with the resource (calculator, dictionary, etc.) </li></ul>
    29. 37. & DRD for alternatives also includes: <ul><li>Identity of the original resource </li></ul><ul><li>Type: kind of alternative </li></ul><ul><li>Extent: extent of coverage of original resource </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed description of the alternative: description of its characteristics necessary for matching it to details of the PNP. </li></ul>
    30. 38. AfA is an approach … PNP DRD  Dlfkng fg jhgj fglhk fgh Rt hrtj hlkjg hklj thkkj tt Rt grlkthklj thk thl kjrthk Rthnk tlhkk jthk rth th lrt Framework PNP DRD
    31. 39. Resource metadata
    32. 40. With abstract models …
    33. 41. The conversations flow …
    34. 42. Multi-lingual/multi-cultural <ul><li>Definition of languages and cultures </li></ul><ul><li>etc…. </li></ul>
    35. 43. Accessibility of events and places, …. <ul><li>Location-based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location dependent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location independent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What divisions? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical needs? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic needs? </li></ul></ul>
    36. 44. Thank you! <ul><li>To participate, please contact me… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check the new standards and work at </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>