SUBMARINE – WHAT IS IT ?
• Submarines lurk deep beneath the surface
of ocean and is ready to strike at a
• Powered by nuclear engines and they can
sail for years without refueling.
• U-boat shaped watercraft vessel.
TYPES OF SUBMARINE
• Submarines can be classified into two types.
• 1. Military submarines
• 2. Research submarines.
Military submarines are extensively used for naval
operations of militaristic nature.
Research submarines are used for deep sea
studies. Military submarines prior to the cold war era
used a combination of diesel engines and electric
batteries for propulsion.
WHAT’S NEW ABOUT NUCLEAR
Powered by a nuclear reactor.
Refueling is done in long ranges of time.
Operate at high speed for long duration.
Frees the submarine from the need to
HISTORY OF NUCLEAR
• USS Nautilus,1st nuclear submarine was
launched in 1954 by USA.
• Developed by group of scientists and
engineers at the Naval Reactor Branch of
Atomic Energy Commission under the
leadership of Captain Hyman.
• INNER HULL: Protects crew by preventing water
pressure bearing down on submarine.
• OUTER HULL: Provides streamlined shape.
• Both are made up of an alloy of nickel, molybdenum and
chromium to sustain great pressure(HY-80).
The Propeller is powered
by the steam driven turbine
The steam is created by the
The Rudder is Vertically
aligned and By moving it, the
ship can be directed side to side.
Stem planes are horizontally
aligned,so that moving them will
guide the sub upward or
• RUDDER: helps in side movements
• STERN PLATES: supports in up-down movement.
• PROPELLAR: Powered by steam driven turbines and
3.BALLAST AND TRIM TANKS
Located in the front and left (rearward)
Section of the craft help control the
depth of the Ship by taking on
or releasing water.
• BALLAST TANKS:Helps in controlling
depth of submarine.
TRIM TANKS:Required to keep the
WATER AND ATMOSPHERE
This purifies salt water for
purpose of drinking and engine
The crew’s breathing air by
ridding it of carbon dioxide and
. TORPPED ROOM
This is where all the torpedoes
Are stored and loaded into torpedo
Tubes to prepare them for launching
6. MANEVERING ROOM
The control center for the main
operating systems of the vessels
The turbines generates and
The crew Is housed and fed in very
tight, efficient quarters usually
located in the middle level of the
ship’s forward compartment.
CONTROL AND ATTACK CENTER
The nerve center of the submarine, the
control room/attack center contains the
operational controls for all navigational,
sonar communication and weapons systems
on the submarine.
From here the officer of the Deck will
direct the activities of the vessel.
14.VERTICAL LAUNCH SYSTEM
Modem submarines also carry a
Complement of missiles to attack land
Atomic submarine: warship that travels and fights under water.
Aft diving plane: operating like a helm to maintain vertical position.
Stem propulsion system: steam-driven apparatus that propels a
Escape hatch: sealed chamber between the air and the water used for
passing between the interior and exterior of a submarine in emergencies.
Access hatch: sealed chamber between the air and the water used for
Refectory: room reserved for personnel.
Antenna: apparatus that receives waves.
Snorkel: tube used to expel gases and take in fresh air.
Periscope: optical device used to see an object hidden by an obstacle.
Turret: guns' location.
Torpedo room: place where torpedoes are stored.
Guidance sonar: submarine radar based on the reflection of sound waves.
It is used for navigation.
Ballast: tanks that are filled with water to dive and emptied to climb.
Battery: device that generates electric current.
Torpedo: explosive-filled warhead used under water.
Radio antenna: apparatus that receives radio waves.
Nuclear reactor: device in which nuclear reactions take place.
Auxiliary electric motor: emergency electric engine.
Rudder: small wing.
Lower rudder: apparatus used to turn a boat.
Propeller: two- or three-bladed propulsion apparatus.
How do Nuclear Submarines Work?
Nuclear submarines are powered by nuclear reactors. Inside
nuclear reactors, a neutron is deployed in order to split uranium
The atomic structure of uranium, once split, forms a huge
amount of heat and gamma radiation. This heat emitted, is in turn
used to heat water.
The reactor is surrounded by a hollow coil.
Water is circulated in the hollow coil, at an extremely high
pressure, which prevents it from converting to steam.
Water is circulated in the hollow coil, at an extremely high pressure,
which prevents it from converting to steam.
7. NUCLEAR REACTOR
A nuclear reactor is essentially a
glorified steam engine.
The nuclear reactor is usually
located in the rear portion of the
• Within the nuclear reactor, a neutron is used to split an
atom of uranium, producing energy in the form of
gamma radiation and heat. A coil filled with circulating
water is superheated as it's routed past the reactor. This
water is under extremely high pressure, which prevents it
from boiling. Inside self-contained piping, the water is
directed through a secondary source of water, where it's
heated again. Here, the water is converted to steam and
is piped toward the turbine that generates power for the
submarine. The steam is condensed again in special
cooling tubes, and the resulting water flows back into the
steam generator. Inside the generator, it's reheated and
the process repeats. This method requires no oxygen, so
the submarine doesn't need to maintain or refresh a
supply of air from above the surface.
ADVANTAGES OF NUCLEAR-POWERED SUBMARINES
CONVENTIONAL SUBMARINES ?
1. The nuclear subs are truly independent of the surface for as long as their
food (and the sanity of the crew) holds out.
2. The nuclear reactor provided all the energy we needed and let us operate
up to (in my case) 10 weeks continuously submerged.
3. The nuclear reactor also let us operate at high speeds for long periods of
4. A diesel submarine would probably not have made the trip because they
may not have had enough fuel to go over and back
1. A nuclear power plant is noisier than a sub running on batteries.
Our radiation dose dropped when we went to sea, in spite of the reactor being
run at sea
and shut down in port.
RELEVANCE FOR OUR COUNTRY
1. A nuclear submarine is a survivable second strike capability against an
adversary's first strike.
2. The recently inducted nuclear submarine in India is a new military
challenge in the 21st century in
South Asian region for Pakistan and China.
3. India has launched its first nuclear submarine named "INS Arihant
(destroyer of the enemies)“ which carries the capability of twelve ballistic
missiles . It is expected to be fully used by Indian Navy by 2011.
India has become the 6th country for having the nuclear submarine for
India hopes to have a fleet of 10 nuclear submarines in 20 years.
REFERENCES :Books :1. Run Silent, Run Deep (Classics of Naval Literature) by Edward Latimer Beach
2. United States Submarines by David Hinkle
3. The Submarine: A History by Tom Parrish
U.S. Submarines Through 1945: An Illustrated Design History by Norman Friedman
Websites referred :1. http://science.howstuffworks.com/nuclear-submarine.htm/printable